REFLECTIONS

By Staff
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Fig. 1: The Inclined Plane Cam.
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31/8/8C
3 / 21
31/8/8B
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5 / 21
6 / 21
31/8/13B
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31/8/13 A
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31/8/13C
9 / 21
31/8/17
10 / 21
31/8/20
11 / 21
31/8/19
12 / 21
Fig. 2: The Tangent Cam.
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MM-1
14 / 21
MM-2
15 / 21
Fig. 3: The Mushroom Cam.
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Fig. 4: A Constant Acceleration Cam.
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31/8/3B
18 / 21
31/8/3A
19 / 21
31/8/3C
20 / 21
31/8/5
21 / 21
31/8/8A

In this issue you’ll find a full page ad regarding our tour
to Australia next February and March. As you’ll note from the
ad, the folks in Australia are certainly setting out the welcome
mat.

This writer has long entertained the notion of going to
Australia (and New Zealand). Some parts of this world we have no
interest in whatever, but for some reason Australia has always held
a bit of fascination. We’re told that lots of folks who visit
New Zealand find it so beautiful that they want to live there!
Anyway, we’ve initially set things up for an entourage of 80
people, and from the queries we’ve already had, we look for
this tour to sell out quickly. Thus, if you’re at all
interested, write or call for the tour brochure and booking
forms.

Have you ever wondered about the various cam gears used on
engines? Looking at different engines at a show, you’ll see
many kinds of cam gears. All cams of course, are a function of the
inclined plane, which we all learned about in school, and as is
shown in Figure 1. However, the most commonly used cam on gas
engines is the tangent or properly, the tangential cam, shown in
Figure 2. Especially for the benefit of model makers, simple
directions for laying out this cam are as follows:

First, draw out the base circle, B. Usually this is three or
four times the lift of the valve; if the valve has a lift
of  1/2 inch, then the base circle will
be 1 1/2 to 2 inches. Now, outside of the
base circle, draw another circle that represents the clearance
between the cam and the push rod roller. This is usually about
1/64 of an inch.

The next step is to draw two radii representing the angle of the
valve opening. Figure 2 shows a design of 116 degrees, which is
about ordinary for most gas engines. The cam is operating at half
the crankshaft speed, so this gives 232 degrees of crank travel.
From the two points where the radii cut the cam circle, draw
tangents as shown. Finally draw the arc D across these tangents at
a height which equals the valve lift. The corners of these lines
are usually rounded. The points where the roller R begins and
leaves the cam circle are shown at R in Figure 2.

A few engines having a symmetrical cam (a cam which is the same
on both sides of its center), may be reversed. For instance,
we’ve seen several Galloway engines that were reversed, mainly
for a curiosity, at the shows. This is possible only when the cam
is symmetrical. On engines where another small lobe has been added
for the purpose of operating an ignition timer or other device,
reversing the engine may not be possible.

Figure 3 shows a mushroom cam. It was intended to minimize the
sudden starting and stopping of the push rod by the tangential
design. For example, the tangential cam in Figure 2 raises the
roller to its full lift in only about fifty degrees, remaining
there through 16 degrees, and suddenly closing in fifty degrees
(for a total of 116 degrees). In many cases the cam works against a
roller carried by a bell crank. If it acts directly on a push rod
or the valve itself, it does so through a large mushroom head on
the pushrod. Some engines, such as the Cushman verticals, use a
valve lifter with a large mushroom head. The cam operates on one
edge of the lifter so that the cam tends to turn the lifter each
time for even wear on the lifter.

The constant acceleration cam is shown in Figure 4. This style
has been applied more or less to automotive engines, rather than
the ordinary gas engine. As its name implies, the acceleration and
deceleration of the cam are at a fairly constant speed, with the
cam dwell being an inherent part of the design.

A few engines use a face cam that operates on the face of a flat
disk. We’ve even seen the lifting portion of the cam to be
riveted in place on the face of the disk. Apparently, this part of
the cam was handmade. However, in a few others, we’ve noticed
that the cam is an iron casting.

