1 / 10
2 / 10
3 / 10
Figure 3-Extending the Spout of an Oil Can
4 / 10
5 / 10
6 / 10
7 / 10
8 / 10
9 / 10
Figure 2-Tensioning Device
10 / 10
Figure 1-Spring Winding Device showing Arbor Bushes detailed.

24/4/30 Unidentified spader Q. The old and
rusty machine shown in the photo has part numbers on the castings,
but there is no name or logo to be found. So far I don’t have a
clue as to the manufacturer, and would appreciate hearing from
anyone who can help. Frank Hunt, 8205 N. Middle Road, Morris,
IL 60450.

24/4/31 Bowsher grinders Q. Recently we
acquired a grinder with the following data: N. P. Bowsher Co.,
South Bend, Indiana, Pat. 8 December 1903, No. 30. Any information
will be appreciated. Mike Mikel, RR 1, Bynum, TX

A. Bowsher was a well-known manufacturer of
feed grinders and other equipment. The patent referred to is
746,275 issued to Jay P. Bowsher of South Bend. This patent,
however, covers a mill having a vertical shaft with the burrs
situated at the bottom and receiving grain from a cone -hopper
above them.

24/4/32 Associated pump engine Q. I recently
acquired an old pump engine built by Associated Mfrs., Waterloo,
Iowa, s/n 413,175, 4 HP. The flywheels are 26 ? inches across. Any
, information will be appreciated. Barry Bysterveld, Box 343,
Delburne, Alberta T0M 0V0 Canada.

A. We weren’t aware of an Associated
pumping engine of that size, so if you could forward a photo,
we’ll be glad to include it in a future column.

24/4/33 Harry Lowther tractors Q. In reading
your Encyclopedia of American Farm Tractors, I was wondering if you
could tell me the connection between the Custom built by Harry
Lowther Co. of Shelbyville, Indiana and the Jumbo built by Jumbo
Steel Products, Azusa, California. They bear many similarities to
the Ward’s tractor sold by Montgomery Ward. Were these tractors
built by the same company?

Do you have any information on the Lehr and David Bradley
tractors? I have been told that these two and perhaps the Wards
were built by the same people.

How about the Empire State tractor built in New York state? I
believe it was built on a jeep frame with a Jeep engine and
transmission. Any information will be appreciated. Virgil
Gordon, 1114 S. McKinley, Freeport, IL 61032.

A. You raise some interesting questions, none
of which we have ever resolved completely. Particularly regarding
the Lowther tractor, perhaps someone can supply additional

24/4/34 WD-45 Diesels Q. See the photo of my
restored WD-45 6 cylinder diesel tractor. The serial listings I
have seen on the WD-45 do not seem to separate the diesels from the
gasoline models, and I would like to know how many of the diesels
were built. Any information will be appreciated. My diesel is s/n
202618. Charles Kezar, RR 1, Box 2, North Berwick, ME

A. Unfortunately, we have no separate serial
number listing for the WD-45 diesels. Perhaps one of our readers
might have this information.

24/4/35 Leader tractors Q. My main field of
interest is Leader tractors. At the present I have two of them.
They were manufactured at Chagrin Falls, Ohio in the late
1940’s. The original color was red. There seems to be a great
shortage of parts and information on these tractors, so if anyone
knows where I might find same I would appreciate hearing from them.
Thomas R. Howard, RR 1, Box 70, Advance, NC 27006

24/4/36 Advance Thresher Co. David W. Kemler,
1151 Deja Rd. NE, Stanton, MI 48888 is compiling a commemorative
history of Advance Thresher Co. for their 1989 engine show. Send
any useful information to Mr. Kemler at the above address.

24/4/37 Oliver 70 Q. What is the year built of
an Oliver 70 tractor, s/n 262042. It has iron rear wheels and
rubber front wheels. Would also like to correspond with anyone who
can tell me how to replace the 12 volt battery system with the
original 6 volt system. Glenn Burroughs, 317 Hunting Lane,
Goode, VA 24556.

A. Your tractor was built in 1947.

24/4/38 Holm’s Governor Patent Q. Regarding
the Holm patent of American Gas Engines, I was wondering why so
many different engines used this governor if it was covered under
the Holm patent of 1910. Would this mean that all the gas engines
equipped with this kind of governor could not have been made prior
to this date, about 1911? Rolland Lapine, 61 Rte 143 North,
Hatley, Quebec J0B 2C0 Canada.

