The History of the Electro-Magnetic Engine

By Staff
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1081 Wigren Road Frewsburg, New York 14738

This is the story of the rise and fall of the little known
electro-magnetic engine. During the late 1700s and early 1800s,
many interesting and little understood electrical experiments were
conducted both here and abroad that eventually led to the discovery
of the electric motor. In 1800, for instance, Volta invented an
early form of a battery that greatly enhanced electrical
experiments that previously relied on a form of capacitance (leyden
jars), for electrical energy. In 1820, Oersted discovered by
accident that electricity through a wire would deflect the needle
of a compass and concluded that some form of magnetism was present.
In 1831, Faraday discovered the magnetic field and hence the effect
of an electrified coil on steel and on a permanent magnet and vice
versa. Faraday’s experiments and discoveries led to many useful
inventions, including the multipolar motor in 1838 by Jacobi, the
telegraph in 1840 by Wheetstone and Morse, the dynamo in 1871 by
Gramme, and the telephone in 1876 by Bell to mention a few. But, in
1845, one industrious entrepreneur by the name of Bourbouze, wanted
to capitalize on the electric coil ‘solenoid effect’ in a
grand manner. He envisioned solenoid driven crankshaft engines
powered by rooms full of batteries,* as an alternative to the then
current steam power. So, in a fashion similar to the later
‘halfbreed,’ Bourbouze removed the cylinder, piston and
valve system from a steam engine and replaced them with a large
electric coil, a plunger, a switch arrangement for timing.
Well-yes, the engine worked, but there wasn’t enough sulfuric
acid and zinc available in quantity for the batteries to meet the
need and to compete with the low cost, readily available coal for
steam engines. So, like many other early ideas and inventions, the
electro-magnetic engine was short lived. Later, the term
electromagnetic engine was changed to electric motor.
Coincidentally, the efficiency of the early steam engine and the
electro-magnetic engine were about the same at 20-25%, as compared
to the later well-developed D.C. motor at 95%, and the A.C. Motor
at 89%.

The photograph is of my re-creation of Bourbouze’s
electro-magnetic engine based on a well-aged and cannibalized
Anderson engine. The engine specs are as follows:

Weight

3000 lb.

Bore

6.375′

Stroke

12′

Plunger

Steel (110 lb.)

Plunger rod

Brass (to prevent magnetism from reaching the cross-head)

Cylinder

Steel with brass ends + 500′ of #4 copper wire (200 lb.)

Voltage

24 volts D.C.

Speed

125 RPM

Ampere turns

68250@24 volts

Max. volts

48

Plunger power

60 lb. push for each 6 volts

This engine, along with several buildings and a field full of
other engines, plus the recently restored large Miller engine, can
be seen operating at the spring (June) and fall (October) shows at
the Coolspring Power Museum, Coolsprings, Pennsylvania.

Additionally, I repair and collect old D.C. motors and
generators. If you desire info or other, write to me at the address
above, or telephone: (716) 569-3454. E-mail Pat-mart@webtv.net.

*Large quantities of batteries for electrical applications
were common in the 1800s, but prior to Gramme’s dynamo in 1871,
the primary means of recharging a battery was to replace the weak
sulfuric acid with new acid. Interestingly, acid replacement was
not the major cost of battery maintenance, it was the rapid use of
zinc electrodes.

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