When cams are used for ignition, especially make-and-break
ignition, it is usually a requirement that at some point the
pushrod be permitted to suddenly drop off the cam so that a loaded
spring can actuate the hammer in the ignitor and create a spark.
When this portion of the mechanism becomes worn, with consequent
sluggish action, some careful work is needed to restore these parts
to original condition.

A very interesting valve gear mechanism was used on the Monitor
horizontal engines. Both the intake and the exhaust valve are
mechanically operated. A single cam operates both lifters by an
ingenious arrangement of the cam rollers. A heavy spring on the
back side of the valve keeps the rollers in constant contact with
the cam.

There are many unusual valve gear mechanisms, and it would
probably be safe to say that more patents were issued on this
portion of the engine mechanism than for any other. However, for
simplicity and durability, the plain old tangential cam we
discussed in Figure 2 was by far the most popular.

Our queries this month begin with:

31/8/1 Dan Patch & Dazzle Patch Q. At
various times you have commented that you haven’t found much of
anything on the Dan Patch and Dazzle Patch engines. I’ve been
corresponding with some people on these engines, and have
accumulated a small file of material on them. From the
Spring-Summer 1921 and the Fall-Winter 1930-31 catalogs of M. W.
Savage Co. I have found some pictures of these engines. I would be
very interested in corresponding with other folks having
information on the Dan Patch and Dazzle Patch.

I also have some information on the Bates & Edmonds vertical
engine, and would be most interested in corresponding further with
others having any information on this model.

I will answer all letters regarding any of the above engines.
James L. Johnson ,4115 S. 298th Ct., Auburn, WA 98001.

31/8/2 Some Good Ideas

Here are some ideas I have come up with, and I would like to
pass them on:

1) Need a small hot battery? Use the 9.6 volt battery from
your cordless drill. Bend some terminal lugs to fit down in recess
of batters. Insulate well so they don’t short out.

2)  Had a cork carburetor float go bad with our
reformulated gas? Dip float a couple times in gas tank sealer.

3)  Need a spark plug cleaner brush? A ready-made one is a
1/2‘ copper tube fitting cleaning
brush.

4)  Starting a new engine? Use a battery charger with an
ammeter. If your timer or igniter trip properly, the needle will
move.

John Davidson, PO Box 4, Bristol, WI 53104.

31/8/3 Information Wanted Q. See photos 3A and
3B of an old carburetor made in Indianapolis. I can only partially
make out the words preceding ‘Carburetor Co.’ and they are
something like LANOSE H KAMP LIHKERT. Can anyone tell me what this
really says, how old it is, and on what engine it was used? It is
bolted to what appears to be part of an engine manifold, with a
rubber seated one way valve in it.

Photo 3C shows a Model R engine from Ideal Lawn Mower Co.,
Lansing, Michigan, s/n 10636. I understand these were made to run
self-propelled lawn mowers. I would like additional information on
this engine. It has roller bearing mains, but several parts are
missing. Woody Sins, 3 Edna Ter., New Hartford, NY 13413.

A. None of our listings are able to give you
any help on the carburetor. The Ideal Power Lawn Mower was fairly
popular in its time, and a fair number of the Ideal engines are
still in existence. Perhaps some of our readers may be of help on
your questions.

31/8/4 Leader Tractor

Q. I recently purchased a Leader tractor, made
at Chagrin Falls, Ohio. However, Leader Tractor Co. is also
referred to at Cleveland, Ohio. Is this the same company? My
tractor is a Model D, and I would like to know when it was built,
and the location of the serial number.

My second question on the Leader concerns the wheels. I have
seen these tractors at shows with a) square wheel center pieces on
front and rear wheels; b) square wheel center pieces on front, and
a full dish center on rear; c) full dish center on both the front
and rear. Which is correct? Any information will be greatly
appreciated. J.R. Cox, 10009 Seminole Rd., Mechanicsville, VA
23111.

