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28/11/23 All the Best May I through our line of communication, our GEM of a magazine, send a note of sincere regret of the recent disastrous floods that have descended on our Old Iron Men of the Midwest.

To my good friend Frank Light and his mates, may you get your com and beans in. Surely a better spell is coming.

We down under wish you all the best in your efforts in the future. J. G. Hayes, 46A Jeffreys Road, Fendalton, Christ-church 5, New Zealand.

28/11/24 Ottawa Engine Q. I have just recovered an Ottawa log saw and engine in pretty tough shape. I need all the information I can get. The outfit seems complete except for carburetor and governor linkage. I need photos, etc., to see what can be made.

Also, see a photo of a recent Galloway restoration. It is real good mechanically, with new sleeve and refitted piston. Rich Howard, Hysham, MT 59038.

28/11/25 IHC Model LA Paint My local farm store has a stock of paint for the popular tractors. I found their T-5 International Red to be very handy when painting my LA. Two cans completed the project without the mess of the spray gun.

It is Tru-Test Industrial X-O Rust. Eddie R. Ferguson, 605 Lake Placid Dr., Sequin, TX 78155.

28/11/26 Eshelman Tractor Q. Can anyone provide any information on an Eshelman tractor made at Baltimore, Maryland? It is Model No: 1950 and is painted yellow. Any information will be appreciated. Bill Louis, RFD I, Box 810, Brown Ave., Casco, ME 04015.

28/11/27 Unidentified Engine Q. See the photo of an unidentified engine. It has a bore of 3 inches, and the flywheels have a diameter of 16 inches with a 2-inch face. The letters ZY4 are marked on the inside of one flywheel, and the letters ZYZ are on the cylinder head. The connecting rod cap is hinged. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Stephen Porter, General Delivery, Hantsport, NS BOP 1PO Canada.

28/11/28 A Request The following excerpt was sent to us by James M. Morrissey, Box 315, Plymouth, IN 46563 (please note this corrected address). It’s an excerpt from Reflections of a Tractor Salesman mentioned in the August 1993 issue of GEM:

‘Occasionally I was asked by our County Agent to cover certain subjects in 4-H, also in high school shop classes. I’ve heard some high school boys refer to engines as ‘motors.’ So when they asked me to explain diesel engines to a couple classes, and to compare diesel engines with spark-ignition engines, two different years, I was happy to do so.

It gave me an opportunity to explain to those young men that an ‘engine’ is a self-contained driving; unit, designed to power a car, truck, or tractor. But a ‘motor’ is a driven unit, such as the motor in a house fan, or the starting motor, (often referred to as the ‘starter’), only runs as long as it is required to start the engine. Then the starting motor stops, and the battery is recharged while the ‘engine’ is in operation.’

28/11/29 Information Needed Q. Can anyone tell me where to find a head gasket and carburetor float for an International 22-36 tractor? I don’t know what year they were made, but probably late ’20s. Alex Krivoshein, Box 2, Borden, SASK S0K 0N0 Canada.

28/11/30 Closing out this month’s questions, we got another letter from Robert Le-Baron just in time for this issue. Earlier in the questions, he commented that he had tried many different things to get his B & S FH engine running, but to no avail. The problem was that the exhaust spring was too weak, allowing it to float and pull air into the cylinder. Now the FH runs fine!

Readers Write

28/7/3 Herbrand Tools Report Many thanks to GEM and its readers. They have provided me with all the information that I really wanted, and helped to play a great practical joke on my old buddy George Valentine. I had used his name and address on my request, knowing I would be able to get the information from him later. He started getting letters from all over the U.S. telling him about Herbrand tools. His wife said he was scratching his head for a week wondering why total strangers were writing to him about tools. Then he saw the July Reflections column and knew that he had been set up by me.

The tools were made in Fremont, Ohio, until 1962, and after that in Orangeburg, South Carolina, for a time. The logo has ‘Since 1881’ printed beneath it. The Herbrand Co. was a forge/foundry and used big steam drop hammers. They were a big producer of axles for IH, Ford, GM, and Eaton. The company was split up and sold in late 1961 according to Cliff Wise of Fremont, Ohio, who worked there from 1945 to January 1962. Norman Kamb sent a copy of ten pages from the 1937 Herbrand Tool Catalog that was very interesting.

George Valentine may have had the last laugh on this deal, as he got interested in tools and started looking for them at garage sales. He found a Gordon

Tools wrench but wouldn’t show it to me until I had answered all the letters that I promised I would answer. The Gordon had Sheffield, England, stamped on it and is comparable to the current Sears Craftsman line. No one else who wrote mentioned Gordon Tools, so George himself provided the final answer to my request.

Thanks again to everyone who helped. Ted Donovan, Old Tool Nut, 415 Ferry St., Monroe, WA 98272.

