Reflections

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22/3/9

This month’s column is shorter than usual, since it is being
compiled in late December to avoid numerous holiday conflicts.

In late August, 1986 the Reflector was advised that the famous
Franklin Institute in Philadelphia was deaccessioning (getting rid
of) quite a large number of books. We talked to their people, but
soon learned that the books were being sold in rather large lots
for one thing, and that they were unable to provide us with a
compiled list of what was being offered. Logistically, it was
impossible for us to make the trip from Iowa to Philadelphia, so we
persuaded GEM’s Linda Sharron to make the journey from
Lancaster instead. Linda soon replied that several lots would be of
interest, particularly since they involved steam and/or internal
combustion engines. To make a long story short, Linda was the
successful bidder on some of this material, and as a result, the
Reflector’s research library now holds an immense number of
very early and very rare titles on these subjects.

Looking back over the years, we recall the first book we ever
got hold of on the subject was Stephenson’s Farm Engines &
How to Run Them, a little hardbound book that was quite popular in
the early 1900’s. This one was in Grandpa’s attic, and the
Reflector at the age of about eight years old, had his first book
on steam engines. That was in 1946, Christmas Day to be exact. Ever
since that time we have actively collected literature on steam
engines, gas engines, tractors, and other items relating to
mechanical technology. Eventually our little collection turned into
a good-sized research collection, with the addition of the many new
titles from the Franklin Institute making it very extensive on all
phases of internal combustion engineering.

Having all this material does not make us expert at all, but it
certainly provides an opportunity to provide a lot of scarce
information, at least part of the time. From time to time, we will
be including some articles on rare or ‘different’ engines
of times past, and possibly might work up a series of articles on
various phases of engine design.

Logan & Jones, engine collectors at 1271 Pollock Road,
Delaware, OH 43015 recently forwarded photocopies of material on
the Viking garden tractor. It is already on file for future
reference, and is greatly appreciated.

Our queries this month begin with:

22/3/1 Q. Mel Reints, 1301 East Eighth,
Gillette, WY 82716 needs information on a Sintz-Wallin engine as
used in a Huber 15-30 tractor. The engine has a 7 x 8 inch bore and
stroke, but information is needed on the connecting rods and
pistons.

22/3/2 Q. I have a Mietz & Weiss engine,
but have no information on it at all. Need operating and service
information, along with proper paint color. Are these rare in the
United States? I. Matthews, 3 Koariki Court, Condon, 4815,
North Queensland, Australia.

A. The Mietz & Weiss is indeed rare. We
don’t have any service information on it, but hopefully there
are some Mietz & Weiss fans around that might be able to help
you out on information and paint colors.

22/3/3 Q. Dale Irps, Route 2, Box 332, St.
Anne, IL 60964 sends some photos of his little Avery tractor.
However, some folks think it is a General GG tractor built by
Cleveland Tractor Co., rather than a product of B. F. Avery Co.
Also, did Montgomery-Ward ever sell a tractor with the B. F. Avery
name on it, or did it sell under the Montgomery-Ward name? What was
the original color scheme, and how can I tell the year it was
built?

A. It seems to us that Cleveland built the
General GG from 1939 to 1941, and perhaps a bit longer, but after
that it was built by the B. F. Avery people. Now whether Cleveland
Tractor still had a hand in the actual manufacturing, we are not
sure, but there is no doubt that the design changed very little
regardless of who the manufacturer was. The front wheel rim on your
tractor is different than that shown for the Cleveland GG, as is
the exhaust manifold. Early Cleveland GG models used a
four-cylinder Hercules IXA-3 engine with a 3 x 4 inch bore and
stroke-later models used a 3 1/8 inch bore.
The 1948 Tractor Red Book shows the B. F. Avery ‘A’ to be
equipped with a four-cylinder Hercules IXB-3 engine having a 3? x 4
inch bore and stroke for a 133 CID. One easy way to tell the
difference might be looking at the spark plugs-the earlier model
used a 1 Com,7/8 inch plug, but the Avery
model used a Champion H-10 or equivalent. There was an Avery like
this in our neighborhood years ago. It was purchased at a local
Montgomery-Ward farm store, but it spelled ‘Avery’ on the
hood nevertheless.