A. You pose an interesting question, but one
that can be answered, albeit perhaps with some difficulty. Having
studied many different U.S. Patents over the years, it becomes
evident that many designs were so similar in exterior appearance as
to give one the impression that they were in fact the same. In the
case here, Holm patented certain elements of an overall design, or
to put it another way, patented improvements on a design that
perhaps might already have been in existence. It does not mean that
this type of governor system did not exist prior to 1911, that
patent only means that this . very specific design was granted
Letters Patent on a specific date. It is entirely possible that
someone else may have made a similar design but either did not know
of the Holm patent or did not care to challenge it by filing an
interference. A great many early inventors held the patent system
in low regard and refused to have anything to do with it.
Unfortunately, these same people were sometimes challenged by
entrepreneurs who seized on the same idea, got a patent, and
actually forced the original designer to cease and desist from
further activity. The role of the patents in relation to certain
technological developments is one that is very rich in history, and
from them one can often derive a good deal of information about
people, companies, and designs. For instance, from the application
date one can infer the earliest date that a product might have been
built, at least to some degree. The date the patent was granted is
less relative, since several years sometimes ensued between
application and granting dates.

24/4/39 Scripps Marine Engines Contrary to the
comment in American Gas Engines that Scripps Motor Company is out
of business, I have the following to offer: The company is not
dead. The Scripps Motor Company started both the Scripps-Booth Car
Company and the Scripps Marine Engine Co. in 1907. The last engines
were built in the late 1950’s. I bought the company in 1962 and
have been rebuilding and selling parts since that time for the
Scripps, along with other obsolete marine engines. Peter
Henkel, Inc., 7650 South Channel Drive, Harsens Island, Ml

We’re happy to hear that Scripps is still in operation, and
hope that Mr. Henkel might favor us with photos and history of the
company at his convenience.

Planet Jr. Questions. These are now owned and
made by Powell/Cole. Address questions to Powell Manufacturing
Company Inc., P.O. Drawer 707, Bennettsville, SC

24/1/64 Letz Mfg. Co. Letz was sold to a
liquidator and not to John Deere. Mr. A. Elmer Criley worked for
Letz beginning in 1927 and is most knowledgeable on Letz mills. His
address is Box 181, Green wood, NE 68366.


24/1/29 Reeves engine. Clark Colby of
Coolspring Power Museum, Coolspring, PA 15730 writes: ‘Mr.
Hardman is encouraged to visit our museum to study our similar 2
cylinder Reeves engine, learn about its history, and see it

Mr. Colby also responds to:

24/1/61B engine. The engine in this picture
appears to be an unusual, probably late model of a Witte Diesel
electric plant.

A third response from Mr. Colby:

24/1/61 Stover Acro System. Isn’t the
recessed-in piston precombustion chamber of the John Deere
‘R’ similar to the Acro system you describe in the Stover

The Reflector answers: Lang’s Acro system for diesels used
the piston head as a precombustion chamber in a much different
manner. In the case of Stover diesels, the piston head is
funnel-shaped, and has a hole of about ? inch diameter in the
center. This hole reaches into a hollow chamber which in
cross-section looks about like a ‘Figure 8’. The Deere
piston is simply recessed and, although we have not studied the
rest of the cylinder and head design, we presume it was intended to
provide the necessary turbulence. By the way, the Acro system gave
way by 1940 to the vastly improved Lanova system which remained on
the market for many years. Last but not least, thanks to Mr. Colby
for his several responses.

24/1/13 Sears & Roebuck tractors. The color
was similar to Massey-Harris, but not quite as bright as IHC red.
It came out in 1938 and was also available in 1939. It was marketed
through Sears Farm Stores and through the Sears catalog. It was
also available through a Graham auto dealer that had the
Graham-Bradley tractor franchise. To the best of my knowledge it
gained its name by being powered by Graham and assembled by the
Sears Farm Division at Bradley, Illinois (home of David Bradley
implements). The four-speed transmission gave a selection of 2.4,
4.5,’ 6.0, and 20.0 mph, plus a reverse. The unique part of the
tractor was a lever under the seat that disengaged the rear end and
produced four speeds plus reverse on the belt pulley. The theory
was that on certain machines such as a silo filler, you could run
it in reverse to unplug it. Another big feature was the cast iron
grille with which you were supposed to be able to push a wagon from
the rear, or similar duties. It was available in tricycle and
standard tread design, rated at 32 HP, and used a 6 volt electric
system. The 3? x 4 3/8 inch L-head engine was rated at 1500 rpm.
The last Graham car was built in 1941 and Graham-Paige became a
part of Kaiser-Frazer after the was.

Sears also did market a tractor called the Economy during this
same time period. It was a tricycle type and from a distance it
would pass for an F-12 Farmall. The Economy had a channel frame and
large 10 x 36 or 10 x 38 wheels. Numerous attachments were
available from Sears. Everything was supplied but the engine and
transmission. You were to supply your own Ford Model A engine for a
cheap lightweight tractor.

Sears also supplied an attachment in the mid-1930’s called a
Thrifty Farmer. It attached to a Model T or Model A Ford car frame.
This had a small open pinion gear which mounted on the ends of a
car axle which drove a large open ring gear. It sold for $79.50 and
weighed 1,000 pounds. Lloyd C. Conrad, 10500 W. Carpenter Ave.,
Greenfield, WI 53228.