28/7/4 Roebuck Tractor A few years ago I saw a Sears & Roebuck ‘kit’ tractor that looked just like the one pictured. Identifying points are the Model A Ford engine, engine identified by generator, oil filler pipe, block location of water outlet, starter and its location, rounded corners of cylinder head and block, and the location of the ignition distributor on the right-hand side of the cylinder head. Arthur M. Southwell, 496 SW 20th St., Arcadia, FL 33821.

Stuart M. Perry Recently we raised the question in this column of the Perry engine that was built in the 1840s and 1850s, or was at least designed at that time. This prompted Joseph Murphy, Box 56, Newport, NY 13416 to locate further material on Stuart Perry. It turns out that Perry garnered a total of 84 different patents in his career, including the first hay tedder, many different kinds of locks, and untold other items. Thanks to Mr. Murphy for this information.

28/7/4 Unidentified Tractor I believe this is a USTRAC Model 10 as made by U. S. Tractor in their facility at Warren, Ohio. It was sold by U. S. Tractor Sales, Peoria, Illinois. It is described in the 1948 Red Tractor Book. Ira Matheny, PO Box 5128, Modesto, CA 95352.

However, here’s another comment from Bob Jessup, Redneck Ranch, PO Box 118, Clarcona, FL 32710-0118 . . .

Photo 28/7/4A is a Clarkair issued to us Airborne Troopers, Navy Air Corps and Marines as well. Small enough to fit in a C47 aircraft and hauled where needed in a hurry. A cute little workhorse. Photos 4 B & C… an Allis-Chalmers it ain’t. It may have had some Allis parts but it’s built a lot different. I’m sure it’s a David Bradley sold by Sears, a forerunner of the Graham-Bradley. It was listed in the Sears catalog at about $500. The tractor in these two photos had the axle coming straight out of the differential and to the wheels. The Allis axles came out the differential to reduction gears, then to the wheels.

We also heard from Leigh B. Dennison, Box 873, Delta Junction, Alaska in regard to this query:

In reply to 28/7/4, I would like to offer the following:

I own a 1955 Terratrac GT-25. The similarities between the pictured tractor and mine are too much to dismiss out of hand. The blade is identical, including the push arms and pivot ends, angle brace, end plates, round pipe top edge, and welds.

The sprockets and idlers are identical. The 4-inch channel (another one on the inside) to which the rollers mount is the same. The long square box on top of the channel between the idler and sprocket containing the track tension adjustment and spring is the same. The blade lift cylinder mounting bracket is nearly the same.

The radiator housing and hood shape are the same. The metal tubes for the left cylinder hydraulic lines are in the same position where they cross over the rear of the hood. The air precleaner and glass jar are the same. The exhaust pipe is in the same position in relation to the air cleaner stack. The engine should be a Continental F-124.

I cannot explain what the angled pipe in the rear is, although this could be for some other attachment. The tank on the left fender is unfamiliar, but could be a gas tank. My original gas tank under the rear of the hood broke loose so I moved it out to this same position.

I know nothing about Clark Air; however, it is possible they were a contracted order for the military and basically made by American Tractor Company who made Terratrac.

28/7/3 Herbrand Tools Don Siefker, 705 W. Annie Dr., Muncie, IN 47303-9762 writes:

I don’t know if this is the company Mr. Valentine is seeking information on or not, but it might be worth a try:

Herbrand Tools (S) Eclipse Tool Company 340-T Dufferin Street Toronto, ONT M6K 1Z9 Canada

28/1 – E2 Engine On page 10 of the January 1993 issue you show two pictures of a Model E2 Montgomery Ward, 5/8 horsepower engine. These engines were, according to Mr. Dana H. VanMeter of Belpre, Ohio built by the Hummer Mfg. Co. of Springfield, Illinois.

I have one of the engines but it is not complete. I need some magneto parts for it. There is a stub shaft extending from the engine into the magneto housing. The parts that should be mounted on the rotating shaft are missing. Is there another engine that used such a magneto? Any help on this situation would be greatly appreciated. Leon H. Meldrum, 987 East 2680 North, Provo, Utah 84604.

28/5/11 New Idea Green Referring to the above query, a number of years ago I got in contact with Ronald Steiner, Production Engineer of Tecumseh Products Company, Lauson Power Products Engine Division, New Holstein, Wisconsin. He wrote me that New Idea Green is the correct color for the John Lauson engines. I don’t have any paint numbers, but I hope this is of help. LeRoy H. Miller, 4100 E. 250 N., LaGrange, IN 46761.

The Chevy 216 Engines John G. Ruff, Rt 2, Box 25, Logan, KS 67646 writes:

I must say that I was very surprised to find that my few comments in the letter about the Chevy 216 engine has generated such a lot of controversy, and people coming forward to defend my remarks. In regard to Mr. Farnsworth’s question about what makes me an expert on the 216: Between cars and trucks we have always had 216 and 235 splash engines on our farm. I’m 50 years old, so that is surely long enough for me to have become reasonably well acquainted with this type of engine. For the last 28 years, I’ve done all the overhaul work on these engines myself, so I’m pretty familiar with what is inside them, and what it takes to keep them running.