22/3/4 Q. Howard A. Houck, RD 1, Galway Road,
Ballston Spa, NY 12020 writes: I’ve found a small Delco that is
not a light plant but looks like one but smaller. It has the
numbers 5-2-19 and #72320. It has about a 3? piston by 5 inch
stroke Is this a standard size? What can you tell me about it?

A. Howard, we can’t tell you much about
this one, except to wonder whether it was at one time a generator
engine that has been converted to an ordinary stationary model.
This would be possible by pressing the armature off the shaft and
revamping things somewhat. Quite possibly, Delco built some engines
for stationary belt use-we’ll be happy to hear from anyone who
can hazard some ideas.

22/3/5 Q. I have a Hercules 2? HP hit-and-miss
engine with the nameplate missing. It has a 4 inch bore, and uses a
Webster magneto with bracket 303K26; it also has the square water
hopper. The original color appears to be a medium blue. Might this
engine be a Jaeger or an Arco? Is it possible to determine the
serial number and rpm for a replacement name tag? Charles W.
Sammons, Route 2, Meece Brg. Rd.., Taylors, SC 29687.

A. The 303K26 Webster bracket is listed for the
2? HP Hercules ‘E’ engine as built for Sears-Roebuck, and
should carry a Webster ‘AK’ magneto. See page 4 of the
December, 1986 GEM. We’re a little doubtful about
reestablishing the nameplate data except of course for the
horsepower.

22/3/6 Q. Could you tell me the horsepower
rating for the Model 72 Maytag twin and the one-cylinder FYED4?
What is the year and model of the Briggs & Stratum engine shown
in the photo given below? The muffler and gas tank are not
original. Note the bicycle chain starter. Marcus Comes, 19506
Kemple Drive, Bend, OR 97702.

A. We’re not sure that the Maytag engines
were horsepower rated- their primary duty was to run the washing
machines that Maytag built. However, it is possible to calculate
the approximate delivered brake horsepower by the formula:

D2LN    X

in which D=Cylinder Diameter in inches L=Stroke in inches
N=Speed in r.p.m.

X=Variable factor, about 14,000 for four-cycle gasoline engines,
and about 12,000 for two-cycle gasoline engines. Using a 3 inch
bore and stroke with a speed of 600 rpm, and a factor of 12,500
gives an output of 1.30 horsepower.

Our first assumption was that your Briggs & Stratton was a
model FH, but a check of our files leaves us in doubt as to the
model designation.

22/3/7 Q. I need paint information on a
Fair-field 4? HP model and a Gilson Style E, 1 HP model. The
Fairfield has a Dixie magneto, and I need help on it! W. A.
‘Bill’ Anderson, 884 W. Jackson, Marshall, MO
65340.

A. It just so happens that we have a color
photo of a Gilson water cooled engine, but it uses the same general
scheme as the air cooled models. We believe the Fairfield was a
very dark, almost blackish, green color. There are several
collectors who work on magnetos regularly, and certainly there must
be one of them who might contact you.

22/3/8 Q. I recently acquired a Lockwood-Ash
4-cycle marine engine. It is 5 horsepower, one-cylinder, Model 41,
s/n 441. This engine uses a Ford Model T piston, rings, connecting
rod, valves, and carburetor. Can anyone out there tell me what the
ignition system looks like, what type of water pump it used, and
what is the proper color? Also what is the proper color for an
Aermotor engine? Ernest Felterman, 126 McGee Drive, Patterson,
LA 70392.

A. We can’t tell you much about the
Lockwood-Ash engines, but it is interesting to note that they used
so many Ford Model T parts. Aermotor pump jack engines are always a
subject of discussion in regard to the proper color-apparently some
were green, and some were candy apple red.

