Smoke Rings

By Staff
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Courtesy of Richard E. Shelly, R. D. §3, Box 476, Manheim, Pa. 17545
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Courtesy of Richard E. Shelly, R. D. §3, Box 476, Manheim, Pa. 17545.
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Courtesy of Richard E. Shelly, R. D. #3, Box 476, Manheim, Pa. 17545..
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Plans are rolling right along for the Big Auction of Elmer
Ritz-man’s Korn Krib Collection to be held in Sept. (see full
page ad). Send a self addressed stamped envelope and a Flyer will
be sent to you – listing the articles.

While it is always sad to break up a collection such as this –
we must look on the bright side and be happy the items, we hope,
will be going to collectors who will appreciate and preserve them
just as their former owner had done.

I’ll be looking forward to meeting many of you folks
there.

Well, I don’t know about the rest of the country, but we
really didn’t have any Spring here this year – it was mostly
cold and then right into Summer – Hey! That’s one way to get
out of Spring House Cleaning -see there is the other side to every
story. Right now though, it’s a Bloomin’ Country –
beautiful everywhere with blooms of flowers, vegetables, trees
leafing, happy faces of youngsters beaming -school’s almost
over ya’know (you also realize I’m writing this in early
part of June). Well, like I mentioned, about the only way we could
notice the change of seasons was to SPRING from Winter into Summer
– a big exaggerated, but you get the point!

DALE BOSS, 7195 Colony Road, LaMesa, California 92041. From one
of our new kin to the family, comes this missal – ‘I am a
comparatively new member of the G.E.M. family but I can truthfully
say I have never enjoyed a magazine more. I don’t just read it,
I digest it a half dozen times or more. I’m sure others do the
same after reading the comments in Smoke Rings.

Now, if you have a little space -I have a plea! I have a couple
of one lungers that I could use some help on if I could find
someone who had similar engines. 1. – A 3-4 HP Lambert gas and
gasoline engine, built in Anderson, Indiana. This is a side shaft
engine. Thermoil siphon-cooled, Serial #5757. Has a steam engine
type flyball governor that sets on the left side of engine right
behind the rim of the 28′ flywheel (if you are facing the crank
end of the engine). I have seen two other Lamberts, but neither
were like mine. Some vital parts are missing and I would like to
find some patterns. 2. My other problem child is an Atlas Imperial
vertical combination engine and compression (one casting). About a
3-1/2′ bore on the engine and a 2-1/2′ bore on the
compression. This is a real sad sight as someone had let it freeze
and the block is partially lifted from the main casting. Also the
engine head is badly cracked. It has a Bosch mag and one very heavy
flywheel, about 20′ diameter with 6′ flange, solid. Maybe
someone could give some verbal or pictorial assistance –
MAYBE??

In closing I will pass along a little saying some may enjoy – A
lot of people are like a wheelbarrow – no good unless pushed. Some
are like canoes – they have to be paddled. Some are like kites – if
you don’t keep a string on them, they fly away. Some are like
footballs – you can’t tell which way they will bounce next.
Some are like balloons – full of wind and ready to blow up. Some
are like trailers – they have to be pulled. Some are like a good
watch – open-faced, pure gold, quietly busy and full of good works!
I’m sure each one of us knows someone for each category.’
(That’s right Dale – and I guess most of us have been on that
list somewhere).

From RALPH OLMSTED, 120 Guadalajara Street, New Iberia,
Louisiana 70560 comes a letter of help and also a request – ‘In
reference to a Smoke Rings article from Art Anderson, Lakeville,
Minnesota. He was trying to identify an old tractor engine for John
Freeman of Goose Creek, Ohio. Mr. Anderson stated the engine was
likely a Model L Waukesha 4-1/2′ bore X 5-1/4′ stroke, I
have worked on Waukesha engines only, for over 21 years and have an
almost completed list of all engines made since Waukesha started in
1906. The model L, LU4 and LU7 engines were 4-1/4′ bore by 6
3/4′ stroke, 4 cyl., 383 c.i.d. and 38 brake HP, bare engine.
The only Waukesha I can find to meet the 4-1/2′ bore by
5-1/2’ stroke is a Model V1K 4 cyl. overhead valve engine built
up until late 1940. This engine is almost identical in design to
the engine on a 1936 Oliver Hart Parr tractor, which was Waukesha
built. I’ll be happy to help anyone identify any Waukesha
engine.

