HOW YOUR HOBBY STARTED

By Staff
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2 H Power Engine with Magneto
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8, 12 and 15 H.P. Engine for use with Battery
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Made in four sizes: 1 h.p., 3 h.p., -4 h.p. and 6 h.p.
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Our New Way engine.Courtesy of Barr Bros., Route 2, Fullerton, Nebraska 68638
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Re: Massey-Harris Company Limited – Toronto, Ontario, Canada
From the notes supplied by Ray Miller of 2815 Niagara Boulevard,
Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada. L2A 5M4.

One of Canada’s successful farm machinery manufacturers in
the first half of the nineteenth century started building
implements in 1847. Daniel Massey (1798 to 1856) of Newcastle was
responsible for some of the earliest farm tools to be manufactured
in Canada.

Massey’s Agricultural Works, as it was first known, was
comprised of a machine shop, a wood working shop and a foundry and
blacksmith shop. From this small beginning, Daniel Massey began
building plows, harrows and a horse driven sweep power. Later a
number of other types of equipment were added to the line; such as
threshing machines, windmills, washing machines and gasoline
engines.

In 1891 Alanson Harris entered the company as a partner. Mr.
Harris was a skilled mechanic, and a competitor, who brought much
to the organization. Then, in 1953, Harry Ferguson of England, who
had his own well known line of Ferguson Equipment, aligned himself
with the company and the name was changed to Massey-Harris Ferguson
Limited, and later changed to Massey-Ferguson, its present name, in
1957. The company headquarters has been located in Toronto since
1879.

Many improvements were added to the growing list of equipment in
the development of agricultural machinery from this firm. The
combined reaper and mower was a great help to the wheat farmers in
the plains. Massey’s mower supplied the farmer with a suitable
means of haying, as did the Sharp’s rakes. Many other
inventions were added to the equipment making it more efficient for
the farmer to harvest his crops.

Through the years, this fast growing corporation added many
Canadian manufacturers to the parent company. The first American
company acquired was the Johnston Harvester Company of Batavia, New
York. This firm was incorporated in 1871. In 1912, looking forward
to the needs of the Canadian farmer, Massey Harris purchased the
successful and well established Deyo-Macey Engine plant in
Binghampton, New York, in order to establish their own gasoline
engine production facilities in Canada. Some Massey-Harris engines
were built as early as 1914 in Binghampton, New York. The plant and
equipment of the Deyo-Macey Company was moved to the Weston
(Toronto), Ontario, works of Massey-Harris in 1916. Company records
indicate these facts and they are also borne out by a search of the
Binghampton, New York, directories which last list Deyo-Macey in
1916. The Deyo firm was first listed in 1901 under the name Davis
and Deyo.

The Deyo engine and the Type 1 Massey-Harris engine, in a number
of respects, would remind a collector of the Olds engines. It
should be noted that prior to building their own line of engines,
Massey-Harris sold the well known Olds engines in Canada.

The first engine to carry the Massey-Harris name, the Type 1,
was built about 1914. This was a single cylinder, horizontal unit,
with water hopper cooling; larger units could be tank cooled. It
was of the open crankcase type with heavy cast iron fender and was
battery, spark plug, and coil type ignition. The engines were built
of component parts which consisted of the major cast iron sub-base,
on which was mounted the main bearings. The power end and water
jacket are bolted to the base by studs around the neck of the
cylinder. The crankshaft is laid in the bearing journals and is set
at an angle of 30 degrees. Thrust of the crankshaft comes against
the frame and the wear is easily taken up by adjustment of the main
bearings. Governor systems were of the hit and miss type.

The 1-1/2 H.P., Type 1, engine was patterned after the small
Deyo engine. In design and operation it is very similar to the well
known Fairbanks-Morse 1-1/2 H.P., hit and miss, side valve, or
headless engine. The governor weight was in the flywheel and a
detent blade held open the horizontal exhaust valve.

All the larger engines governed the valve stem by a replaceable,
hardened, governor button on the end of a long, horizontal, exhaust
lever which is pivoted on the base and is driven by a cam and a
small wheel that does away with the wear on the cam and valve
lever. On the Type 1 old style engines, with battery and spark plug
ignition, a timer blade is mounted on top of the exhaust valve
lever and makes contact with the cam on the timing gear. The
carburetor is suspended under the intake ventura tube and it
consists of an air throttle valve and a needle valve to control the
fuel. It fastens to the intake ventura by two stub bolts. The Type
1 engines were built from 1914 to 1922, inclusive.