22/3/9 Q. Can you identify the manufacturer of
this engine (see photo)? The brass tag reads: DeLaval, 6 HP, Type
F, 350 rpm, s/n 19318. A. G. L. Henning, 37 Oak-view Avenue,
Winnipeg, Manitoba R2K 0R6 Canada.

A. We would suggest that this engine was built
by John Lauson at New Holstein, Wisconsin.

22/3/10 Q. Is there a difference between a
Waterloo engine and a Waterloo Boy engine? I have an engine made by
the Waterloo Gas Engine Co., Waterloo, Iowa, and wondered if a
Waterloo Boy decal would be accurate. Glen R. Swenson, Spider
Lake, HCR-1, Box 82T, Marcell, MN 56657.

A. We would guess this to be one and the same.
Perhaps it is a matter of semantics, but the term
‘Waterloo’ and ‘Waterloo Boy’ seem to be used
interchangeably. The company started out in the 1890’s as
Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company under the direction of
John Froehlich. Ostensibly, this firm was going to build the new
gasoline traction engine that Froehlich developed. The market
wasn’t ready for gasoline tractors-it had hardly begun to
accept steam traction engines yet! To keep some money coming in,
other directors of the company decided to start building engines.
Froehlich apparently didn’t go along with that idea so he
pulled out, later on making his own mark in the tractor business
with the Hackney tractor. By 1896, the original company dropped
‘Traction’ from the title, operating this way until bought
out by Deere & Company.

22/3/11 Q. Can anyone help with some history
and information on Earthmaster Farm Equipment Company of Hollydale,
California. I have an Earthmaster tractor Model C, s/n 333. Would
also like to correspond with anyone who has a Mighty Mite garden
tractor made in Denison, Texas. Also need information on a small
2-cycle engine built by Propulsion Engine Corporation, Kansas City,
Kansas. Will answer all letters. Jack Harrell, Box 142,
Roanoke, IN 46783.

A. We have no literature on the Earthmaster
tractor, and only brief mention of it is made in Encyclopedia of
American Farm Tractors, page 97. We can find nothing at all on the
Mighty Mite garden tractor. Our information has it that Propulsion
Engine Corporation built the ‘Power-Pak’ in 1948, but
beyond that we have no illustrations or other information. Perhaps
you might favor us with a photo that we could put into the next
column.

22/3/12 Q. James Haynie, RR 1, Box 494, Ash
Grove, MO 65604 would like to know the age of Gade Bros, engine,
s/n 3960, C 1? HP, spark plug ignition.

A. Gade Model C engines were introduced in
1912. Like most other builders, Gade gave these engines higher
speed to reduce the overall weight. Mr. Haynie notes in his letter
that he has been told that the name is not pronounced
‘Gayd’ but should be pronounced ‘Gawdee.’ He’s
right about that-we once knew a gentlemen who came from Iowa Falls,
Iowa where these engines were made, and ‘Gawdee’ is how it
was said. To put it another way, ‘Gayd’ is an anglicized
pronunciation.

22/3/13 Q. I’m trying to rebuild a magneto
for a 1931 John Deere GP Wide-Tread. I’m not sure of the make,
but on the front cover it says Type R-2. According to Parts Book
#5o-R, the Deere part number is AC432-R. Am looking for a service
manual, since I know nothing about this magneto. Kevin J.
Nadler, Box 55, Defiance, MO 63341.

A. This magneto was probably built by
Fairbanks-Morse. We’re not at all expert on magneto
substitutions, but have heard it said that this was probably not
the greatest magneto FBM ever built. Lots of these were replaced
with other makes as time wore on. Perhaps some of our readers
familiar with this magneto, its problems and idiosyncracies might
get in touch with you.

22/3/14 Q. We would like information on a
Mercury 2-man chain saw. Model KB6AY, s/n 91178. It has a
2-cylinder 7 horsepower engine with a Fairbanks-Morse Type J
magneto. Would like to know when it was built, proper color, etc.
John A. Hall, Jr., RR 2, Box 407, Bahama, NC 27503.

