By Staff
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Fig. 1. Theoretical card of 4 stroke cycle gas engine
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Fig. 2. Buckeye double-acting tandem engine.
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Fig. 44.
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Fig. 42 and 43.Section and Plan of Pump Cup Leather Moulding Press.
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Fig. 45.
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Fig. 3. Single-acting 2-cylinder tandem Buckeye gas engine of trunk piston type.
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Fig. 1. Sectional view of hydraulic ram mechanism.
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Fig. 46Diagram showing Proportions of Pump Cup Leather.
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Fig. 1.
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Fig. 2
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Fig. 2. Diagram illustrating formulas for hydraulic ram.
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Fig. 3

Since this column is being prepared somewhat ahead of the usual
deadline, we did some searching through our literature collection,
and offer some interesting articles to our readers this month. The
first article is a treatise on the Buckeye double-acting tandem
engine. This came from the November 1, 1908 issue of Practical
Engineer. In reading this over, it becomes immediately obvious that
gas engine design was well developed by this time, even though the
practical four-cycle engine had been developed some thirty years
earlier. Unfortunately though, this article says virtually nothing
about the horsepower range and sizes of the Buckeye.


This term, 4 stroke cycle, signifies that 4 strokes are required
to complete the action for the engine. The first stroke is occupied
with drawing in a charge of air and gas is called the suction
stroke. On the second this mixture is compressed and near the end
ignition occurs. During the passage of the crankpin past the dead
center the combustion or explosion takes place. During the third
stroke the expansion of the hot gases is accomplished and during
the fourth stroke the burned gases are exhausted from the cylinder,
the series of events being as indicated in Fig. 1.

The requirements in arranging the gas engine are that the
cylinder shall drain thoroughly, that the exhaust and admission
valves shall be kept well apart and shall be so located that the
exhaust stroke of the piston will drive out practically all the
burned gas from the cylinder. These requirements are met in the
Buckeye engine by placing the admission valves at the top and the
exhaust valves at the bottom, as shown in Fig. 2. With the exhaust
valves at the extreme bottom, oil and other deposits pass out
directly through these valves. The incoming charge at the top is
not mingled with the burned gases remaining near the exhaust valve
in the bottom, and both exhaust and admission valves are placed so
that they can be gotten at conveniently for cleaning and

For small sizes the working barrel is continuous from end to
end, but the water jacket has an opening entirely around the
circumference, this opening being closed by a cast-iron band drawn
tightly around the cylinder. This construction allows of expansion
and contraction with varying temperatures without causing strains
in the structure. For larger sizes the cylinders are made in halves
bolted together in the center.

The main frame of the engine is anchored firmly to the
foundation but the rest of the machine is left free to move on
fixed guides on cast-iron bases, as shown under the center distance
piece and the slide for the rear tail rod.

Ignition and Governing

While theoretically under perfect conditions the firing should
be done on dead center and the propagation of flame instantaneous
throughout the combustion chamber, actual retarding of this spread
of flame by the cool metal of the cylinder walls and the imperfect
mixing of gases makes it desirable to have the firing line slope
about 5 deg. forward. Compression in the Buckeye engine is kept
practically uniform from maximum load to about 0.25 load. From 0.25
load down to no load the ingoing charges are slightly throttled.
The valve gear has no sliding or piston valves, so that there is no
sticking or clogging. All valves are of the poppet and butterfly

Mixing of the gas and air supply is produced as follows:

At maximum load the quality of the mixture is such as to give
highest mean effective pressure with a maximum amount in volume and
maximum compression. As the load falls off, the mixing apparatus
automatically weakens the charge by admitting less gas until the
load has decreased to about 0.25 the maximum. After this the charge
is no longer weakened but the incoming charge is throttled so that
a smaller weight of the mixture is taken.

The engines are designed to operate with either jump or
make-and-break spark, the electromagnetic make and break system
being the one recommended. In this system the current from any
source, such as a storage battery or dynamos, operates the igniter
mechanism by means of an iron clad electromagnetic hammer, the
circuit being completed and the time of ignition controlled by a
timer, which is so set that the governor brings the ignition
earlier on light load and later on heavy load. The timer is so
arranged that all igniters can be adjusted simultaneously by hand
or each igniter can be adjusted independently. In this way it is
possible to keep the slope of the varying line practically the same
for all loads.