These engines have a partial pressure lubrication system, but the big job of lubricating the rods and mains is done by the splash system. I’ve always heard the old mechanics refer to them as a splash lubrication system. It’s the only engine I’ve ever seen where low oil pressure is not a signal of serious problems developing. The pump only supplies pressure fed oil to the rocker arms, cam bearings, timing gears, and mains. These engines often show very low oil pressure when the oil is hot. An old mechanic once told me that the engine will be sufficiently lubricated if the oil pressure needle just wiggles a little. That has been confirmed by my longtime experience running these engines. It’s not likely the same could be said for a pressure lubricated engine.

No, I didn’t have a bad experience with a 216, but I’ve had a lot of experience with them. With proper care, these engines could provide many years of reliable, and relatively trouble-free service. Abuse them, and you could destroy one in less than an hour. Over-revving them produced an oily foam, and insufficient lubrication to the vital parts. I’ve heard that even GM admitted to that.

The reason (in my opinion) for the 216’s unique features was its splash lubrication system. You could keep lugging that engine at low r.p.m. and not hurt it a bit. Over-rev it too long, and the engine could be ruined. Chevy even put a vacuum governor on their 216 and 235 truck engines to prevent careless operators from over-revving the engine. But, I’ve heard of people who took off these governors, kept the throttle down, and got along fine. Some of those engines lasted a long time before they needed their first overhaul, but 40,000 to 50,000 miles was the number most local mechanics recommended back then. Keep in mind that they had poorer air cleaners and oils back in the ’40s and ’50s. I think that a factory new 216 with a modern air cleaner filter would last a lot longer using the improved oils available today.

I don’t remember the people who put a lot of hard-driven miles on an engine in a short time using the splash 216’s and 235’s very long. Commercial trucks, school buses, and custom cutter’s trucks switched to other makes rather quickly. Chevy engines just didn’t last. But it was a different story with farm trucks. There are still quite a few of the old trucks (1940s 6k 1950s) still being used in this area. The old Ford and Dodge trucks disappeared years ago.

Mr. DeWitt’s comments about the 216’s racing stamina caused me to remember a quarter mile dirt track race I saw in the early 1960s. A late 1940s Chevy coupe actually passed almost

every car in the race going down one straightaway. It made the other cars, even the Ford V-8’s, look like they were standing still. I later learned the local Chevy dealer’s son was driving that car. It had never been beat. They always completely rebuilt that engine after every race. No doubt the only reason they got by with it was that they only entered short races which were over before the engine self-destructed.

No, Mr. Farnsworth, I don’t dislike those old Chevy engines. In fact, I think they are some of the best truck engines ever builtif you use them properly. They start easily, even in the coldest weather. They are reliable. They have excellent gas mileage. And you don’t have to shift gears very often. I still use an old 216 to power my stacker. My main truck, a 1949 Chevy, still has a 235 engine. I rebuilt that engine last year, and had to look a long time to find a replacement piston for it. My other option would have been to repower it with a newer 235 pressure lubed engine. I didn’t want to switch to an engine which I consider to be a poorer engine to power a truck with. That old 23 5 runs fine now, and I expect it to last as long as I’m around to use that truck.

Modelmakers Corner

Ignition devices for model engines are always a problem, so the following letter and photos are most welcome. This article was submitted by D. J. Sher-win, 378 S. Summers Rd., Imlay City, MI 48444:

As a GEM subscriber, the Model-makers Corner is one of my favorite articles. I’m fascinated by the nice work done by fellow modelers. In my experience the ignition on model engines has been a problem. One of the difficulties has been lack of scale in many available components.

To offset this I have attempted to build a small and reliable magneto. The accompanying photos show the results. I use them on engines such as the ‘Paul Breisch Olds’ and others. It will start the engines with a quick turn of the flywheels, even though it has no impulse.

I believe the success is due to using as much iron in the field as possible and an extremely powerful magnet in the rotor. The iron is from a transformer and a ‘Magna Quench’ magneto in the 15/16 inch rotor. The coil is from an old lawn mower engine. I turn the magneto at crank speed. The rotor turns on ball bearings and clears the field by .005 inch.

There are many technical factors in magnetos that can worry a builder. I have found by using the proper material and careful construction of all, those laws of physics will not be broken and you can be successful.

Interested builders can drop me a line. Should there be enough response, perhaps I can get a ‘Print 6k Photo Package’ together, maybe the magnets also

(With this, as with other requests, kindly enclose a stamp or an SASE with your request. The Editor.)

A Closing Word

Although our 20 pages of copy will be condensed into a few pages of magazine copy, it’s time for us to close the gate for this issue. Our departure for the Mt. Pleasant show is but hours away, and hopefully, it will be a safe journey, a happy reunion, and a rewarding experience. And hopefully, we will meet many old friends and make a lot of new ones again this year.

The purpose of the Reflections column is to provide a forum for the exchange of all useful information among subscribers to GEM. Inquiries or responses should be addressed to: REFLECTIONS, Gas Engine Magazine, P.O. Box 328, Lancaster, PA 17608-0328.


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