A. There’s nothing in our files on this
one-can someone out there be of help?

22/3/15 Q. Harry L. King, Box 288, Parker, PA
16049 would like to have the proper color for a Witte headless
engine, s/n 60183 mounted on a log saw.

A. We believe it to be a deep green comparable
to DuPont Dulux 935800 green.  

READERS WRITE

21/12/22Steering Wheel Restoration A
lot of letters came in on this one, including several letters
telling us that the July 1986 issue of Green Magazine for Deere
collectors has an excellent article on the subject. Copies of this
issue are available from: Green Magazine, Box 11, Bee, NE 68314 at
a price of $1.50. The following also repair steering wheels: Tom
Lein, 1400-121st St West, Rosemount, MN 55068: and lack Turpin.
Route 2, Box 327-B, Peaceful Valley, Cleveland, GA 30528. Several
writers noted that epoxy cement and other necessaries for this job
are available from Eastwood Company, 147 Pennsylvania Ave., Box
296, Malvern, PA 19355.

Lineshaft sizes Glenn D. Meyer, RR 2, Box 104, Baldwin,
WI 54002 notes that lineshafting is hard to obtain, but lineshaft
clutches are even more difficult to get, even though they are quite
desirable. Glenn notes that in one plant, a 3-inch lineshaft run by
a 150 horsepower engine was twisted off and had to be replaced by a
4-inch shaft to stand the load. Nowadays however, we run 150
horsepower on a 1 3/8 inch shaft, so do we
measure horsepower differently now?

Horsepower is still measured the same, but the rpm’s
directly affect the horsepower capabilities of a shaft. The
horsepower charts in Machinery’s Handbook indicate that a
3-inch shaft operating at 100 rpm will only transmit 30 horsepower,
but the same shaft operating at twice the speed or 200 rpm will
carry 60 horsepower. Moving up to 600 rpm, we see a load carrying
capacity of 231 horsepower. Thus, the horsepower capacity of a
shaft is directly proportional to its speed.

22/1/20 Jack Versteeg, 1215 Jays Drive NE,
Salem, OR 97303 writes that the engine at first glance appears to
be a Stover, but further looking shows that its a Rawleigh. Chances
are that this particular engine was the brainchild of a couple of
engineers in building a halfbreed. Stover and Rawleigh were both in
Freeport, Illinois, and some of the same engineers worked for both
companies there.

22/1/19Cushman engine The ignition
system on this model of engine was quite simple, so if Murtt
Sepanyk, #77, 340 Seymour River Place, North Van, B.C. V7H 1S4
Canada will get in touch with T. J. Shamnaugh Jr., POB 895, 421 S.
Washington St., Cerro Gordo, IL 61818 he can get more information
or even some drawings of what is needed to complete the engine.

22/1/17 Electromagnetite Industries may have
imported this engine, and they did the marketing. There is a lot of
marine activity at the Sayville, New York location, and possibly
this engine was intended as a small auxiliary engine for a
sailboat, but if larger than 25 HP it may have been used on a
commercial fishing boat or tender. You might contact some marine
supply firms in the Long Island, New York area to see whether they
might have sold this engine, or have someone check the Yellow Pages
for you. Alternatively, you might try the Suffolk County Library
system. Roy R. Nagel, 5431 Metamora Road, Metamora, MI 48455.

John Deere Scale Models Back in October, 1986 GEM
talked a bit about scale model gas engines, and you said you had
not had any information about the one-half scale Type E John Deere
that is built in Waterloo, Iowa. I received mine on June 20, 1986
and since then have built and sold two of these kits. Also on
22/1/20, this is a Simplicity engine built by Turner Mfg. Co., Port
Washington, Wisconsin-would guess it to be a 1? HP. Edw. G.
Hoover, 10040 State Street, NE. Lousiville, OH 44641.

Hot Air Engines Sometime ago we made mention o: hot air
engines in this column, and since have received literature and
information from Al Cropley, 48097 Lake Washington Blvd S.,
Seattle, WA 98118 and from Joe Whitton, 4455 E. Shields, Fresno, CA
93726. Both of these people have a lot of information and help for
the hot air engine builder, and we are confident that both are
willing to share it with you. Kindly enclose return postage and a
small token for their efforts in photocopying etc.