Exhaust valves on all engines are water jacketed and for all
engines above 11 in. diameter of cylinder the piston heads and rods
are water cooled so that high compression may be used under all
conditions. Engines for direct connection to electric generators
are rated to allow from 15 to 25 percent overload capacity. For
belted engines an allowance of 10 percent is made.

The guides are bored and bolted to the cylinders, making the
structure practically one single piece. The main journal bearing
has babbitted quarter boxes with wedge adjustment and the crosshead
is a steel casting threaded to receive the piston rod, split and
clamped on the rod by means of through bolts. The crosshead shoes
are steel castings with a swivel connection to the body of the
crosshead, adjusted for wear by eccentric bolts.


The pistons are carried by the crossheads, the tail rod being
carried through the back cylinder head for this purpose. The
pistons are appreciably smaller than the working barrel, so that no
weight is carried on the cylinder walls. Tightness is secured by
the use of a number of packing rings for each piston under slight
tension, this having been found more serviceable than few rings
under high tension.

Crank disks are of the fan tail type, the engines being side
crank in arrangement, and are properly counter-weighted to balance
the reciprocating parts. The cylinder heads are large, simple in
construction and arranged to be water-cooled, the joint between
cylinder and head being made by means of a copper strip which is
fitted permanently to the head.

Valves are all driven from a lay shaft which is placed in the
horizontal plane passing through the center of the engine. This
shaft is driven by a set of steel gears, one of which is mounted on
a drag shaft driven from the main crankpin by a universal joint, a
construction which insures smooth running, even though the main
crank shaft and drag shaft are not in perfect alignment. The
governor is driven from the drag shaft by beveled gears.

Cooling System

Each cylinder, cylinder head, exhaust bonnet and exhaust valve
is water cooled by its own independent system of water circulation.
In the double-acting tandem engines, such as shown in Fig. 2, the
cooling water enters the rod through the intermediate crosshead,
the stream dividing and leaving the rod at opposite ends, draining
through slots in the bed and rear stub end.

Engines are started by the use of compressed air, the usual
method being to use a friction clutch so that the engine is started
without load. In some installations where it is necessary to do so,
the engine can be started under full load and the starting valves
will operate automatically until the engine begins work when the
compressed air is shut off.

Each engine is furnished with an indicator which at the same
time serves to convey oil to the crosshead pin.

Single-Acting Engines

Besides the double-acting tandem engines the Buckeye Engine Co.
builds single cylinder single-acting and double-acting engines and
single-acting tandem engines. The single cylinder single-acting
engine is built up to 300 hp. The double-acting engine is
practically the same as the first cylinder of the tandem engine.
The single-acting tandem is of the trunk piston type and is
completely equipped with the improvements which are employed on the
largest 4-cycle engines.*

Quite often we get inquiries about the hydraulic ram and its
operation. In fact, we know of a few engine collectors who have
also been collecting old hydraulic rams. They’re quite scarce
today, and oftentimes having one and knowing how to make it work
are indeed two different things! This article is self-explanatory,
in that it illustrates the principles of the hydraulic ram, how it
is installed, and how it is started. We hope this might be of help
to those interested in unusual and unique mechanical devices.


The hydraulic ram is the simplest mechanism for the elevation,
and forcing of water from a given height to another, and is one of
the most efficient motors operated by water for this work. The
parts are few in number, simple in construction, not liable to’
derangement, and the ram requires little attention.

Construction and Operation

The hydraulic ram consists of a supply pipe through which the
water enters the ram; the discharge pipe 2, is connected to a
suitable opening at the base of the air-chamber 5, which conveys
the water to the desired place. The waste-valve 3, allows the
stroke of the ram to be regulated, and also allows of an overflow
to start the body of water in motion, and develop necessary power
to operate the ram.