I am new to old engine collecting and have about 14 and love the
Gas Engine Magazine. Anyone in Southern Louisiana interested in
forming a Club on Steam and Gas engines, contact me – have a few
interested now.’ (It’s good to hear from someone from
Louisiana – I don’t know that we’ve had a letter from that
part of U.S. until now -welcome and keep writing).

GEORGE S. CLARK, 254 Pond Point Ave., Milford, Connecticut
06460, one of our contributors to the magazines sends along this
pepper-upper – ‘Just a note for now to let you know how good I
think the G.E.M. is. There are not too many engine collectors
around here so between issues of G.E.M. I sort of run out of steam
(the gas buffs are going to lash you for that one) but when the
magazine arrives, it’s like a shot in the arm and my enthusiasm
then soars to a new high. I only wish the magazine came out
monthly.

Also I would like to compliment someone on the improved picture
reproduction that now exists in the latter issues. There for awhile
the pictures were quite dark and lacked detail, but now they are
very nice. Keep up the fine work! (Thanks, credit for that goes to
the Brook-shire Publications press – we hope they continue the good
work in that area too).

I particularly liked the letter from Schramm Inc. for I am now
restoring one of these engines. Will send some pictures when
finished.’

GLENN JOHNSON, Route 1, Scandia, Kansas 66966, a new subscriber
tells us: ‘I have an Olds engine, brass tag reads – Self
contained gasoline engine, No. 3, Type ‘A’, Shop No. 9551,
HP 3 -4-1/2, Patented, Manf’d by Olds Gasoline Engine Works,
Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A. This engine is in mint condition but I
would appreciate information on same as to original color and if
anyone has a similar one.’

A letter of appreciation comes from ALBERT C. HIETT, Route 1,
Box 1092, Delano, California 93215 – ‘I want to thank G.E.M.
for the article they published for me in Smoke Rings in Jan.-Feb.
1975. I did not know there Were so many good people about. I
received 18 letters from 11 states, all in the East and I have
answer and thanked all of them for helping me out with my old
Witte. Thanks again – they sure are a bunch of good guys’
(How’s that make you feel, Fellas?)

Here’s some information which some of you may be seeking – a
letter from across the water. Here are some addresses where to
obtain dates of manufacture, instruction books, reprints, etc. for
the British engines – PETTER – Parts Manager, Petter Ltd., Hamble,
Southampton, England; CROSSLEY -Crossley Premier Engines Ltd.,
Openshaw, Manchester 11, England; RUSTON HORNSBY – R. E. Hooley,
16, Alexandre Avenue, North Hykeham, Lincoln, England.

To complete the restoration of a 1925 Fairbanks-Morse 2 HP
‘Z’ engine, I need the brass nameplate. I see that one firm
makes Fuller & Johnson nameplates just like the original. If
any enthusiast can help me obtain one for my ‘Z’ I will be
most grateful for any help in this direction. I’m keeping my
fingers crossed.

Yours is a marvelous magazine -I read it from cover to
cover.

This letter came from 38, Hall Lane, Werrington, Peterborough,
England. I cannot make out the man’s name – it looks like Mick
Mill ? (Sorry Sir, but you did say on your letter – apologies –
written in great haste!)

HAROLD RIGSBY, R.R. 1, Box 108C, Cicero, Indiana 46034 sends
along this little tale. ‘I thought you might be interested in a
story concerning practical use of a gas engine. Last October, when
I was spending a few days in Northern Lower Michigan, we were
driving through a remote area of woodland viewing fall colors and
wildlife, etc. and we came upon an oil well beside the road and the
large pump jack was powered with a gas engine. It was having no
trouble pulling this, but there on the ground beside this operation
set a brand new engine on standby and for replacement.

I took a closer look and on the nameplate showed this
information (Mfg. Fairbanks-Morse Model ZC, 36 HP, Tlalnepantla
Edo, Mexico -which is near Mexico City). This engine had never been
oiled up, was in new paint. This was in an area where there was no
electric power available. If and when I return there I will take
photos and search for more such set-ups.’

Another member of our family from another continent sends us
this correspondence – ‘I find your magazine to be of great
interest, particularly as most of the engines in my collection are
of American origin.