22/1/7Delco unit I have a unit like
this, the nameplate reads: Delco-Light, 13574, Service No. 4057,
Model B6, Watts 150, Volts 6. Mine was painted blue, on plywood,
with the small coil on the fuel tank which is a tube extending
nearly to the bottom of the tank. This letter continues to a reply
on:

21/5/27Aunknown engine On page 8 of
the May 1986 GEM is a picture of an engine I have. I’m hoping
someone can help me identify this engine. It has only one rocker
arm, and it was on a reel-type mower. I’ve had it to six shows
the past summer and no one has identified it so far. Maurice
Biehn, 2900 E. Lk. Bonnet Rd., Avon Park, FL 33825.

22/1/17American Marc Instructions
This information is in Small Engines Service Manual by Technical
Publications, Kansas City, MO 7th Edition, copyrighted 1964. I have
been told that this is related to the Hallett Mfg. Co. (see page
216 of American Gas Engines). Also see adjacent photo of my highly
modified Briggs & Stratton FH engine into a hit-and-miss
engine. Robert J. Meredith, 1 South 100 Rt. 47, Elburn, IL
60119.

Although the number of questions this month is somewhat less
than usual, we have a special bonus in the form of some extensive
data courtesy of Mr. Leo F. Fellman, 1608 Oak Street, Hastings, MN
55033. Mr. Fellman has originated a special flow control valve for
propane fuel that seems to work very well in scale model engines.
Since Mr. Fellman spent countless hours in working out the details
of this unit, we felt it appropriate to present his ideas herewith.
Also included are some excellent rips on igntion systems for scale
model gas engines, fitting piston rings, lapping cylinders, etc.
Perhaps Mr. Fellman’s contribution will be the catalyst that
will encourage further input from our readers. Mr. Fellman is a
regular GEM advertiser, and this article should not be construed as
an advertisement, but is intended to illustrate the solution to
successful operation of model engines. Small gas engines, of say 1
or 1? HP sometimes have problems in carburetion, so when getting
down to a bore of perhaps less than 1-inch, atomizing a liquid fuel
becomes difficult. We believe this might be an innovative approach
to the problem. Here’s Leo Fellman in his own words:

Use of Propane Fuel in Operating a Model Engine

The use of a propane fuel originated with my building a 1/3
scale New Holland. I had my New Holland half built, when I found
out they were very hard to carburate using gasoline fuel as
recommended. I thought about this for some time and decided that
propane would be the answer to this problem.

Now I ran into the problem of how to hook the engine up to
propane. After spending considerable time, looking for something
that would work, I found there was nothing available on the market,
and realized that I would have to make whatever it was that I
needed. After much experimenting with all kinds and sizes of check
balls and springs, trying to make a check valve that would work for
propane, I decided I needed a diaphram operated needle and seat;
after a lot of trial and error, I got this to work, and my engine
started and ran well.

In the spring I went to the LeCenter Swap Meet, where I met a
friend, named Eddie Mittelstadt from Eldorado, Iowa. When he saw my
engine running, he told me he had one at home that he had had a
great deal of trouble with, and had never been able to get it to
run. He insisted he had to have one of these propane things, which
I later named a Flow Control Valve, with the help of Paul Breisch.
Eddie hooked the valve up to his engine and it ran very well. That
summer he made some trips to engine shows and other model builders
saw his engine running on propane and were very interested in it.
Eddie then contacted me and told me he felt there would be a market
for the Flow Control Valve. I called Paul Breisch and discussed
this with him, and he also thought there would be a market for the
valve. He told me how many New Holland kits he had sold, and then,
I too, felt there would be a market for this valve. I started to
build these valves and advertised them in a couple of gas engine
magazines. With further experimenting, I found the valve works on
other models with bore sizes from ?’ to 2′, and found they
worked well.

I owe a lot to Eddie for his encouragement and his advice. He is
the main reason that I started selling them to other model
builders.