The check-valve 4, retains the water after its passage through
the air-chamber 6, into discharge pipe 2. The main chamber 5, is
the receptacle into which the water enters. The air chamber 6, is
to allow the entering air to rise to the highest point, and being
compressed, cushions the impact of the entering water. The air also
assists in reversing the direction of flow of the column of water,
prior to each stroke.

The operation is as follows: the valve 3, being open, the water
from the supply pipe, entering under a head, flows into the main
chamber 5, and out the waste-valve 3. This continues until the
velocity of the entering water is sufficient to close the
waste-valve 3.

At the instant the flow through the valve 3 stops, the inertia
of the moving column of water produces the so-called ramming
stroke; that is, it opens the check-valve A, compressing the air in
chamber 6. The water during this time passing out the discharge
pipe 2 to the desired point.

This continues, until the air pressure, plus the pressure due to
the head of water in the main, is sufficient to overcome the
inertia of the moving column of water in the supply pipe 1, when
the check-valve A closes.

The water in the supply pipe 1, moving backward, with the
closing of check 4, tends to create a partial vacuum at the base of
the supply pipe 1, in the chamber 6. The partial vacuum causes the
check-valve 3, to open, when the preceding cycle of operations is
repeated indefinitely.

At the instant the partial vacuum is formed, a little snifting
valve opens inward, admitting a small volume of air, which on the
following stroke, passes into the air-chamber 6. The admission of
air at this point is necessary, otherwise the air-chamber would
fill with water, since the water gradually absorbs the air.


The loss in a hydraulic ram arises from water friction,
resistance offered by the check-valve, from loss of water during
and after the closing of the waste-valve 3. This loss is variously
calculated at from 15 to 25 percent, depending upon the
construction and adjustment of the waste-valve 3.

When the waste-valve 3, begins to close, there is resistance
offered to the entering water; and from that time, until the
check-valve 4 opens, no useful work is performed: The water
escaping during this time is wasted.


First, place the weight X, over the center of the rod used to
balance the waste-valve 3, securely fastening it. Then raise and
lower the valve stem lever, by means of the nuts on the stem. This
regulates the opening of the waste-valve 3, and graduates the
volume of water used and delivered by the ram.

The greater the number of strokes the ram makes in a given time,
the less the volume of water delivered.

The smaller the number of strokes, the greater the volume of
water delivered in a given time.


When a large quantity of water is to be elevated, or forced a
reasonable distance, the ram should be placed at a level of 2 or
more feet below the surface of the water supplying the ram. A
suitable drain must be provided to carry off the water used as
power in the ram.

The ram should be set level both ways, on a firm foundation of
sufficient area to prevent settling. The drive pipe, or pipe
supplying the water, should be laid on a straight incline, without
bends, except where it enters the ram. The pipe should be submerged
at least 1 ft. in the water to prevent the admission of air; a good
strainer should also be secured to the upper end of the pipe. In
practice, if the drive head is small, a larger pipe should be used
than where the head is greater, to reduce the friction. For
ordinary conditions the head of the water to the ram should not
exceed 12 or 15 feet. If the head is greater, it must be

The delivery pipe can be laid with bends if necessary, care
being taken to have all bends of large radius.

Finally, since we’re into the ‘engine operating
season’ now, we’ve culled some diagrams under the heading
of Electric-Ignition Apparatus for your perusal and possible
application. For some of us, this information has been long since
committed to memory. For many others, especially those who are
relatively new to our hobby, it seems quite complicated. Figure 1
shows an ignitor block with all of its parts properly named. Figure
2 demonstrates the usual method of hooking up a low tension ignitor
to a battery and coil. One of the problems frequently encountered
is with the movable electrode. If it binds, the return spring may
not pull it back properly. Also, if the shaft binds the electrodes
will not make that quick break necessary for a big fat spark.

Over the years we’ve heard about all the tricks imaginable
for ignition batteries. . . all the way from using old Polaroid
batteries to getting old batteries from a salvage yard that had a
little life in them. Long ago, we abandoned lantern batteries and
what have you, in favor of small lawn mower or motorcycle
batteries. Perhaps some will disagree, but we have found that a
decent 12 volt battery eliminates most of the ignition problems.
While some companies originally used four dry cells (6 volts), many
of them used five cells for 7 volts, and many others used six cells
to give 9 volts. We’ve concluded that by going to 12 volts, the
ignitor points stay clean longer, and that high-compression engines
run better.