One of the engines which you may be able to give me some details
on, is my ‘New Way’. It is a horizontal, air-cooled engine
of approximately 2-3 HP. There is no plate attached, so it is not
possible to gain any details from the engine. The only mark on the
engine is the actual engine number which is 606, so it appears to
be quite an old one. I would appreciate any details which your
readers would be able to give me on the New Way Motor Company, the
engines it produced and particularly give me any idea of the date
of manufacture of my engine.

This above writing came from ROBIN W. GAY, 107 Chute St.,
Mordialloc, Vic. 3195, Australia.

Some folks have been asking what the feelings of the readers
have been on publishing a monthly Gas Engine Magazine – we did
receive quite a few replies and many of them want a magazine 12
times a year, but there were more that answered negatively. This is
only one of the reasons we felt at this time it would not be
feasible to go to a monthly Gas Engine Magazine – but sometime in
the future – well, we’ll see!

We understand the Albany Antique Car and Engine Club had a great
quarterly meeting recently when they held it at the Gall Farm,
south of Reserve, Kansas in the new Museum Building. The Galls
hosted the meeting and it was a covered dish supper so we know
there were lots of good eats. Early arrivals had the chance to view
the Gall Collection of old farm machinery, cars, tractors, wagons,
buggies and many other items. Forty-six attended and sounds like a
good time was had by all – Bill Sterrett of Holton, Kansas was
elected as the new President and Jim Gall as Treasurer.

JOHN G. FALKNER, 2045 Mo-zella Drive, Marietta, Georgia 30060
would like some information on a 1-2 HP engine spoke wheel, open
crank, spark plug fired, water cooled and made by the Bohann
Company of Harrodsburg, Kentucky – anyone know about this – let
John know too!

ROBERT SPENCER, Route 2, Box 57, Aurora, Nebraska 68818 is
looking for someone or some type of booklet that would tell him of
the old model of Waterloo Boy tractor. He would like to know the
paint color of it and if anyone has sales brochures – if they would
send him a Xerox copy of it. Can you help him?

PETE HUISMAN, Box 187, Wilmont, Minnesota 56185 says: ‘I am
a new subscriber of the Gas Engine Magazine. I really enjoy the
magazine but I would like to get information on Alma Jr. MLMA Mfg.,
Alma, Michigan. Bore is 3 7/8, stroke is 4′, 15-1/2′
flywheels. Cushman Model 21 Type X, 1-1/2 HP R. V. Triump 4 HP. If
anyone has one, or information would you please write me?’

PASTOR MAX SIDDERS, 1602 Carroll Street, Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
inquires – ‘Can some knowledgeable gas engineman tell me why a
small engine with the words Gray Motor, Detroit – would have a
separate brass nameplate on the water hopper saying – George W.
Emerson and Co., Lynn, Massachusetts #52, Pat. applied for ? -this
is about a 1-1/2 HP engine.’

STAN EVERSON, ‘The Ox-hull’, 5 Springfield Close,
Shipston -on-Stour, Warks, England would like information regarding
the dating of his Fairbanks-Morse through the engine numbers (Z
type range). (Please write him if you know this data or where he
can get it).

From HERBERT G. CLOPPER, Box 520, Boothbay Harbor, Maine 04538
has an interesting bit for your readers – this came from one of his
letters to Helen. He is with the Maine Antique Power Association,
Inc.

We issue a bi-monthly bulletin, entitled MAINE BEARINGS.
Although to date it has been pretty much ‘in house’, we
have reached a point now with 200 members, and growing, that we
tend to include matters of interest to anyone who has an interest
in our field. We are not oriented to any one specific type of
engine or machine, but are all inclusive. Maine’s interests
over the years have been in lumbering, general manufacturing,
farming, and fishing. Hence our membership, and our machines both
power and driven, reflect all of these interests. It may be seen,
therefore, that we offer something of appeal to all genders and
ages that have an interest of the skills of the mechanic and
artisan of by-gone years. Currently we have just undertaken the
early stages of establishing our own headquarters
‘home’.

Perhaps some of you readers would like to write to Herbert and
ask to receive a copy, I do not know what the charge is. And it
sounds like he would like to have material for the Bulletin also.
(We’re so happy the interest is growing rapidly in the New
England States for our hobbies and I really like that name MAINE
BEARINGS!

