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We’re unable to give any details as yet, but we’re
optimistic about a 1993 engine tour in England. So far, we’ve
received a substantial number of responses, but on the other hand,
we’ve not yet been able to determine anything about exact
dates, and other details. We’ll be working at this in the
coming weeks and months, and as soon as possible, we’ll present
further details. In the meantime, if you’re interested, be sure
to send in your response. Chances are that the tour will be limited
to 50 or 60 people. Getting the tour too large makes it nearly
impossible to handle from the logistical standpoint. This will
probably be our last request for your response. If interested in a
1993 engine tour of England, drop us a line at: Tour Survey, Gas
Engine Magazine, PO Box 328, Lancaster, PA 17603.

From time to time, people ask us why we talk about diesel
engines, power house engines, and other internal combustion types
outside of the ordinary farm engine. There are several reasons we
suppose, and we’ll attempt to explain our position:

First of all, the so-called farm engines actually made up a
rather small portion of overall gas engine output in the half
century ending with 1940. In terms of total horsepower, there’s
no doubt that more engines were sold for commercial and industrial
duty than for farm duty. Curiously, Fairbanks, Morse & Company
stands alone as the major builder of both the farm engines and the
large gas, gasoline, and diesel engines. Comparing only the farm
engines, it appears that International Harvester was probably the
greatest competitor to the Fairbanks-Morse gas engine line. Stover,
Witte, and Galloway built substantial numbers, as did John Deere.
However, for sheer numbers, it appears that the Fairbanks-Morse
line stands at the top of the heap, with International Harvester
being perhaps nearly equal. Exact numbers are now impossible to
obtain, but given a review of the various models and sizes, we
believe that Fairbanks and IHC were probably neck-and-neck.

Yet, the farm engines were but a part of the overall development
of gas, gasoline, and diesel engines. The development of the
automotive engine, multiple-cylinder tractor engines, and aircraft
engines are each of vital importance. Development of the diesel
engine design is yet another important step, and virtually tons of
books, magazines, theses, and papers have been written on the
various aspects of all. In fact, the technical literature for the
farm engines is in short supply, compared to that for engines of
other types. Yet another factor is the simple fact that the farm
engines which we so avidly collect really existed for only about a
half century.

In the opinion of ye olde Reflector, maintaining and preserving
the heritage of early engine development is paramount, particularly
as applied to the so-called farm engines. Yet, we also feel a
definite need to preserve the heritage which has come down to us
regarding those other types . . . those large engines in which a
single piston and rod weighs nearly half a ton . . . and those very
large engines with dimensions that defy an honest description.

The point is that we try to maintain some sort of balance in
what we bring to you each month. We’ve had several articles on
the Brons engines, which here in the U. S. are called Hvid engines,
and which are typified by the Thermoil, and others of its class.
Some of you are excited by these engines, while many of you have
little interest in them. The same could be said for many other
categories-Maytag compared to Mogul, hit-and-miss compared to
throttling governors, or Stickney compared to Sattley. All have
their protagonists, and all have their detractors. That’s the
interesting part of our hobby-there are lids to fit every jar! And,
we’ll try to bring you new and different jars every month!

Our queries this month begin with:

27/10/1 Wards Powerlite Q. I have a Wards
Powerlite electric plant, model 64mx4930-A, from Montgomery Ward,
Chicago. It has a two-cylinder, four-cycle engine, with no
maker’s marks I can find. Generator is 3 kva at 1800 r.p.m.,
and has 12 volt electric start, and battery charger built into
generator. I would guess it to have been built in 1946. Can anyone
supply a copy or information on the operating instructions and/or
wiring diagram of this unit? John O. Leer, 5202 Bean Road, Eau
Claire, Wl 54703.

A. Can anyone be of help?

27/10/2 Help Needed Q. First of all, photo 2A
shows my 8 HP IHC Famous of 1911 vintage being pulled by my two-kid
team of Cindy and Nick. Photo 2B shows an unidentified engine. The
nameplate reads: E2, 5/8 HP, 1750 r.p.m., s/n E2 121134- No make is
listed. Any help will be appreciated. Ron Larson, 22251 Pillsbury
Ave., Lakeville, MN 55044.