Figure 3 illustrates the usual connections for a high tension
system. In this instance, the need is imperative for a good
battery, otherwise the spark is simply too weak. Even though a
particular system might show a good spark in open air, when under
compression, it takes a lot more voltage to push that arc across
the points. There are few better illustrations of this than with
the Cushman engines. They used a rather high compression ratio
compared to their contemporaries. Trying to get one of these little
engines to run under a load with a poor battery is about
impossible. It’s been our experience that using a 12 volt
battery with these engines smooths out problems like nothing else.
We still like to use those old Ford Model T spark coils.
They’re very hot, they’re quite dependable, and they’re
fairly easy to locate.


Our first query this month is:

29/7/1 Foos Engine Registry

Preston Foster, 3231 Randolph St. NW, Warren, OH 44485 is
building a registry of Foos engines. If you are a Foos engine
owner, kindly send along the horsepower, serial number, pedigree if
known, and other pertinent information to Mr. Foster.

29/7/2 What Color Did It Have? Q. It seems to
me that most of your readers are most concerned with ‘What is
It?’ and ‘What Color did it Have?’ I will admit these
things are necessary when restoration time comes around, but I have
not seen many engines you can make run with paint, un-less you use
a lot of thinner. . . NOT RECOMMENDED! Anyway, perhaps? a nice
little booklet at a fair price, listing color matches. And as for
‘What is It?’, stress the importance of attending as many
shows as possible in search of identification. The knowledge,
sometimes firsthand, would fill volumes.

Second, I being an Agrarian. . . Indus’ trial Archaeologist,
find that a lot of engine collectors have at least one steam
related device which does not fit the normal coverage afforded a
train, traction engine, or a pump house engine, yet these devices
were just as important. Speaking of live steam, did you know your
ultra-modern coffee maker was patented in 1698 by Thomas Savery
(English) as a steam water pump for the raising of water from coal
mines? And duplex pumps abound, and a large number have improperly
set valves causing short stroking and slippage. I guess I’m
asking if you could include some friendly technical tips in your
magazine if some were submitted.

I’d like to offer the following diagram of the Witte
ignition. This may come in handy for anyone having a volume
governed engine with a dead magneto. I have a 1923 2 HP that I
converted when the Bosch began malfunctioning. If you have a buzz
coil you’re all set, if not, a regular 6 or 12 volt coil will
work. Also you need a capacitor to match the voltage of the coil. I
used 12 volts. The trick when using an automotive coil is to adjust
the timer blade to break contact with the cam lobe just as the word
‘Ignition’ on the flywheel is aligned with the wooden block
pictured. The normal setting for a Witte of 5 HP is 40 degrees
before TDC, almost all other engines are 20 degrees before head end
TDC. The method of connecting the coil, capacitor, and timer (the
timer block must be a non-conductive material) is to connect the
low tension wire from the coil to the ground side of the capacitor,
connect the negative side of the battery. Connect the insulated
wire of the capacitor to the negatively marked post of the coil,
the timer connects onto this post too. Then all that is left to do
is connect the positive wire from the battery to the knife switch
and then on to the positive post of the coil. When you put all this
in a nice ignition box like the ones advertised in GEM, you’ll
have a show-ready engine that runs too! Howell T. Mauney, 1170-D
Golfview Dr., Carmel, IN 46032.

29/7/3 Ironton Engine Company Q. I am trying to
locate any information concerning the Ironton Engine Company which
operated in Ironton, Ohio from the early 1900s until just after
World War Two. It is my understanding that they manufactured
various types of small engines over the years. Any information
would be appreciated. Jeff Hood, 703 5th Avenue, Huntington, WV

29/7/4 F-M Eclipse Engine Q. I have an Eclipse
No. 2 engine, s/n B16436. B51 the serial number lists, that would
put it prior to 1911, yet cast in the hopper is Mar. 17 -14- If a
sixth digit was unstruck, the s/n list would put it at about 1915,
which would fit all the other criteria. Also, what is the
significance of the ‘B’ prefix in the s/n? Modie
Driskill, HC 89, Box 50B, Eden, TX 76837-9303.