Mr. Paul R. Breisch of Royersford, Pa. shown at the 1974 Kinzers
show. He is exhibiting his model of his ‘Olds’, and his
model kits of the ‘Olds’ and the ‘Associated’ are
displayed here also. Some of us model makers can be glad he came up
with these kits, because some of us would not have models yet. He
told me he had been working at models since a boy. His father also
was a model maker.

Two restored 1 1/2 HP Emerson Brantingham engines. They were
shown here at the Arcadia, Maryland show [74]. The one on the left
is shown by James Miller from Westminster, Md. and is a type H. The
one on the right is shown by myself and is a type EV. There is
quite a bit of difference in these two type engines. We both spent
quite a lot of time in restoring these two. On my engine nothing on
it moved and a lot was missing when I started it

Pictured are seven Aeromotor engines. They were all at the
Klair’s 3rd annual Mill Creek Valley Gas Engine Party in June,
at Wilmington, Del. I doubt if anyone every had this many of these
engines in a row before, except maybe the manufacturer. I am going
to try to add one more to the line, if I get it finished by
showtime

Herewith appears a letter to the GEM People – the writer wishes
to remain anonymous – ‘It appears that lots of people are
looking for gaskets, especially the head type. Most anyone can make
them if they proceed about as follows – Gasket material is
available at most auto supply stores. The head type requires
something like a steel mesh inside and the kind I use is around
.075 thick.

For a head gasket, remove the valve and place the material over
this flat surface – next, place a ball bearing slightly larger in
diameter than the stud hole, on top of the material, directly over
any stud hole. Tap on the ball until it cuts through. Secure the
gasket at this point with a snug fit bolt pushed through the gasket
into the stud hole or similar, then cut and secure on opposite
hole. With the gasket positioned securely, cut the rest of the
holes.

To cut the cylinder hole, slip the gasket over the studs in the
block and tap lightly with something like a ball hammer to mark the
cylinder diameter, then cut out with tin snips. The outside contour
can be scribed and cut with snips. I’ve used this basic idea of
cutting with a ball on all types and so far all have worked
O.K.

An interesting letter comes from BEN CANTELE, Mellenville, New
York 12544 as he writes: ‘The intent of my letter is two-fold;
first of all, I cannot find enough good words for the G.E.M.
publication. We (our family) are a new subscriber to this fine
magazine, but with all honesty, this magazine enters our home with
a great deal of priority.

In my particular business over the past few years, these
collectors came to my shop to have items sandblasted (his business
is Cantele Memorials-monuments), as flywheels, cylinders, bases,
etc. and I kept thinking this is certainly an interesting league,
especially when the item was finalized they would bring it back to
show me and it gave me a great deal of satisfaction in knowing that
I was part of it. I am fortunate to have two older boys who are
mechanically inclined and they have pushed me very hard with this
hobby. The younger of the two requested as his first choice for the
Christmas of 1973 an engine, so as difficult as they are to find, I
did manage to get one. So being oily and dirty, it certainly had no
place under the tree. Christmas morning arrived and after a very
trying hour, after he had opened all his gifts with a great amount
of dismay, I asked him to go to my truck to get my tool box and
there was his top choice under a white sheet-the look of
contentment on his face was beyond words.

My second purpose of the letter is an inquiry – I’d like to
know of any readers who may have an engine namely MAYNARD,
manufactured in New York State. The decals on this recently
acquired engine were gone and we’re wondering if this is the
proper name, as we’ve scanned all our magazines and haven’t
run across this one. It is in mint condition. We disassembled it,
repainted and put it back together and it runs like a clock. It has
a 5′ piston, 26′ diameter flywheels and 2-1/2′ across.
(Any Maynard owners out in Engine Land?? Surely, there must be –
drop Ben a note – he’s waiting to hear from you).

From WALTER A. TAUBE-NECK, 4213 80th St., N. E., Marysville,
Washington 98270 – ‘I have recently sent in my tenth
subscription renewal and must say G.E.M. and my collection came to
be the same year and both are doing excellent.

I must locate operating and mechanical information on the I.H.
C. Mogul 6 HP, St. Marys Oil Engine 35 HP, Bull’s Eye about 6
or 8 HP, all side shaft stationary engines. Come on you guys, dig
down into those old books, magazines and papers, I am sure you have
what I need, somewhere out there.”