27/10/3 Thanks Andrew Szurek, 2809 Silver Lane
NE, Minneapolis, MN 55421 sends us a photocopy of a manual for the
Indian motorcycle. Needless to say, it’s already in the

27/10/4 Waterloo – Cray Bros.? Q. On page 435
of American Gas Engines is the Waterloo 1?  and 2 HP engine.
My friend has one like this, but the nameplate reads: Cray Bros.
Gas Engine Co. No. 124334, V/2 HP, Cleveland, Ohio. Patented Aug 7,
1900; Dec 3, 1901; Oct 7, 1902; Aug 6, 1907; patents pending. Can
you explain this? Andrew Richley, 1456 Rt 354, RFD 1, Attica, NY

A. Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company at
Waterloo, Iowa built this engine for Cray Bros, and they attached
their own nameplate, or had the folks at Waterloo attach it for
them. Waterloo built engines for several different companies.

27/10/5 Unknown Tractor Q. See the photo of an
unidentified tractor. It uses a Hercules IXB-3 engine, hydraulic
brakes, and is painted red. It has 28-inch rear wheels, and 16-inch
fronts. Any information will be appreciated. Dave Grube, Box 88,
Ringgold, PA 15770.

27/10/6 Unidentified Engine Q. Can anyone
identify the engine in the two photographs? It is of four-cylinder,
four-cycle, air-cooled design, but 1 can find no name, model, or
serial numbers. P. S. Brooke Jr., 830 E . 35th Ave., Spokane, WA

27/10/7 Hallet Diesel Q. We found here in Fort
Bragg, California a two-cylinder Hallet Diesel, Model D2MS, s/n
9444. It was made in Englewood, California. Can anyone supply any
information on this engine or the Hallet Company? Andy’s
Appliance Service, 32501 Mill Creek Drive, Ft. Bragg, CA 95437.

27/10/8 Thanks! To Max F. Homfeld, 7964 Oakwood
Park Ct., St. Michaels, MD 21663, for sending along some useful
background information on various subjects.

27/10/9 Fairbanks Eclipse No. 1 Q. What is the
purpose of the ‘valve’ at the bottom of the fuel inlet? How
should this engine be oiled? Should a certain amount of oil be put
in the crankcase? And should the crankcase be vented? What is the
normal operating speed? Is unleaded gas okay to use? What is the
significance of the numbers 1,2,3 stamped on top of the needle
valve? Rod Petree, 629 Santa Paula Ave., Sunnyvale, CA

A. We assume that by ‘valve’ you mean
the fuel tube and check valve beneath the needle valve. The check
valve at the bottom holds fuel at the proper level in the fuel
tube. Of course the oil cup on the side of the engine must be
filled. The crankcase holds oil up to the level of the small plug
near the bottom of the base, opposite the flywheel side. The rated
operating speed is 700 r.p.m. for this engine, although for show
purposes you may wish to cut this back considerably. We find no
problem in using unleaded gas whatever. The numbers on the needle
valve are simply reference points.

27/10/10 Jumbo Engine Q. I have a Jumbo engine,
Model TA, s/n 19511, 1? HP. Can you tell me what year it was made,
and the correct color? It appears to have been a bright red at one
time. Any information will be appreciated. James S. Harries, 23
Wales Rd., M o n s o n , MA01057.

A. We have D u P o n t 2015 Green listed as a
comparable color match for the [Nelson Bros.] Jumbo engines. There
is no serial number information that might date the engine. It may
well have been red as the original color, especially since it may
have been sold by a jobber other than Nelson Bros.

27/10/11 Fire Pump Q. See the photo. It shows a
Ford flathead V-8 connected to a 750 gpm pump. It was used by Fleet
Aircraft Industries in Fort Erie, Ontario as a backup fire pump.
The whole thing is mounted on a heavy cast iron base. The tag on
the engine reads: General Power Inc., Quapaw, Oklahoma, Unit No.
V8-2538. There is also a tag which reads: Consolidated Engines
& Machinery Co. Ltd., Montreal and Toronto. I would like to
know the year of the engine and if the company still exists today.
Any information will be appreciated. Ron Boer, 2652 Upper Apt W,
Hwy 3, RR 1, Port Colbome, Ontario L3K 5V3 Canada.

27/10/12 Storm Boring Bar Q. I have a Storm
Model NS boring bar, and very much need an operators manual and
parts list. The automatic shut-off doesn’t seem to work. I
think there is a part (or parts) missing. The company states,
‘There is no one else, and no one still living, that will be
able to answer your questions.’ Can anyone be of help? Any
information will be greatly appreciated. K. D. Jefferson, 108 East
Drive, Gallipolis, OH 45631.

A. Aside from some catalog data, we have
nothing on the Storm boring bar. Can anyone help?

27/10/13 Information Needed Q. I have a marine
engine, 2 HP, s/n 10452 built by Canadian Fairbanks Morse. Where
were they made, what year, what color, and what happened to the

I also have a Cushman 4 HP Model C, made in Lincoln, Nebraska,
sin U1519. What year, what color, and what carburetor?