The Type 1 engine had a single governor weight mounted on a bolt
which was fastened thrugh one of the spokes of the flywheel. The
1-1/2 H.P. and the later 2 H.P. Did not have a removable water
hopper. On the larger sizes, the water hopper was separate and
bolted to the top of the cylinder. The cylinder was closed at the
valve end and a frost breaking plate was bolted to the underside of
the cylinder. An outstanding: feature of the cylinder is the
vertical valve arrangement patterned after the Deyo design, with
the top automatic intake connected to the mixing valve. The
mechanical exhaust valve was operated from a long lever, at the end
of which was the governor mounted in the flywheel. This design
eliminated the push rod and other necessary features on the. usual
type of valve mechanism. In some respects this cylinder design is
comparable to the ‘Olds’ gasoline engine. On the Type 1,
old style, both exhaust and intake valves were mounted in removable
cages.

Witte Drag Saw – serial number 98709

Courtesy of George S. Clark, 254 Pond Point Avenue, Milford,
Connecticut, 06460

Portable engines could be bought mounted on cast iron trucks,
which were equipped with a vertical cooling tank. The engine body
and skid were painted red; the flywheels were green, striping was
yellow. Yellow striping and fancy scroll design with the words
Massey-Harris were on each side of the water hopper. On the
headless end, above the intake valve on the water hopper, was a
decal depicting both views of the globe, or atlas, with the words
‘Highest Class Farm Implements in the British Empire’. It
should be noted that Massey-Harris equipment was sold in South
Africa and Australia, as well as other countries of the British
Commonwealth. However, Massey-Harris engines built in Canada were
much different from those of the same name built in the U.S.

The specification for the O.S. (Old Style), Type 1,
Massey-Harris engines were as follows:

H.P.  R.P.M. Flywheels In,.
1-1/2 500 16 x 2-1/4
3 475 24 x 2-1/4
4-1/2 450 29 x 2-3/8
6 425 33 x 2-5/8
8 400 36 x 3
12 380 38 x 3-1/4
15 380 40 x 3-1/2
20 380 42 x 4

These were shipped skidded, with a set of accessories, (extra
spark plug, oil can, etc.), including a battery and battery box. 3
to 20 HP engines had a removable water hopper and these sizes were
also available with closed cooling jacket employing a separate tank
with centrifugal circulating Dump for stationary applications.

On the Type 1, old style, with battery and spark plug ignition,
the timing gears were located outside of the crankcase. These
engines were but at Binghampton, New York, at the former Deyo-Macey
works between. 1914 and 1916.

This type was followed by the Type 1, O.R. (Old Rating). These
were the first of the Type 1 with the exhaust valves seated in the
cylinder; the intake valves were still mounted in removable cages
directly above the exhaust valve. This design would permit removal
of the exhaust valve for service. On the ‘old rating’ the
timing gears were placed inside the crankcase. The horsepower
ratings were the same as the Type 1, old style, (see above).
Production of these commenced at the Toronto works. The
specifications for the N.R. (New Rating) Type 1, Massey-Harris
engines were as follows:

H.P.  R.P.M. Flywheels In,.
2 500 19-3/4 x 2-1/4
3 475 29
4-1/2 450 36
6 425 39
8 400 36×3
10 380 38 x 3-1/4
12 380 40 x 3-1/2
15 380 46

First production of the Type 1, N.R., 2 H.P., was equipped with
battery and spark plug ignition. The 2 H.P. was first equipped with
a Webster magneto in 1919.

Company records seem to indicate that reduced horsepower ratings
had some relation to exhaust valve location.

Portable truck mounted horse-drawn saw rigs powered by the Type
1 engines were available. They were made in the following sizes:
No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, with 4-1/2 H.P. engines; No. 4 and No. 5 with
6 H.P. engines. In addition, fruit sprayers were built in various
sizes using 1-1/2 H.P. engines. Contractor units included pumps and
hoists.

In 1923, Massey – Harris engineers designed a new engine, the
Massey-Harris Type 2. This was a throttling governor engine with a
combination, two chamber carburetor that permitted gasoline or
kerosene to be used for fuel. The carburetor was mounted beneath
the cylinder head and in some respects resembled the carburetor on
a Fairbanks-Morse, Type ZA, engine. No fuel pump was used, but at
the outlet of the fuel tank, a check valve was used in the fuel
line. This engine had a one piece cylinder and water hopper
casting. The valves were located in the removable cylinder head.
The governor weights were mounted in the flywheel.

The Type 2 engines were built in ratings of 1-1/2, 3, 4-1/2 and
6 HP. These engines were simple and straight forward in appearance
and the full-rated horsepowers were available from either gasoline
or kerosene. On the larger sizes water could be introduced into the
combustion chamber to prevent pounding under load.

Specifications for Massey-Harris Type 2 engines:

H.P.

R.P.M.

Flywheel

Bore

Stroke

Hgt.

Net Wht.