A. So far as we know, it was the same company
in response to your first question. To the second, we would suggest
that various wheel configurations were used in the course of
production. Perhaps there are some folks who have more closely
researched this company and can provide specific information.

31/8/5 Unidentified Engine See the photo of an
engine I am restoring. The name plate has rusted away, and I would
like to know the make, horsepower, and other information, such as
the original magneto. It has a Zenith AA79 carburetor, with a tag
marked 5-3 on the side of the cylinder. It appears to have been
military green, and has a clutch with two chain sprockets exactly
like the one pictured on the bottom of page 463 in American Gas
Engines. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Rob Coyle,
2090 Keokuk St., Lot 71, Hamilton, IL 62341-1200.

31/8/6 Data Needed I would like to know the
year built of the following engines: Sattley
11/2 HP, s/n 65854; Fairbanks-Morse 3 HP, s/n
599232; McCormick-Deering 11/2 HP, Type M,
s/n W68643; John Deere 11/2 HP, s/n 261790;
Robert O. Bergstrom, 3701 Hawk Rd., White Swan, WA 98952.

A. In order: no information, 1924, 1928,
1926.

31/8/7 Kewanee Water Supply Co. Q. My most
recent acquisition is a 2.5 HP engine from Kewanee Water Supply
Co., Kewanee, Illinois, Type 6, No. 325. Several years ago we were
able to determine that production of this engine began about 1905.
I’m in need of any information on this engine, including its
original color scheme, the type of cooling tank (if any) and all
information will be greatly appreciated. I am also looking for
additional information and color scheme for a Foos Type J, 2.5 HP
engine with raised lettering on the hopper. Scott Denman, 9335 SW
Birdie, Cornelius, OR 97113.

31/8/8 IHC Engines Q. See the photos of two IHC
portables I am helping the separate owners to restore. One is a 10
HP, s/n EF816, built in 1916 (from your Notebook), and the other is
a 6 HP, s/n HH188, built in 1913. I have looked at the photos in
American Gasoline Engines Since 1872, as well as in your book, 150
Years of International Harvester, and we have been trying to find
out if these engines belong to a particular line, such as Titan,
Famous ,etc, or if they were simply sold as portable engines.

Quite a few enthusiasts here tend to call any IHC horizontal of
this era a ‘Famous’ but I am not so sure. I felt the 6 HP
looked like a Titan from comparing photos, but this is just a
guess.

Any information from anyone would be greatly appreciated. Gerry
Scells, PO Box 37, Collinsville, QLD 4804, Australia.

A. Titan engines were sold by Deering implement
dealers, and Mogul engines were sold by McCormick dealers.
We’ve never figured out where the Famous fits in, although it
was made at Milwaukee Works, and that’s where the Titan line
was built. Also, the s/n lists in your situation only list these as
portables, while there are others that are designated as Nonpareil,
Victor, etc. Even after many years of research we haven’t
unknotted this one; perhaps someone else has the answer.

31/8/9 F-M Information Q. I have a
Fairbanks-Morse ZC engine, s/n 894942. Is this a 3 HP? Also can you
give me the year and color? Any information would be very helpful.
David Kroeger, Rt 1, Box 135, Blackduck, UN 56630.

A. Your engine was made in 1947, but from the
s/n we can’t tell the HP. The recommended Green is DuPont
72001.

31/8/10 Water Ram Q. I am seeking information
about a W. & B. Douglas No. 4 water ram, built by this firm at
Middletown, Conn. Anything at all would be appreciated. William
Lape, N7153 Harris Rd., Burlington, WI 53105.

31/8/11 Witte Information Q. Can you tell me
the year built of a Witte engine, s/n 23797? Jim Griffin, RD1, Box
616, Sangerville, ME 04479.

A. Your engine was made in 1915.

31/8/12 Electric Plant Q. See the photo of an
electric plant sold by Sears & Roebuck. There’s no
nameplate on the engine, but it appears to be a Stover DV2. The
generator nameplate says ‘Powermaster’ and references Sears
parts numbers. The radiator top tank says U.S. Motors. Does anyone
have further information on this unit, particularly the wiring
diagram?

