By Staff
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23/7/9 3 HP Jackson engine
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During the past several weeks the Reflector was fortunate in
acquiring a substantial run of a German engineering journal,
Zeitschrift des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure. Covering the
1857-1920 period, this material will provide substantial insights
into engine and tractor developments on the European scene.

Unfortunately, we tend to prejudice ourselves and our own
American developments, believing that we have usually had the best
answers to these matters. The fact is, however, that much of our
farm equipment development comes, either directly or indirectly,
from European designs and European thought. Many of our early
inventors were immigrants, having already learned a trade before
leaving their homeland. While they often ‘Americanized’
their way of doing things, their designs frequently reflected
old-world design and sturdiness.

After attempting to digest some of the material in the above
journal, plus that found in Chronique Industrielle, another
engineering journal of French origins, we intend to share some of
these developments with you.

We’re still getting comments about our recent editorial on
common sense practices at the engine shows. One letter in
particular makes the point we were making, with the writer relating
of how he, his wife, and several by -standers were bespeckled by a
huge old Rumely Oil Pull which managed to belch voluminous
quantities of jet black oil from the exhaust stack. Unfortunately,
these folks have not to this day found a fabric cleaner which will
remove this stuff, and so attending this particular show was very
expensive for a good many people. You’re tired of hearing about
it, and we’re tired of hollering about it, so we’ll let the
matter rest for now by urging all of you to have a wonderful summer
at the shows, but be careful!

Our first question this month concerns a garden tractor:

23/7/1 Q. I’m restoring a Haney tractor and
was wondering if anyone has information on it. The Haney was made
in Philadelphia in the 1940’s. Uses a one-cylinder air cooled
engine, is chain driven, and has 7.50-16 traction-grip tires on the
rear. Looks like it may have been painted Allis-Chalmers orange.
Any information on these tractors will be appreciated, as will
any info on an unstyled Centaur KV tractor. Darrell Lind, RR 2, Box
198, Elizabeth, IN 47117.

A. As we’ve noted in the past, our files on
many of these small tractor companies is limited to the small
blurbs we’ve extracted from old farm magazines and the like.
Unfortunately, the Haney and Centaur both fall into the group where
we have virtually nothing on file.

23/7/2 Q. Having just purchased a 1919 IH 8-16
I would like to know the colors of the tractor. Hood, fenders, and
wheel colors. Also would like to hear from someone with an
owner’s manual for this tractor. Roger Boise, RD 1, Box 12,
New Haven, VT 05472.

A. There are a few of these tractors around,
and we hope that some other 8-16 owners will get in contact with
you-they are probably the ones that can give you the precise
information you need.

23/7/3 Q. I think I have an
‘out-of-balance’ problem with a Fairbanks-Morse 3 HP
‘Z’ engine. It is the earlier type with the Sumter dynamo
mounted above, and driven from, the large cam gear. Its rated speed
is 450 rpm. If it turns just a little bit faster it starts bouncing
the 500 pound truck it is securely fastened to. A friend of mine
has a later type 3 HP ‘Z’ rated at 475 rpm and it runs nice
and steady. I have other engines which run even faster, like the
John Deere engines, and they run nice and steady. I added a brass
washer under each of the two rod cap nuts. Is this enough to throw
it out of balance? How does one go about balancing the flywheel,
etc.? David Campbell, 3760 N.W. Entrikin Lane, Madras, OR

A. Engineers have written, and continue to
write, volumes on the matter of engine balancing. By the turn of
the century, and perhaps somewhat earlier, engineers had developed
a formula for engine balance. Unfortunately, however, the formula
includes speed as one of the factors. That’s one reason why the
engine is rated at 450 rpm, and one reason why it will get out of
balance at 500 rpm. In other words, at about 500 rpm you are
entering a critical speed, and chances are that if you ran the
engine at this speed for an extended period, you would probably
break the crank or cause other serious damage. Although it probably
isn’t very noticeable, this engine, like all others, probably
has one or two other criticals through which it passes on its way
up to the rated speed.

The whole matter of critical speeds, harmonics, and other
research on engine balancing is indeed complicated. Part of the
problem is in the fact that at the point of ignition, a vibration
takes place in the crank throw-the crank pin has a velocity faster
than that of the shaft! That’s only part of the problem;
there’s a lot of iron swinging on the crank pin, and with
changing speeds, the forces change dramatically.

In a few words, some of the old-timers had a set of weighted
clamps which they would fasten to the flywheels during the hand
balancing process. This was purely a cut-and-try affair that went
on until the mechanic was satisfied that the engine was in balance.
Bear in mind however, that these engines were balanced to run at a
specific rated speed, and while vibration usually was not
significant at lower speeds, it could become a serious
consideration at any speed higher than that stamped on the

23/7/4 Q. Can anyone identify the engine in
these photos? Any information on this engine will be
appreciated. Bill Schefter, RR 1, Box 20, Langdon, ND

A. We’re of the opinion that Nelson Bros,
might have been involved here, but we are not entirely certain

23/7/5 Q. What is the proper color for a
Rawleigh 1? HP engine similar to that shown on page 408 of American
Gas Engines? Louis Meszaros, RFD 1, Box 416, Glenfield, NY

A. Our information has the Rawleigh being a
dark brown, comparable to DuPont Dulux 93-036, and striping in a
bright blue.