A. We simply cannot tell you the significance
of the letter prefix. However, having studied the F-M records to
some extent, we would suggest that this engine might have been
built as part of a special run outside of the normal production
run. That would account for the unusual serial number.

29/7/5 Information Needed Q. What is the year
built of a 1 HP Clinton engine, Model 703ABR6, s/n CC58587, 3200
rpm; also who is the manufacturer and year built for a 1 HP
Montgomery Ward engine, Model RSC591, s/n 6-67005, Catalog No.
87-5131H, 2300 rpm. Gary Radue, 14123 April Lane, Warren, MI

A. We have no information on either of these

29/7/6 Christensen Air Starter Q. Can anyone
provide information on the Christensen air starting system made by
Christensen Engineering Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin? It has a
1916 patent date. This is an air-start system as used on Hall-Scott
aircraft engines. Also would like information on Nordyke &
Marmon of Indianapolis, Indiana, as a licensed (?) manufacturer of
Hall-Scott products. Bruce Hall, Rt. 90, King Ferry, NY

A. We’re not sure of how extensively the
Christensen air-start system was used. It was, as you note, used on
the Hall-Scott aircraft engines, but we aren’t sure whether it
was applied to other engine types, particularly the diesel. We have
an extensive run of Compressed Air Magazine, but perusing these
pages is beyond our timeframe for this month. Christensen
Engineering was heavily into the development of air-brake systems
and other compressed air applications. Their sideshaft engines were
built for a few years, but were definitely a sideline to their
activities in pneumatic equipment. Nordyke & Marmon made their
early history in manufacturing flour milling equipment. Eventually
they branched out into other areas, such as the Marmon automobiles,
an ill-fated adventure.

29/7/7 Woodpecker Engine Q. I’m rebuilding
a Woodpecker engine made at Middletown, Ohio, and would like to
hear from anyone with information on the proper color, striping,
logos, etc. Ronald McCleary, RR3, Box 446, Hollidaysburg, PA

A. If you can be of help, kindly drop Mr.
McCleary a line.

29/7/8 Lansing Company Q. See Photo 8A of a
cement mixer made by the Lansing Company. The s/n on the engine
house is No. 1742 Lansing, Mich. 4-B. The engine (Photo 8B) also
says: Lansing Company, Lansing, Mich. No. 114484, Speed 500. The HP
was not stamped. The engine looks like an Alamo. If any one has any
information on the engine or on the mixer, I would appreciate it.
O. H. Friesen, 7243 West Titan Rd., Littleton, CO

29/7/9 Bessemer Engine/Compressor Q. Nicholas
Bettevy, 1685 Hwy 452, Marksville, LA71351 has a Bessemer vertical
engine/air compressor. It was a starting engine for a larger engine
and is No. 138X, Series 1, 4 x 5 bore and stroke on the
engine, and 3 inch bore and stroke on the compressor. He would like
more information on this unit. If you can be of help, please drop
him a line.

29/7/10 Elgin Red-E-Motor Q. See the photos of
my HP Elgin that is now ready to run. This is the smallest of the
Elgin line with a bore and stroke of 1 x 2 inches. That is smaller
than some model engines. By the small amount of wear on the
internal parts I would have to believe that horsepower would no do
much more than turn the flywheel to cool the Redemotor. I would
like to contact other Elgin or Maytag HP owners to obtain a copy of
an owners manual. Robert Seibert, 3280 S. Academy, #68,
Colorado Springs, CO 80916.

29/7/11 F-M 10 Horsepower ‘Z’ Q. See
the photos of a 10 HP F-M engine. It is on a grist mill that
belonged to my grandfather on his Kentucky farm. The mill was run
regularly and was a local gathering place; some of the young boys
that helped him operate it are still in the area. A one-in-three
sacks tariff was charged to neighbors. The farm and mill are still
in family hands, and we are trying to rework the mill for a display
and demonstration unit.