I also have a 6.3 kva Navy generator set that was made by the
Master Vibrator Co., Dayton, Ohio, in 1943. The engine is a
Wisconsin V-4. It appears that this unit never made it into service
and has sat around all these years. I am in the process of trying
to get a manual for this unit from the Navy Department. Richard
Vander-poel, 1 Musket Trail, Bloomfield, CT 06002.

31/8/13 La Machine Agricole Q. See the three
photos of a 4 HP engine with the following nameplate data:
‘National’ ‘ Type A, Manufactured By La Machine
Agricole Nationals Limitee, National Farming Machinery Limited,
Montmagny, Quebec, Canada s/n 598X. I would like to find any
information possible on this engine. Bernie Blakney, 578 Davidson
Rd., Cleveland, GA 30528.

31/8/14 Planet Jr. The New Jersey Museum of
Agriculture, PO Box 7788, North Brunswick, NJ 08902-7788 writes
regarding the S. L. Allen Company:

Samuel Allen was a farmer in Cinnaminson, New Jersey, and
developed a seeder. Since it resembled a planet, it was given the
name, ‘Planet Jr.’ He expanded the line to include all
kinds of hand and horse drawn cultivators and finally, gas powered
garden tractors. He built a factory in Philadelphia and at this
factory he also made cultivator teeth that were used on many
different cultivators.

Farm items were made during the winter, and to keep the factory
busy in summer, he developed the ‘Flexible Flyer’ which was
a steerable sled.

At the museum, among our many Planet Jr. items, we also have a
4-wheeled Planet Jr. Tractor, which may be the only one in
existence, since it never went into production.

31/8/15 Monitor Engine Q. I have a Monitor
engine, 5 HP horizontal, Type HJ, s/n 15353. It is shown on page
45, middle left of American Gas Engines. It is all original. Is
there any way to date this engine? Jake Schmidt, 2986 Ridge Rd.,
West Bend, WI 53095.

A. We know of no way to date this engine.

31/8/16 Information Needed Q. Can you supply
information on the following engines:

Witte 2 HP, s/n B22306

Witte 4 HP, s/n 48888

United 6 HP, s/n 600742

What is the correct color for the United?

Also do you have further information on the Miami engine as
shown on page 305, upper right comer of American Gas Engines? I
believe it is 6 HP. Jim & Laura Ashmore, 36 Lane Barn Rd.,
Avella, PA 15312.

A. The 2 HP was made in 1923, and the 4 HP in
1920. There is no s/n information on the United. The color scheme
is the same as for the Associated; see page 64 of Wendel’s
Notebook, Third Edition.

31/8/17 What Is It?. Q. Can anyone identify the
implement shown in the photo? It has two diagonal blades lying
parallel to the ground in a V-formation. Two levers, one adjusts
the pitch of the blades, and the other the depth of operation, It
appears to have been horse-drawn. Raymond Wickham, 628 Broadway,
Box 402, Dumont, IA 50625.

31/8/18 Iowa Gas Engine Q. John R. Heath, 494
Twp Rd 232, Sullivan, OH 44880 writes: I was looking through an
Iron Men Album magazine, going back to Jan-Feb 1962, and discovered
a picture and article about the Iowa Gas Engine Co. At the time
this engine was owned by John Miller at LaPorte City, Iowa.

I’m also looking for an owners manual or parts book for an
IHC 8-inch burr mill.

A. That fine old engine is now in the Kenneth
Kass Collection at Dunkerton, Iowa. John’s rendition of its
history is quite accurate. Unfortunately we didn’t have the
information at hand when we compiled the book, American Gas
Engines.

31/8/19 Olds Engines Q. I have always had a
strong interest in Olds engines and have tried to study various
aspects of their history. I would like to find information on two
orphans: the 13/4 HP Olds shown in the photo,
as well as for a 1 HP Workwell engine. Does anyone have any
information at all on either of these engines? I would also like to
know if anyone has a set of the drawings for the
1/4 HP Carlisle & Finch engine. They were
sold as a mechanics kit, and I have an unfinished one. Leonard
Spoelman, 3221 Brookshire SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49508.