23/7/6 Q. Can you give me any information on a
1? HP Royal from Royal Engine Co., Saginaw, Michigan? Larry A.
Moon, 3 Coolidge Circle, Gadsden, AL 35904.

A. The Royal was another of the many engines
built by Nelson Bros, at Saginaw. Nelson Bros, built several
different engine lines, many of them being on contract for other
companies. This makes a precise historical account of their
activities nearly impossible. In fact the Nelson Bros. engine line
was so broad that some of their instruction manuals were not
printed for a specific model, but rather were set up as a
generalized instruction manual suitable for several similar engine
lines differing primarily in the use of a different nameplate and
paint color.

23/7/7 Q. Recently I purchased a Hardy engine,
No. 5-A, made at Port Huron, Michigan. This engine is illustrated
on page 219 of American Gas Engines. My engine has been converted
to an air compressor and is missing its cylinder head, carburetor,
and ignition system. I would be most grateful for any further
information that might help in restoring this engine. It has a 3? x
4 inch bore and stroke. F.E. Curtis, c/o P.O. Merbein South,
3505, Victoria, Australia.

A. It’s certainly unusual to find one of
the engines, and we can’t help wondering how one of them
managed to get so far away from the factory. We have no parts or
information, but we wish you every success in the restoration

23/7/8 Q. I am writing in regards to a Phelps
light plant engine. I recently asked for help, but so far have had
no response. My engine is lacking a carburetor. A picture of this
engine is on page 388 of American Gas Engines, and the Pausin
engine on page 383 appears to use the same carburetor. Can anyone
identify the carburetor or tell me how to proceed? Edgar E. Wagner,
1918 Hilison Rd., Amboy, IL 61310.

A. Although we don’t believe the carburetor
in question to be a Schebler, we see no reason not to adapt one of
these to your engine. It is quite similar, and these are relatively
plentiful. Sometime in the future, the exact replacement might
appear, but in the meantime, one could have considerable enjoyment
form the engine, even though the carburetor is not original

23/7/9 Q. See the accompanying photo of a 3 HP
Jackson engine manufactured by Secord & Orr, Jackson, Michigan.
It is s/n 1221. The traces of color still remaining are green and
orange, although these may not be original. Any information on
this engine will be greatly appreciated. Clarence Hickman, P.O. Box
318, East Liverpool, OH 43920.

23/7/10 Q. Can anyone help Delmer C. Anderson
of Rt 2, Box 238, Hartford, SD 57033 identify the garden tractor in
this photo? It has an air cooled engine with Zenith carburetor,
removable intake valve and cage, brass hubs on the wheels with
ratchets. The crankcase and transmission is in the same unit. My
grandfather gave me a share of Independent Harvester Company with a
face value of $100, bought May 8, 1911. Is it worth anything?

A. The Reflector has never been proficient in
identifying garden tractors, but hopefully some of our readers can
help. Anything the Reflector had to do with stocks has usually
resulted in what the accountants call a ‘negative cash
flow.’ In other words, it’s usually been a losing
proposition! Our guess is that the Independent stock certificate
has its value as a collectible item, rather than still having a
cash value.

23/7/11 Bob King, RR 1, Princeton, Ontario N0J
1V0 Canada would like further information on restoring two engines.
One is a small vertical style with high tension battery ignition.
It was built by Scott Machine Co. Ltd., London, Canada. It is s/n
184, 1? HP, 350 rpm. The second engine is a ‘Little Tiger’
2 cycle, 2 cylinder marine engine built by Northwestern Machinery
company, Detroit, Michigan.

23/7/12 Stanley Schlintz, RR 1, Bangor, WI
54614 needs the proper color scheme for his Co-op E-3 tractor of

23/7/13 Q. Can anyone supply information on a
Kinkade garden tractor built by American Farm Machinery Company,
Minneapolis, Minnesota? Mine has one drive wheel and the
one-cylinder engine is in the middle of the wheel. Any help will be
greatly appreciated. Bob Olson, Box 52, Fort Thompson, SD

23/7/14 Q. I have a 7 or 8 HP Hercules gasoline
engine from which the nameplate has been removed. I would like to
establish, if possible, the model and a rough idea of the serial
number for this engine. It has a 5? x 9 inch bore and stroke with
34 inch flywheels, and uses an old-style Webster magneto. In
comparison against a few other Hercules and Economy engines, the
only major difference seems to be in the governor mechanism. In the
Sept. 1, 1936 parts book published by Servel, Inc., they show a
governor similar to mine for Models E, F, and G. The exceptions are
the spindle shaft on my engine has an oil hole, not a grease cup,
and there is no thrust washer behind the governor drive gear.
Any information will be appreciated. Walter H. Miller, Rt 2,
Box 229C, Butler, TN 37640.