1-1/2

650

17 x 1-3/4

3-1/4

4-1/2

22-3/4

268

3

600

21 x 2

4-1/4

5-1/2

28

430

4-1/2

550

24 x 2-1/4

4-3/4

6-1/2

30-1/2

640

6

550

28 x 2-1/2

5-1/4

7

34

820

Engines were painted all red except for the magneto; striping
was yellow. The Type 2 engines were built from 1923 through 1932
inclusive.

In 1933, Massey-Harris engineers again brought out a new design,
the Massey-Harris Type 3 engine. Specifications for the Massey
Harris Type 3 engines are as follows:

H.P. R.P.M.
1-1/2 800-1100
3 750-1050
6 575

 These had throttling governors designed to use gasoline or
kerosene. Provision was provided for introducing water into the
combustion chamber on the 6 H.P. Former Massey-Harris employees
have stated that they doubt any 6 H.P., Type 3, engines were ever
really built. The Type 3 engines are rather uncommon. A number of 3
H.P., Type 3, engines apparently were shipped to British Columbia
on orchard sprayers. These engines were equipped with a diaphragm
type fuel pump; semi self-oiling, single flywheel, and used a
rotary high tension Wico magneto. The Type 3 engines were offered
for sale from 1933 through 1935.

These were the last engines actually built by Massey-Harris at
their Toronto works. From 1936 to 1952, Massey-Harris sold the well
known ‘R’ model engines built by Cushman Motor Works of
Lincoln, Nebraska, who are still in business. Cushman Motor Works
have no serial number lists available as to what year any
‘R’ model engines were built.

These were self oiling, water cooled, two disc type flywheels,
with Wico EK magneto and throttling governor, and could be equipped
to burn kerosene. They were the result of years of advancement in
the style of small farm type gasoline engines. Modern foundry
practices were adhered to for the advanced designs. On a suitable
cast iron sub-base was mounted the one piece casting for the
horizontal enclosed crankcase with open water hopper. Through the
side opening was mounted the heavy drop forged crankshaft and the
adjustable Timken tapered roller bearings and the timing gear. An
inspection hole provided access to the connecting rod bearing.

The engine governor is of the Flyball type to give regulation
for all speeds. The special Wico high tension magneto and spark
plugs furnished the ignition system. The mixing valve is a simple
design and it is provided with a special bowl to adapt the engine
to burn kerosene. A 5 – 6 H.P. single cylinder engine and a 10 – 12
H.P. twin cylinder engine were also available. These were vertical
cylinder engines, ‘L’ head design, and used high tension
Wico rotary magnetos. These were also self oiling and water-cooled.
The vertical engines were also built by Cushman. Radiator or tank
cooling systems were used and a throw out clutch was available. A
Tillotson type automotive carburetor was used. Power plants using
the Continental ‘Red Seal’ engines were also available: 4
cylinder at 24 HP; 6 cylinder at 37 HP, and 6 cylinder at 50
HP.

Specifications for the Massey-Harris (Cushman built) engines are
as follows:

Model

HP

RPM Variable

Bore & stroke Water Gals. Shipp. Wgt.

R-14

2

400 -800

3-1/4 x 4-1/2 2-1/2 225

R-20

3

3-1/2 x 4-1/2 3 265

R-30

4

450-900 3-3/4 x 4-1/2 4-1/2 285

The 4 H.P. used an extra high (extended) water hopper. The 5 – 6
H.P. vertical, single cylinder engine had the folio wine
specifications:

H.P. Piston Displ. Cubic In.  R.P.M. Bore & Stroke Water Gals. Shipo. Wgt.
5 – 6 50.25 460 – 1400 4×4 1 (Rad cooled; 305

Other specifications:

H.P.

Valve Port

Pist. Pins

Bearings

Flywheel

2

1-7/16′

3/4′

1-3/8′ X 1-1/2′

12′ x 2′

3

1-7/16′

3/4′

1-3/8′ X 1-1/2′

14′ x 2′

4

1-7/16′

3/4′

1-3/8′ X 1-1/2′

14′ x 2′

5 -6

1-1/4′

1′

1-3/8′ X 7/8′

14′ x 2”

Bringing the modern type of gasoline engine, which Massey-Harris
Company Ltd., distributed to this date, you will find the Model
‘S’ engine built for Massey-Harris by the D. R. Clarke
Engine Company Limited of Toronto, Ontario. The Canadian Trade
Index lists the Clarke firm for the first time in 1939. They are
listed as makers of air-cooled gasoline engines for marine and
shore use, up until 1958; after which time they built pressure
water systems and pumps until they went bankrupt in 1967. The Model
‘S’ engine was sold by Massey-Harris from 1946 until 1951.
These same engines were also sold by the DeLaval Cream Separator
Company in Canada.