Is a manual available for this engine? Will it have specs such
as bore, stroke, weight, original cost, etc.? Can I find out who
sold the engine, etc.? Any information will be appreciated. Don
Young, 285 Milford Pt. Dr. , Merritt Island, FL 32952.

A. Our book, Fairbanks-Morse: 100 Years of
Engine Technology, capsulizes most of the information we have on
Fairbanks-Morse engine. Although we have some specific information,
we do not have a lot in the way of specifications. Most
Fairbanks-Morse advertising did not include the bore and stroke

29/7/12 Standard Separator Engines Q. I have a
Standard engine as shown on page 479 of American Gas Engines. It is
a four-cycle, but has no crankcase oil supply, only a drip oiler on
the side of the cylinder head. Could someone explain the
lubrication of the crank pin and the main bearings? Any information
will be appreciated, as well as some clue to the original colors.
Dick Morine, 7812 Evans St., Omaha, NE 68134.

29/7/13 MECO Engine Q. What is the year built
and the color for a 2 HP MECO engine, s/n A1698? Also the year
built of a 2 HP Alamo, s/n 115415? Thank you. Gerry Canright,
E1622 North Crescent, Spokane, WA 99207.

A. The MECO was shipped in October 1930, but we
have no further information. There are no s/n lists for the Alamo

29/7/14 Collis Engine Q. We are restoring a
Collis engine and would like to have any available information.
Lawrence L. Schuldheisz, 851 Doss Ave., Orlando, FL

29/7/15 Huber Company Q. Is the Huber Company
still in business making road equipment? Any information would be
appreciated. Jim Luper, 5430 Voice Rd., Kingsley, MI

29/7/16 New Way Restoration Q. See the photo of
a restored New Way engine. It belonged to my grandfather. Some 20
years ago it was torn down and he gave it to my father. He did some
work on it, lost interest, and it sat in the back comer of his
basement. Last summer I began work on the engine, put it on a cart,
and as my father can best recall it has been 40 years or more since
the engine last ran. While it is running, it leaks oil out of each
side of the flywheel shaft and oil was forced up to the top of the
drip oiler. Is this because of too much oil? Thanks for any help
you can provide. Richard J. Fry, 563 Ridge Road, Ontario, NY

A. We don’t have a New Way, but would guess
that the oil level is too high. Those experienced with these
engines will hopefully give you some advice in this regard.

29/7/17 Minneapolis 27-42 Tractor Q. This is my
second query on a Minneapolis 27-42 tractor. I need to know the
proper color, the striping and size on the fuel tank and fenders of
this tractor. Also what words are on the fuel tank, and are the
wheel spokes striped? David R. Aikens, 12985 Rt. 5 So.,
Waterford, PA 16441.

29/7718 Cushman Man Wanted! Q. Would the man
that came to the 1993 Waukee Swap Meet with a Cushman two-cycle
marine engine contact me? C. C. Burns ,39010 Plum Creek Rd.,
Osawatomie, KS 66064. (Also see ad in the June 1994 GEM).

29/7/19 Two Recent Finds Q. See 19-A
illustrating a Fairbanks-Morse electric plant. It has a
two-cylinder flat-head engine by Onan. Do you have any information
on this?

Photo 19-B shows an Ottawa Buzz Master. It is self-propelled by
a Wisconsin 7 HP engine. Any information on this unit would be
appreciated. Wayne Rogers, 10076 Quail Run Road, Tyler, TX

A. During the late 1940s and early 1950s
Fairbanks-Morse marketed equipment built by other firms, usually
with the F-M logo. Even within the present company, there seems to
be little information as to these activities. We have no
information at the Ottawa, but we’d bet this one is a safety
engineer’s nightmare!

Readers Write

American Bantam

In regard to the engine pictured on page 4 of the April 1994
GEM, this is a 1940 American Bantam engine. It was built by the
American Bantam Car Co., Butler, PA. This firm started as the
American Austin Car Co., and built cars from 1930 to 1934 under
license from British Austin Car Co. Production closed in 1934, and
the company was later purchased by Roy Evans of Palm Beach,
Florida, who recapitalized. Production of Bantams was started in
1938 with a redesigned engine with two main bearings, until 1940
when the three-main engine was produced. This is a 3-main babbitted
engine with the same basic design as previous engines. Note the hex
bolt head below the carburetor which is the retainer for the center
main. It was originally equipped with a Zenith Model 61A5
carburetor; the number is located on a round tag above the float
bowl. The transmission was a T-84 from Borg-Warner.