A. We’re not sure it is possible to come
much closer to an identification than you have already done with
your previous research. The substitution of a grease cup for the
oil hole, plus the addition of the governor thrust washer seem to
indicate that your particular engine would be on the early end of
this partcular series, since the governor was a frequent source of
problems. As you know, it runs very fast, and was subjected to
considerable wear-oftentimes the gear teeth on the little governor
gear are completely chewed up. Adding a grease fitting and a thrust
washer probably obviated at least some of the problems experienced
with this design.

23/7/15 Q. I’ve just acquired an unknown
piece of iron (see photo) with no markings whatever. It is of two
cycle design, but smaller than a Maytag. Although it is badly set
up, it is virtually complete. Any clues to its identification will
be appreciated. Ralph Hendrickson, Box 55, Nineveh, NY

A. We would guess this to be a Maytag, and
perhaps a very early one. There are also possibilities that this
could be from Elgin Wheel & Engine Co., Elgin, Illinois.

23/7/16 Q. See the enclosed photo of what we
believe to be a small grain seeder. Although badly weathered, we
plan to restore it, and would appreciate any information on this
old seeder. Jesse A. Bandy, 406 N. High St., Paris, IL

A. This is indeed a ‘grass seeder’. It
was intended to broadcast small seeds-anything from bluegrass to
clover. The wheel operates a mechanism which releases the seed from
passages in the bottom of the long box. These seeders became
popular during the last half of the nineteenth century, and a great
many different companies built them, so we can’t tell you
specifically who built this particular machine. It is, however, a
scarce item nowadays.

23/7/17 Q. On page 545 of American Gas Engines
there is an illustration of a Lawson engine as built by Welch &
Lawson of New York. This unique engine has been selected by the
Utah Antique Machinery Association as their logo to be used on name
tags, newsletters, etc. I would like to build a scale model of this
engine, but could use some additional illustrations, or even some
dimensions if any of these engines still exist. Birk Petersen,
557 East 3460 North, Provo, UT 84604.

A. We’ve never heard of any Lawson engines
still existing, but if there are, we would be happy to run some
photos of this unusual design in GEM.

23/7/18 Q. See the enclosed photo of a Ball hot
tube engine, 18 HP at 200 rpm. It has an 11 x 12 inch bore and
stroke. This is a half-breed engine-one converted from a steam
engine into a gas engine many years ago. Some areas of green paint
appear. Could this be the original color? Any information on
Ball Engine Company would be appreciated. Bob Bemboom, Route 2, Box
906, 0Independence, MO 64050.

A. Quite a number of companies, particularly in
Pennsylvania, made a business of converting steam engines to gas
engines during the early 1900’s. The advent of successful gas
engines made this a natural, since ample supplies of natural gas
were present at the well heads, and this provided fuel that was
virtually free. Unfortunately, the history of most of these
companies has already been obscured by time. Their conversion kits
were more or less custom made; that is, the cylinder mountings for
say a Skinner steam engine were no doubt different than those of a
Porter steam engine. As technology improved and prices stabilized
for gas engines, the conversion technique probably was no longer
cost effective and was abandoned.

23/7/19 Q. The old manure spreader in these two
photos is a basket case, but I’m interested in learning
everything possible about it so it can be restored. Any clues as to
maker, year built, etc., will be appreciated. Granville N.
Rideout, 207 Gabe Rd., Ashburnham, MA 01430.

A. We’re not sure of the ancestry for this
spreader, although we are fairly certain it was not built by Kemp
or IHC. A lot of companies got into this business about 1900, and
we would guess that your spreader is of 1900-1915 vintage.

23/7/20 Q. What color combination was used on
the cast center wheel hubs and also the rims on the Oliver Model 70
row crop tractors? I think the hubs were green, but not sure at all
on the rims. Ed Ellis, 980 Peavy Road, Howell, MI

A. As a youngster, we had a neighbor with one
of these; it had Oliver-Hart-Parr cast into the radiator. The
skeleton wheels were all green except for the rims which were the
same orange as the stripe on the front of the radiator. Right after
World War II it was converted to rubber-it would have been changed
over sooner if the tires had been available! The Oliver 70 was the
only tractor on that 200 acre farm. Our adjoining 200 acres was
farmed with a single John Deere styled A tractor. One thing stands
out in my memory-the John Deere dealer didn’t have to come and
fix our tractor nearly so often as the Oliver dealer was out fixing
up the Oliver 70.


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Preserving the History of Internal Combustion Engines