WILLIAM H. SELL, Route 3, Sell Road, Winston Salem, North
Carolina 27105 is interested in obtaining information on old hit
and miss gas engines – please write him -he is eagerly waiting for
some correspondence.

And from our good friend, JAMES WALSH, 30 Skene Street,
Whitehall, New York 12887 comes the following poem he wrote last
winter: He didn’t title it but it could be called ‘Engine
Music’ -Jim, is our blind, but only physically, and very active
gas engine collector and writer.

As I wake up in the morning To start the day out right, I slide
out to the table To put up the good old fight.

A stack of good hot pancakes With some bacon on the side, And a
pot of steaming coffee To fill up the insides.

A quick look out the windows To see what nature’s wrought,
For a guy might have to shovel My, what a dreadful thought.

Now, to gather up my smoking For my thoughts are on the shop, I
try to hustle slyly Before I can be stopped.

There my engines are about me In their cold metalic way, Just
awaiting to be started For work or just for play.

Some people like their music In some great concert hall, But the
rhythm of the engines Is the best music of them all.

The rhythm of the throttle governed With its steady
clickty-clack, The hit and miss a-banging Then waiting for the
slack.

Some paint and oil and labor Put on with thoughtful care, Will
give you the best hobby You find most anywhere.

I am glad we thought to save them Before it was too late, For
they were being discarded At much too fast a rate.

Letter writers! Pose your pens and get ready – here comes
another plea for data – from MAYNARD A. BOWMAN, R. D. 1,
Laceyville, Pennsylvania 18623 – ‘I have been interested in gas
engines for about a year now and so far have bought about thirty. I
now subscribe to G.E.M. and have several back issues. I find it
very interesting and enjoyable.

I have one engine I cannot find any information on and thought I
might find help through Smoke Rings. All that is on the engine is
(C. J. Lindberg, Gas & Gasoline Engines, Bradford, Pa.) There
is no serial number that I can find. It is a vertical, thermoil,
gravity-cooled, throttle-governed, natural gas engine. It has
2-1/2′ x 22′ flywheels, 4′ bore, 6′ stroke. It is
fired by hot tube. I would appreciate any and all information on
the engine and will answer all letters.’

A letter of happiness from ERIC SCHULZ, Private Bag 148,
Hor-sham, Victoria 3400, Australia -‘What a thrill it was to
see our Globe Engine on the cover of Nov.-Dec. issue of G.E.M.!
Surprisingly, we have received no letters regarding this engine. As
we don’t believe the Americans to be unfriendly or unhelpful
people, we can only assume that the Globe is a very Rare engine –
even in its homeland.’ (Come on Guys, you mean nobody knows
anything about this engine – surely some of you veterans out there
could shed some light on this Globe engine).

RAYMOND LECLAIR, Box 389, Winchenden, Massachusetts 01475
writes: ‘My brother and I have been collecting
‘horizontals’ since about Spring of 1968. Through word of
mouth, we found out about ‘Gas Engine Magazine’. It is very
interesting, for some of these engines we have never heard about
and also we have never seen some of this old machinery.

We have 9 or 10 engines, including a 7 HP Abaneque, 6 HP Witte,
1-1/2 HP Stover, 1-1/2 HP Alpha made for the ‘De Laval Milking
Machine Co.’ We have a 2 HP Stover which ran a ‘mud
hog’ pump, 4 HP I.H., etc.

For the ‘What Is It?’ column, May-June 1973, page 49 –
this engine is identical to one of ours, so it should be a Sattley
2 HP, 500 r.p. m. and was sold by Montgomery Ward Co.

That’s it for now. Keep up this fine publication – it is
very interesting.’

From a new gas engine hobbiest, namely PHILIP STEPHAN, Geig-er
Hollow ‘Road, Allegany, New York, 14706 comes these words:
‘My interest in this field has increased upon the purchase of
an Ellis Engine of Detroit Michigan, No. 789, Size 6 HP, upright, 2
cycle, water-cooled AND a stationary Drag Saw made by Ireland
Machine & Foundry Company, Norwich, New York, Mfd. for John
Deere Plow Company. Would you please help me to gain information on
these two items?’ (There’s one job for you Fellow Members
-get the word to Phil – Fill Phil with facts – he’ll be so
appreciative).