There are two clubs in operation connected with American Austin
and Bantamthe Pacific Bantam Austin Club, and the American
Austin/Bantam Club, whose ‘Club News’ is published by Bob
Brandon, 499 No. Duffy Rd., Butler, PA 16001.

At one time I owned several Austins and Bantams and numerous
engines. I still have one Bantam 3 main. Incidentally, this is the
company that designed and produced the first Jeep for the Army in
1941. However, it didn’t use this engine. Everett Kroll, PO Box
727, W. Yellowstone, MT 59758.

Maynard Engines

Regarding Mr. Cawley’s query, I have a small Maynard from
Charles Williams Stores. It is s/n W8592 with a 3 x 5 inch bore and
stroke. It has 16-inch flywheels and a Remy magneto. There are two
soft plugs in the bottom of the water jacket. The magneto bracket
has WA-1 and below the name on the hopper is cast TA-4. The paint
seems to be maroon, with the name and the striping in yellow. John
Supple, RD 5, Mullen Rd., Fulton, NY 13069.

The April Mystery Engine

This (Photos RW-1 and RW-2) is a complete engine the same as in
the April 1993 GEM, pages 9 and 29. These engines were built for
Montgomery Ward by Nelson Bros, and sold under the Sattley name.
Shown here is a 2 HP model, with a speed range of 1200-1800 rpm.
Carlton B. Kolstad, 5595 Olson Rd., Ferndale, WA 98248.

A Closing Word

Somewhere in our travels we acquired a little book entitled
Pumps and Hydraulic Rams by Paul N. Hasluck. Within this 1909 title
is the only reference we’ve ever seen on how to make pump
leathers. While we suppose there are yet a few places where they
are available, we thought it interesting that this information was
set into print many years ago.

We also ran across some information about excelsior (those fine
wood ribbons that formerly were used for packing) and how it was
made. Now we think a model of an excelsior machine would be just
the ticket. Is there anyone out there who has one of these machines
or knows anything about them? If so, let us know!


As the efficiency and satisfactory running of a pump largely
depends on the proper packing of the bucket, and as cup leathers
are almost exclusively used for this purpose, too much stress
cannot be laid on the necessity for having leather of the best
quality only, and using it so that the fibres may not be unduly
stained in pressing.

For making cup leathers, metal moulds and stamps, or pistons,
will be required. If only a few cup leathers are to be made by a
rough method, very hard wood moulds may answer instead of metal.
The cups are made of the best oil-dressed leather,
3/16 inch or inch thick, steeped in warm
water at about 180 degrees F., and each is forced gradually into
the mould by means of a bolt and nut, and left till it is again
hard. The leather should be cut out of the back in preference to
the belly or limbs of the hide. If desired, the leather can be
planed down to ? inch. The flesh side should be outwards. The
leather should be cut circular, the diameter being the diameter of
the pump plus 1 inch to 3 inches, according to the size of the
pump, to form the cup sides. The leather is placed on the mould as
shown, and then slowly forced down with a lever, screw, or other
mechanical appliance. A different mould must be used for each size
of pump. The center of the bottom is cut out after the leather has
been pressed and the top edges of the cup are trimmed.

Figs. 42 and 43 are section and plan of a moulding press. A is a
cast-iron mould, with a recess bored to the outside diameter of the
finished cup, and on the outside are the two lugs B to screw the
press to a bench or table, two ? inch holes in the bottom of the
mould allowing the air to escape while the leather is forced down.
The center of the mould takes the ? inch bolt C; D is an iron block
turned to the inside diameter of the finished cup. A piece of
leather is shown forced into shape.

Fig. 44 and 45.Sections of Pump Cup Leathers and Buckets.