Whitman Tread Power. Back in the Spring I wrote
you about my treadmill that appeared in the April 1988 GEM. So far
I haven’t gotten any response on it, but here is a picture of
it in operation (see RW-1). Paul Reno, 3254 Kansas St., Oakland, CA

On Making Head Gaskets. The article ‘Making
Cylinder Head Gaskets’ by Max Homfeld in the February 1989 GEM
should not have been published. Inhaled particles of asbestos are
extremely dangerous to your health. Drilling and sawing asbestos
material as written in this article will certainly produce airborne
particles of asbestos. Mechanics unknowingly will assume this
procedure is okay after reading this article, not only endangering
themselves but their families and anyone entering their shop or
work place.

An article should be published as soon as possible on the danger
of airborne particles of asbestos, including the cleaning of flange
faces of cylinder heads, manifolds and cylinder blocks that were in
contact with asbestos. Otto Olson, 9955 Logren Road, Bainbridge
Isl., WA 98110.

24/2/19 Deering mower. IHC bought or merged
with Deering. Many models of the machinery planned were carried
over, produced, and made for repair parts. IHC took over Milwaukee

On another point, I have been helped by many who have forwarded
information to me. Also, I have helped many who have asked for
information but never got a thank you for helping. My point is that
a person gets nowhere without friends, and who knows when they will
need information?

As an example, the late George Neal was a personal friend, and
his passing will be felt by many. He was a good provider of
information, and it was men like him who helped the hobby. Perry C.
Willis, RD 3, Columbus Rd NE, Louisville, OH 44641.

For further information on IHC and its development, readers are
invited to consult the book 150 Years of International Harvester.
It contains much of the historical information on the formation of
the company and illustrates many of the earlier machines. We also
encourage readers who receive a response to a query to please be so
kind as to send a ‘thank you’ for helping out. We
couldn’t agree more regarding George Neal. The Reflector never
met Mr. Neal personally, but visited with him by phone many, many
times. Through the years George Neal helped this writer time and
again, and his efforts will be long remembered!

24/2/3 Buffalo engine. Per this query, we
enclose a photo of our 1908 3 HP Buffalo engine. It is’ 4
cycle, s/n 133, and is now installed in an 1887 launch that my wife
and I restored (see RW-2). John H. Wells, RR 4, Box 422, Canton, NY

Cork Float Replacement. For Ensign and
International carburetors as used on McCormick-Deering 10-20,
15-30, 22-36, and Farmall Regular, use a Briggs & Stratton Part
No. 99333 for larger carburetors and 299707 for smaller ones. The
original cork float arm or lever can be easily soldered on these
Briggs floats to fit nicely. The B & S float lever assembly can
be melted off. W. G. Deweese, 2206 Mecca Dr., Nashville, TN

24/1/61 Yukon Territory. In answer to Ralph
Najarian’s inquiry, I can only comment on the Standard Gas
Engine Co. at Jakes Corners, Y. T. On page 477 of American Gas
Engines is an engine that looks very much like the one in 24/1/61

I can give exact information on 24/1/61B. The ‘little
complex’ at Boundary, Alaska, better known locally as Boundary
Lodge, at the time Mr. Najarian was there, was owned by Al Gartz
and David Glover, both of Delta Junction, Alaska. The
engine/generator unit is a 9 kw Witte and never missed a beat all
summer except to change oil. Due to lack of business after the road
to Dawson, Y.T. closes for the winter, the lodge has now reverted
to the original owner and the Witte is in Delta Junction at David
Glover’s place. David ,has several of these units. In case
anyone is interested, contact David Glover, Box 402, Delta
Junction, Alaska 99737. Hope this information is of help. Leigh
B. Dennison, Box 873, Delta Junction, Alaska 99737.

24/1/28 Dressing Stone Buhrs. In reference to
this question, I have a Meadows mill made by Meadows Mill Company
Inc., North Wilkesboro, NC, nd have been fortunate enough to
receive operating instructions that include a section on dressing
stones. David Honbarger Jr., RR 7, Box 287D, Salisbury, NC

24/1/42 Monitor engine. The engine in question
here is a Little Monitor one horsepower engine. Donald
Richardson, 2511 4th Drive SW, Austin, MN 55912.

24/1/55 and 22/1/15 Fairbanks-Morse. See RW-3
and RW-4 for the type of decal used on the Fairbanks-Morse
‘Z’ Type C engines.

The above three responses were sent in by Sam Morrison, P.O.
Box 12-224, Denver, CO 80212.