Is there a history of the Schebler carburetor, and perhaps a
catalog or parts book?

Can anyone advise where to secure the sight glasses for the
Manzel force-feed lubricators?

Any help will be appreciated. F. A. Holmes, 2791 Trillium Place,
North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1J3 Canada.

A. We wish we could tell you something about
Canadian Fairbanks Morse but we have never found any information on
this company.

All of the Cushman verticals used a Schebler carburetor, while
the horizontals used Cushman’s own carburetor. We do indeed
have some Schebler information, and we will try to incorporate it
into a coming issue of the magazine. Can anyone advise whether
Manzel parts are available?

27/10/14 Information Needed Q. Can anyone
supply information on this engine: Kootz & Stroehman Machine
Company, Parkersburg, West Virginia; also a Perfection Pumping
Power, Tag No. 890. It has a 7-inch bore. Any information will be
greatly appreciated. John G. Lazar, RD 4, Box 453-A, Leechburg, PA

Thanks Again! To Andrew Szurek, 2809 Silver
Lane NE, Minneapolis, MN 55421, this time for sending a photocopy
of the manual for the Whizzer bike motor.

27/10/16 Fairfield Engine Q. See the photo of a
Fairfield engine, s/n 5053, 4? HP. 1 would like to know the year
made, the proper color, and other information on this company.
Marion Sickel, RR 1, Box 125-A, DeValls Bluff, AR 72041.

A. The Fairfield was built by Fairfield Engine
Company, Fairfield, Iowa. It first appeared about 1915 and
disappeared after a few years. This engine is pictured on page 168
of American Gas Engines. We do not have a comparable color match,
but there are a few of these engines in existence, and perhaps a
Fairfield owner will be inclined to send you the paint

27/10/17 Aurora Engine Co. Q. From a 1906
magazine we glean the following: The Aurora Engine Company has been
incorporated in Stockton, California for the purpose of
manufacturing gas engines for use in operating combined harvesters.
Gas engines for this use will have a ready sale and the company
anticipates a large demand for their engines.

Can anyone supply any information on this company or its
engines? If so, contact: Ye olde Reflector, Gas Engine Magazine, PO
Box 328, Lancaster, PA 17603.

Readers Write

Thanks to Herbert H. Eltz, RFD 1, Box 109, Juniata, NE 68955 for
sending along information relative to several queries, as

27/6/1 Stewart Tire Pump You are right that
some early cars used them. I have one that Dad had. Also another
one which has a short stroke and quite large diameter cylinder.
They were not run from open gears on the motor but used an extra
drive gear on the crankshaft or an open pump or magneto shaft.

27/7/4A Remy Generator The Remy generator is an
automotive job. I have one like it, don’t know what from. Most
of the old generators were large, they were slow speed. The large
Auto-Lite generator would start generating when spun over by hand.
I used one on a wind charger; in a strong wind it would put out 32
volts, run directly with a 40 inch, 15 blade windmill wheel. It was
built in 1937, and I still have it.

27/7/24B Ringer This was a ringer used at a
switchboard to replace the hand crank.

27/7/16 Hercules Engine This is a follow-up
regarding an earlier reply. I found another ad from the Pacific
Rural Press showing a single flywheel vertical Hercules and another
view of the two-flywheel Hercules vertical. Carl Mehr, 12513 Elnora
Dr., Penn Valley, CA 95946.

Carl also sent along a list of West Coast engine builders from
1890 to about 1930, and our thanks to him!

27/7/44 Husker-Shredder This is a U. S.
Standard Husker-Shredder made by the U. S. Wind Engine Company,
Batavia, Illinois. A good picture of this machine is on page 323 of
Encyclopedia of American Farm Tractors. Paul Fischer, 5194 St.
Marys-Kossuth, St. Marys, OH 45885.

26/11/24 Speedex Thanks to the many people who
responded to my query. Since then I’ve found a four-wheeled
garden tractor with the name of Baird on it. It was made in
Stratford, Connecticut and has a 1950 patent date. Any information
on this one will be appreciated. Edward Pedrick, PO Box 393, Santa
Maria, CA 93456-0393.

Brons and Hvid Patents We have at hand another
letter and additional information in this regard, and in addition
to that which we published earlier. Thanks to J. Vegter, Hoofdweg
107, 9628 CM, Siddeburen, Holland for this interesting data!

The original U. S. Patent for the Brons system was issued to Jan
Brons and Nanno Timmer on October 22, 1907 under No. 868,839.