Dress the cups after moulding with the following: Four parts of
best linseed oil, 2 parts of olive oil, 1 part spirit of
turpentine, 2 parts of castor oil, part of beeswax, and part of
pitch. Boil these together over a gentle fire in an earthenware
vessel, and during ebullition dip in the leather, and let it remain
in for a few minutes, fifteen minutes being sufficient for thick

If the leathers are required to be hardalmost like vulcanite,
when finished, use the ordinary best sole leather, and soak it for
three days in a bath composed of slaked lime 3 lb., to 1 gal of
water. Then pass it through water heated to about 180 degrees to
190 degrees F., and while hot press it in the mould. The finished
cups may then be dressed with the hot lubricant.

To understand the requirements of a suitable leather for pumps,
an investigation of the action going on in a pump barrel is
necessary. Fig. 44 is a section of pump leather and bucket, the cup
leather being indicated by the thick black line. Assuming that the
bucket is making its up-stroke, the water above the bucket will
press the ends of the leather against the inside of the barrel,
making a perfectly water-tight joint. There will be a certain
amount of friction between the leather and the barrel:

The greatest friction will be at the point indicated by the
arrow, the amount of friction depending on the pressure and the
quality of the leather. Cup leathers at this point should be well
supported, as shown by a clamping ring, which should be a good fit
in the barrel, with just sufficient clearance to allow the bucket
to work up and down freely without side play. Some cheap, badly
designed pumps have this clamping ring much too small, there being
in some cases as much as inch clearance between the bucket and the
wall of the barrel; many have even more than this. With such pumps,
the leather, not being supported at the point of greatest pressure,
after a little time is forced between the bucket and the barrel,
which ultimately jams the bucket on the upstroke, often to such an
extent that it is impossible to move the bucket either up or down
without exercising great force. This fault is shown on the
left-hand side of Fig. 45. Another important point is the depth of
the leather. With leather too deep, the top edge bends inwards, as
shown on the right of Fig. 45, and the water gets between it and
the barrel wall, forcing the leather away instead of making a
perfectly water-tight joint.

The following table of thickness of leather and depth of cup for
different diameters is based on experience, and if followed will
give an ideal cup for lifts up to about 100 ft.




2 in.

3/16 in.

? in.

3 in.

3/16 in.

? in.

4 in.

? in.

1 in.

5 in.

? in.

? in.

6 in.

? in.

1? in.

Cups of these dimensions make a  perfectly water-tight
joint, and the friction is reduced to a minimum. Fig. 46 shows the
proportions of thickness T, depth D t, and diameter D of a 3-in.

There is no advantage in having a deep cup, and undoubtedly a
shallow leather is preferable. It works better than a deep one, and
in moulding considerable less strain is required. Consequently the
fibre at the sides is much stronger. With a deep cup the fibre is
practically destroyed in pressing, on account of its having to be
pressed to a greater depth than is really necessary.

It should be borne in mind, when pressing, that the pressure
should be evenly distributed over the leather. This is impossible
when employing a rough-and-ready method of pressing. To obtain an
even pressure all over the surface of the leather, the pressure
will have to be applied at the center, as shown in Figs. 42 and 43,
these indicating the method generally employed in the manufacture
of cup leathers.

Some people prefer cup leathers with the skin side outwards, and
others with the flesh side outwards. Cup leathers with the flesh
side outwards last longer, and make a more perfect water-tight
packing; this is no doubt due to the outer stronger fibres of the
leather not being worn away, as is the case when the skin side is

When putting in a leather, it is very important that it should
be well lubricated with tallow, which should be well worked into
the leather with the hands. Another way of lubricating is to soak
the cup in neats-foot, sperm, olive, or castor oil, for some time
before putting in. In no case use mineral oil, as this will make
the leather rotten and pulpy.

Ordinary machine oil is largely composed of mineral oil, and
therefore should not be used to lubricate the leathers.*

The purpose of the Reflections column is to provide a forum for
the exchange of all useful information among subscribers to GEM.
Inquiries or responses should be addressed to: REFLECTIONS, Gas
Engine Magzine, P.O. Box 328, Lancaster, PA 17608-0328.

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