Reproduction nameplates. Several letters came
in on this matter, and so far we have the following list of people
who have reproduction nameplates. We don’t claim this list
includes everyone, so if you make plates and your name isn’t
listed, please don’t get all upset about, but send along the
information, and we’ll be glad to include it in the column.
Here’s what we have so far:

Kinsinger Engine Service, Meyersdale, PA 15552, offers about all
the nameplates for McCormick-Deering engines and tractors, and can
get others made if a pattern is supplied.

D.T. Kedinger, Waupun Depot, W9494 Hwy 103, Waupun, WI 53963,
supplies nameplates to order.

Starbolt Engine Supplies, 3403 Buckeystown Pike, Adamstown, MD

Junkers Diesel Engines. As noted earlier in the
column, we are still getting letters on the Junkers Diesel engine.
So far we haven’t heard of anyone who has a one-cylinder model,
but several people have sent along photos and information on the
multi-cylinder styles that were widely, used in German aircraft,
especially the ‘Jumo’ design. Some were said to have been
used in trucks during the 1920’s. One writer noted that these
two-cylinder diesels with multiple cylinders made a ‘godawful
noise’ when used in a plane.

Mr. M. Hooijberg, Westdijk 12, 1463 PA Beemster, Holland
forwarded a most interesting letter in regard to the Junkers
design, and a cross-sectional view is shown in RW-5. He comments
that in his searching about for old engines, he does not know of
and has never seen one of these engines.

Mr. Hooijberg is also looking for a wiring diagram and
instructions on a Homelite electric generator of WW II vintage, and
rated at 30 volts and 50 amps. Since it was made for the U.S.
military, Homelite has no information on it.

A.  Zuiger
B.  Zuiger
C.  Drijfstang
D.  Verstuiver
E.  Uitlaatpoort
F.  Spoelpoort
G.  Spoelpompruiger
H. Ruimte
K. Zuigklep
L. Persklep


Ken Hollerbeck, whose name is previously noted in the column,
sends along a suggestion that someone develop a spring kit suitable
for the modelmaker. This might include a variety of the small
springs needed for model work, and which are not usually available
at hardware stores.

In answer to the above letter, and for the benefit of our
readers, we include herewith a design for a small spring-winding
device. The original article appeared in the April 15, 1926 edition
of Machinery Magazine, not the usual American version, but the
English version as published in London.

The winding part of the device is shown in Fig. 1. It consists
of a bearing frame made of flat bar that is bent to a U-shape as
shown. The spindle is a piece of 5/8 inch
cold rolled and it is held in position by the hand wheel and collar
as indicated. A 3/16 inch hole is bored in the end to take the
largest arbor required. The arbor is clamped directly in the hole
in the spindle, but the resulting wobble causes no problem. Smaller
arbors, down to 0.020′, are held in the clamping bushings
detailed in the drawing. When using very small arbors, clamp the
end of the spring wire under the nut as shown in Fig. 1, but for
larger sizes drill a hole in the arbor as shown in Fig. 2. Putting
the end of the wire through the hole is sufficient to drive it.

The tensioning device in Fig. 2 consists of a flat piece of
steel with a v-shape cut into the end. Near the vee are tension
discs that are dished out with a round-end punch and afterwards
made dead hard. The tension disc screw is 1/8 inch diameter and has
a 3/64 inch hole drilled through it as shown in Fig. 2. The hole
must be positioned so as to clear, disc ‘a’ as shown, and
with this setup the largest wire that can be wound is 1/32

The tension is best determined by trial. The outfit shown here
is capable of handling springs of 0.006 diameter wire and a spring
of 0.035 outside diameter, up to a spring using 0.032 inch wire and
outside diameter of 0.240 inches.

We should think there would be no problem in scaling up this
device to wind somewhat larger springs if so desired. Likewise, the
tension device is so simple that even if the tension washers were
not casehardened, we suspect they would handle a considerable
number of springs before being worn out.

Another tip we discovered in a November 1925 issue of Machinery
Magazine illustrates an extension spout for an oil can. This simple
little device can be made by pushing a wire into a cork and then
sliding the cork over the spout as shown. The oil will follow the
wire directly to the spot desired, and it is possible to place just
the right amount of oil exactly where it is wanted. This incredibly
simple method can also be made up as a wire soldered to the spout
as illustrated.

A Closing Word

Having completed our latest title, The Allis-Chalmers Story,
last year, we are now gathering information and data for a similar
book on J. I. Case. We have already gained the support of several
individuals and organizations for this project, and already have
accumulated an impressive number of catalogs and other historical
information on J. I. Case Company. Since we propose a rather
extensive history of this firm, we also are in need of materials on
acquired firms like Emerson-Brantingham and Rock Island Plow Co. If
you have any material that we can use for this project, kindly drop
a line to the Reflector, in care of Stem gas Publishing


Gas Engine Magazine
Gas Engine Magazine
Preserving the History of Internal Combustion Engines