Brons and Timmer developed the system, but they used it
primarily on vertical engines; Hvid modified it for use primarily
on horizontal engines. This required a different precombustion
chamber, and that was the major change which Hvid effected.
However, Hvid did not invent the pre-chamber, it was invented by
Brons and Timmer. Rather, Hvid modified the pre-chamber for use on
horizontal engines. All told, it appears that R. M. Hvid Company
paid Bronsmotoren Fabrik about $45,000 for non-exclusive rights to
the Brons patents. The contract was signed on August 12, 1914.

R. M. Hvid Company was established at Battle Creek, Michigan
during 1912 by men who were formerly connected with the Advance
Thresher Company. At that time, Advance was taken over by M. Rumely
Company, and the Advance tractor was discontinued by Rumely. Mr.
Bush, a director of Advance, along with Mr. Hvid, who had designed
the Advance tractor engine, were the organizers of the R. M. Hvid
Company, and their firm was capitalized at $40,000 for the purpose
of securing the manufacturing rights on several firms of oil
burning tractors and leasing these rights to various U. S.
manufacturers. As is now known, the rights were sold mainly to
engine companies, and the result was a number of different oil
engines such as the Thermoil, the Evinrude, the Burnoil, and
several others.

Modelmaker’s Corner

Matthew Clarke, 520 45th Avenue, Norwalk, IA 50211 sends along a
couple of nice photographs (MM1 & MM2). One is of a new IHC Tom
Thumb model, and another is of an IHC Famous model. Both models use
the same back half.

Mr. Clarke scaled both models, including making the patterns and
pouring his own grey iron castings. Our congratulations to Mr.
Clarke for his efforts. Modelmaking has become very popular in
recent years. Due to the scarcity of some engine models, due to the
problems of storing full-sized engines, and due to the innate
desire some of us have to work at a lathe, more and more
modelmakers are appearing on the scene. As always, we encourage
this activity.

Ye olde Reflector has accumulated a tremendous amount of machine
shop data and information… we have rather complete runs of
American Machinist and of Machinery Magazine going back to their
nineteenth century beginnings. For years, we’ve wanted to
include some of this material in the ‘Reflections’ column,
and we’ve even thought of incorporating some of the significant
ideas into a book of some kind. Unfortunately, we have but two
hands, and with each passing year, it seems they accomplish just a
little less. As someone once said, ‘When you’re over the
hill, you begin to pick up speed!’

A Closing Word

Among our research collection is a small run of Gas and Oil
Power, a journal published in England. The March 1949 issue carries
an article illustrating a new single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel
engine introduced by Nordberg Mfg. Company. This new engine, the
Model 4FS-1, was built with a 4? x 5? inch bore and stroke, and was
rated at 10 horsepower with a speed of 1200 r.p.m. Proof of its
heavy construction is obvious when it is noted that this engine
used a crankshaft with a diameter of 3? inches. It also used a
3-inch piston pin. We have never seen or heard of this engine
outside of the above article. Do any of these engines still

Recently, ye olde Reflector toured the Navistar engine plant at
Melrose Park, Illinois. We were invited on the tour by Mr. Leonard
Squinto, Chief Engineer for the company. Watching the construction
of the Navistar (formerly International) engines from rough
castings to an operating engine was indeed an interesting tour!

Every engine coming off the assembly line is placed into a test
cell and operated for a period of time. Beyond this, some engines
are run for extended periods, and many more test cells are used for
experimental engines. In fact, we understand that Navistar uses
over 800,000 gallons of diesel fuel each year, just in the test

As some of you may know, Navistar is working on their NGD (New
Generation Diesel) engines with fully electronic fuel injection.
This is an entirely new concept which eliminates the injection pump
with which we are all familiar, and replaces it with a programmable
circuit board. The inner workings of this radically new design are
far more complicated than we are able to explain here, but within
the next few months, we’ll probably be hearing more about this
new design.

Some of you are probably wondering if there’s a point to
this discussion. There is! The engines we so avidly collect are
only a part of an evolutionary process that began with the Otto
Silent and has continued unabated for over a century. Our very
collectible engines will become even more so as time flies by. Yet
we wonder whether we aren’t at the threshold of seeing some
radically new developments in engine designs. In many applications,
the gasoline engine has already come and gone, being almost
entirely replaced with the diesel. In the 1920s, air injected
diesels were the accepted practice. Then came various types of
mechanical injection pumps, and they have seen many, many changes
during the years. Now it appears that before long, the mechanical
injection pump might be largely replaced with a new generation
which combines hydraulics and electronics into a neat package. And
the march continues!

Gas Engine Magazine
Gas Engine Magazine
Preserving the History of Internal Combustion Engines