31/8/20 Marine Engines Q. I need information on
three marine engines:

Hubbard, s/n 5848, built in Middletown, Conn. Single cylinder,
two-cycle, low tension igniter.

Gile (see photo) s/n 2155, built in Ludington, Michigan, single
cylinder, two cycle.

United States Marine Engine, Model No. OK-3, s/n 97849, built in
Oshkosh, Wisconsin, throttle governed, four cycle. This engine was
built with a Paragon reverse gear, also known as a Joe’s gear
box. Any information, especially on the Paragon reverse, will be
gready appreciated, and all letters will be answered. Charles N.
Franklin, 28 Sarfan Dr., Hampton, VA 23664.

Modelmakers Corner

Jay A. Peters of Breisch/Peters, 14 Maria Lane, Schwenksville,
PA 19473 announces that his firm has extended the range of kits to
include the Upshur Farm Engine, Flame Licker, the Nanzy, and the
Domestic Hopper Cooled in addition to their other models. Some of
these are designed with simplicity in mind, and can be completed
with only a lathe and a drill press. All materials necessary to
build are included in the kits.

Don Achen, 28223 Hwy 52, Bellevue, IA 52031 sends along some
photos, MM1 and MM2, of recently completed models. MM-1 shows a
Waterloo Boy 1/3 scale from a 1917 model. It
is entirely fabricated with the exception of the flywheels and a
few fittings. MM-2 illustrates a four-cycle hit-and- miss engine
from the 1/3 scale Iowa castings. It uses a
belt-driven governor and screen cooling.

A Closing Word

By the time this copy is in your hands in early July, we’ll
have completed what we now anticipate, namely, a tour through
England, Scotland, and Wales. Of course, as we assemble this column
in early June, the usual deadlines are nipping at our tail as we
hurriedly go about all those last minute details required prior to
going on an overseas trip. Fortunately, only a passport is required
for travel to England, so there’s no need to fuss over getting
a visa. By the way, when you get your tour information on
Australia, a visa is required, as well as a passport.

You’ll notice in the Nixon Auction listings that Jim
Patton’s auction will be in September, with a full listing
coming up in the future. This will be quite an auction we believe,
and many of you already know about the fine restorations that Jim
made over the years.

Meanwhile, out here in Iowa, it seems like it can rain from a
clear sky, so there are lots of flooded fields, and farmers are way
behind in their work. If the past is any indicator, by the time the
August issue is in your hands (in early July), it’ll probably
be hotter’n’blazes and dry as a bone.

On a closing note, ye old Reflector has spent some time recently
on a big Steiger ST-310 with the big Cummins six-cylinder diesel.
It’s pulling a dirt scraper, and with our love of engines, we
just have to report to you that the stack music off that big engine
is sweet music indeed! On a much smaller note, our old Cat No. 12
grader makes some pretty nice music of its own. We’ve never
figured out for sure why ‘Cat-skinners’ have such a love
for Caterpillars, to the total dislike of almost anything else.
However we’ve got a theory … it’s the sound of that good
ol’ six-cylinder engine!

On yet a final note, we’ve added a page from a Galloway
advertisement of about 1910 or 1912 (it has no date) showing the
Galloway ’25’ automobile. We’re truly of the opinion
that if it hadn’t been for rear axle problems in the early
Galloway cars, this one might well have been a serious competitor
in the automobile business. On reading the fine print, there’s
no doubt that Bill Galloway was the consummate sales-man! Galloway
was eminently successful in selling manure spreaders, cream
separators, and gas engines. Had he been as fortunate in the
automobile business, and had he stayed out of the tractor business,
the Galloway story might have been entirely different.

Gas Engine Magazine
Gas Engine Magazine
Preserving the History of Internal Combustion Engines