WILLIS J. TOWNER, Route 1, Friendship, Wisconsin 53934 owns an
Edwards engine, 1-1/2 to 6 HP. He would like to get in touch with
someone who has the first four paragraphs of the instruction sheet.
He has paragraph five through twenty six. (Willis says he enjoys
every copy of our magazine. I hope this copy will bring him his
answer from one of you out in Engine Land – then he’ll enjoy it
even more.)

LYLE KISER, Route 5, Box 298, Harrisonburg, Virginia 22801 had a
5 HP New Holland engine that he is restoring and he would like to
know the correct shade of red paint and the yellow for stripes.
(How about it Painters? Can YOU tell him the HUE?

Here’s a letter GIVING you fellows some help – It comes from
WALTER E. SCHRAGE, 1219 Laron Avenue, New Haven, Indiana 46776 –
‘If any IHC collector wants the year of their gas engine as –
non Pariel Famous, Famous, Titan, Mogul, Victor, Tom Thumb -send
parts numbers and prefix letter and engine number-as for M, 1-1/2 –
3 – 6 -10 – L 1-1/2 – LA or LB. Send prefix letter, HP and Engine
number – Also Maytags year. Also John Deeres 1-1/2 – 3 – 6 – HP.
Send this information to me.’ (There you are, write Walter for
the year of your engine – I’m sure he’d appreciate stamped
envelope – Thanks Walt).

A note of appreciation comes from JAMES A. ALLEN, 4040 Taylor
Drive, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 as he writes: ‘I wish to thank
you and several of your readers that helped me restore my Kewanee
engine after you published my letter. One of the other owners of a
Kewanee engine plans to write an article for your magazine in the
near future. We have contacted several owners and also the man who
is the receiver of the Kewanee Public Utilities Company and it
should make very interesting reading.’

DALE WRIGHT, 4260 E. 8th Ct., Hialeah, Florida 33013 sends this
letter: ‘I had a request for information in the November-Dec.
Gas Engine Magazine, Page 12 -this is a follow-up letter on
request. I had two replies to the identification of the engine
(both the same). Mr. John W. Dunn, Box 227, Cottageville, West
Virginia 25239 and Mr. John Kinsey, 4 Holly Drive, Saratoga
Springs, New York. They identified it as a Gilson 1-3/4 HP, a rare
engine. I do appreciate their help and further communication and
Thanks again to G.E.M. for your great responses to my
problem.’

I still can’t find a governor so may have to end up making
one. (I’ve enclosed another picture as I thought our readers
would like to know what it was on page 15 of Nov.-Dec. So many
times I’ve seen pictures under ‘What Is It?’ and never
found out what it was.) I still don’t know the year or place of
manufacture of this engine, but maybe it will come.

I also got replies on some of the local activities (Florida).
The Florida Flywheelers have extended an invitation to join and you
can be sure, I’ll do just that!

TOM STOSKOPF, R.R. 2, Waverly, Iowa 50677 would like to know the
year that a 6 HP Galloway was built – serial number 40518. It has
an original slide table buzz saw mounted on original trucks. Can
this engine run either direction? He would appreciate any help.

A request for information comes to the readers from a friend
across the ocean – A. BOWLES, 3, Owen Ward Close, Shrub End,
Colchester. Essex, CO29DG, England.- ‘I wonder if I may through
your magazine inquire of a product made by Walter A. Wood at
Hoosick Falls, New York? The product concerned is the New
Mechanical Reaper. It appears to be painted red and yellow with
yellow and black lining. Is this correct?

There does not appear to be any model number on the machine,
only casting numbers, most of which start with 19 and have two
other numbers. We would, if possible, like information such as date
of manufacture, color scheme, English agents, etc.

There appears to be no one with this information in this
country, since we have tried every source we can think of – hope
you will be able to help!’ (The letterhead had imprinted
Northeast Essex Historical Farm Machinery Association -I think
quite a few folks are interested in receiving this
information).

And I’m ending with a quick few words – since I started the
column awhile back the weather has changed again and it seems like
Autumn -I’m sure Mother Nature is pulling some tricks on us –
Bye, Bye -Bundle up and go to the Reunions!

Gas Engine Magazine
Gas Engine Magazine
Preserving the History of Internal Combustion Engines