I believe the use of propane fuel and the Flow Control Valve
adds a whole new dimension to model building. Not only have I had
the satisfaction of making my models run well, but I have been able
to help others.

In the process of selling the Flow Control Valve, I have met and
talked with other model builders throughout the United States. I
have enjoyed this very much, and consider it an added bonus.

The Flow Control Valve stops the flow of propane when there is
no demand, or when the engine is coasting. So, in a way it works
like a check valve in a gasoline set up used on some Associated
engines with the gas tank above the carburetor or mixer.

I use a Regulator made by Coleman Company. This regulator fits
right on to a 14 oz. or 16 oz. propane cylinder, and is adjustable
from 0 to 15 lbs. of pressure. The Regulator reduces the pressure
in the propane cylinder, which is way too much to work with. 5 lbs.
of pressure seems to work very well. The Regulator, 0-15 lbs.
gauge, and Flow Control Valve make a compact unit, which is easy to
hide or put in a box, I have found that you can lay the cylinder on
its side and it doesn’t seem to make a difference in the
operation of the engine.

Benefits Inherited by Using Propane Fuel

Propane will not wash the oil off the piston like gasoline will.
This makes oiling the piston easy and a lot less messy. One drop of
oil will last two to three hours, running on
7/8‘ bore like my New Holland.

If running your model engine in the house, the propane will not
give off a smell like gasoline will.

The propane cylinders are clean and neat, and don’t leak
fumes like gasoline cans, making them easier to store and
transport.

Propane will not foul up your spark plug or igniter if the
mixture is rich, or will not run out the back side of the piston,
making a real mess.

With the propane being a much cleaner fuel, your model engines
stay cleaner.

Propane makes small bores easy to carburate, as well as multiple
cylinder engines, as you don’t have to vaporize it like
gasoline, as it already is a vapor and the amount is easy to
adjust.  

Lapping Small Bores Compression

Good compression is essential to getting a model engine to run
good. (Note: There is a small volume of air to begin with, so any
loss of air is critical and will result in poor compression.)

The procedure I use for boring is as follows: (1) Rough bore
within about 0.005 of finished size, using lathe or milling
machine. (2) Using a brake cylinder hone-remove all but the last
0.001 or 0.002. (3) Lap to finished size.

How to Make an Inexpensive Homemade Lap

I have used both brass and aluminum successfully, and have read
that steel will work also.

The procedure I use for making the lap is as follows: (1) Select
a piece of metal 1′ to 2′ longer than the length of the
bore that you are making the lap for, and a little larger than the
finished bore size in diameter. (2) Chuck the piece of metal in the
lathe and turn the piece 0.002 under the rough bore size, which
should be 0.001 or 0.002 under finished size. (3) Drill and tap,
using a tapered pipe tap. The tap size will vary according to the
bore size. Put this in the end of the bar, while still chucked in
the lathe. (4) Remove from lathe and saw two slots at 90° through
the pipe tap hole (about 1′ long for a 1′ bore and 2′
long for a 2′ bore.) (5) Put the lap back in lathe, chucked at
the same position that it was turned in, so that it will run true.
Put lathe in backgearing or so it will turn slowly. Using a very
fine lapping compound on the lap, and holding the engine block by
hand (be careful) slide back and forth on lap, from time to time
adding more lapping compound, and using pipe plug to adjust size.
This is a slow process but the result is a very smooth, round, and
straight bore.

It is important to remove all the lapping compound from the
engine block, when finished. To do this, I use a tooth brush, hot
water and a liquid laundry detergent like Wisk.

Piston Rings and Piston

I have found that the ring groove width is critical, if it is
0.001 or 0.002 too wide, you will lose compression along the sides
and under the ring.

Further, I have found that one ring will hold the compression
just as well as two, if installed properly. By doing this you will
have less drag than if you use two rings.

On the 7/8‘ bore, I use about 0.003
clearance between piston and bore, which also reduces the drag.

Gas Engine Magazine
Gas Engine Magazine
Preserving the History of Internal Combustion Engines