From 1951 to 1956 Massey-Harris, and latterly Massey-Harris
Ferguson, sold the ‘Weather King’, Model 18, engines.
Company records indicate that the sale of gas engines by
Massey-Harris Ferguson was concluded in 1956. No definite
information exists as to who built the ‘Weather King’
engines, but it is stated that Massey-Harris did not make an
air-cooled engine and bought these from other manufacturers. Both
Model ‘S’ and ‘Weather King’ are air-cooled engines
of the variable speed type.

Model ‘S’ Specifications:
R.P.M.  Max. Power Bore & Stroke
1500 1.4 H.P. 2-1/2′ x 2-1/2′
3000 3.2 H.P. 2-1/2′ x 2-1/2′

‘Weather King’, Model 18, Specifications:

R.P.M.  Max. Power Bore & Stroke
1500 1.8 H.P. 3′ x 2-1/2′
3000 5.0 H.P.  3′ x 2-1/2′

‘Weather King’ available in 2 sizes; 2-3 H.P. and 5
H.P.

The Model ‘S’ stationery engine is a vertical, totally
enclosed unit, with splash lubrication, and a metering tray located
in the crankcase to regulate the amount of oil. A lightweight,
durable, high quality, piston of aluminum alloy was used on these
engines. Valves are a special high quality steel. The ‘I’
type connecting rod, of aluminum, has a strong bearing enclosure.
Supported on two sturdy Timken tapered roller bearings is the
1-3/16′ crankshaft of quality steel. Not usually found in
engines of this type is the Timken tapered roller bearing camshaft.
Another feature of these engines is the automotive type carburetor
that requires no adjustments. The float level is adjusted by adding
or removing gaskets or shims between the top and bottom halves of
the carburetor. The ignition is supplied from a flywheel type
magneto. The Model ‘S’ engine has a compression ratio of 5
to 1. The displacement is 12-1/4 cubic inches. Weight is 82 pounds.
Its continuous operation rating is 1 to 2-1/2 H.P.

The Massey-Harris ‘Weather King’ is a larger engine even
though it weighs only 60 pounds. The displacement is 18 cubic
inches. It has the general design and most of the features of the
Model ‘S’. The ‘Weather King’ had a continuous
operation rating of 1-1/2 H.P. at 1500 R.P.M. to 3 H.P. at 2200
R.P.M.

The trade mark of Massey-Ferguson Limited is the triple triangle
with the three corners superimposed. The initial ‘M’ is
placed in the lower left hand triangle and the ‘F’ is
placed in the lower right hand triangle. Blue background supports
the initials, with white initials and edges.

The Massey-Harris plant at Weston (Toronto) was converted to
aircraft wing production during the Second World War. Apparently
sometime after this date all the records of engine serial numbers
and dates of manufacture were either lost or destroyed. Many
collectors are interested in the date when engines were made. Not
having serial number records by the date, the following information
may establish the possible year these were made.

The Type 2 engine was only equipped with an all brass mixer and
a Webster magneto in 1923, the first year the Type 2 was built. In
1924, the ignition was changed to the Wico magneto and this type
was used until 1932, when Type 2 engines were discontinued. In 1926
a Wico SK magneto and mounting bracket was made available to
convert the 1923 Webster magneto equipped engines to spark plug
ignition. The 1923 Type 2 engines used a slightly different design
of governor weight pins to those used in 1924 and later years. The
sight glass gauge was first used on the gas tank on the 1924
engine.

On Type 1 engines, grease cups were used on main bearings. From
1923 through 1925, a rectangular type oil well with wicking was
used on Type 2 engines. Syphon type oilers were used on the main
bearings on the Type 2 engines in 1926 to 1932.

On some models of the Type 1 engine, ignition was accomplished
by locating the Webster magneto and a specially designed ignitor
directly at the end of the cylinder in the headless engine. The
magneto was ‘tripped’ by a vertical lever connected to the
long exhaust rocker arm. On this system, the magneto was only
operated when ignition was required. On other models, the Webster
magneto and ignitor were located between the intake and exhaust
valves and in this case, the magneto was tripped on every
‘compression’ stroke even though the hit and miss engine
could be ‘idle’ or ‘coasting’ with the exhaust
valve held open by the governor.

On Type 1 and Type 2 engines, casting numbers had the prefix
‘AA’ followed by several numbers. On Type 3 engines,
casting numbers had several prefixes, such as ‘AA’,
‘AC’, etc.

On Type 3 engines, a drip feed sight oiler was used to lubricate
the cylinder and an oil dip stick was used to check the level of
oil in the sump. On the Type 3 engines, the splash type lubrication
system was used.

Thank you for the many letters I received during the year, and I
am anxious to answer your questions, mostly about Fairbanks, Morse
engines. I am behind with my correspondence but hope to catch up in
the near future; also it will help me if you can send me a self
addressed and stamped envelope.

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