390447th Avenue, S., Seattle, Washington 98118
DOUBLE REACTION – Water Motor 22 hp.
These historic water motors compose a small portion of the water
powered devices installed in the tail race of the large overshot
water wheel at Antique Acres, Cheraw, South Carolina. We kind a
like to relax and have a little fun down here. Seems like we have
more of these old machines than we can properly and objectively
operate. Why don’t a few hundred of you ‘water
wheelers’ come operate a few next April 16, 17, and
One of the attractions found in the miscellany of gasoline
engines in collectors inventory of antique models is the little No.
1 and No. 2 Eclipse Pumpers. These engines were in production by
Fairbanks, Morse & Company, during the years of 1911 to 1918.
As is the custom of manufacturers, a number of changes and
improvements were made on this type during the years they were
produced. Engine buffs will find these variations by comparing
engines. There were thousands built.
Both of these models were vertical single cylinder,
hopper-cooled, four cycle, hit and miss governed, with spark plug
high tension ignition. Their great success was the simplicity of
design. Being small and compact, they were portable and so simple
they could be started by a child.
The crankcase being closed, these engines found much use in
dusty, dry country for pumping water for stock at remote locations.
The gasoline could be proportioned in the fuel tank so the engine
would operate for a predetermined time, allowing the operator to go
about his other chores while the engine would run until the water
tank was filled and the fuel was exhausted and the engine would
stop. The hopper was designed to accept an additional water tank
that could be mounted on top of the regular water hopper so longer
periods of operation were possible with out replenishing the
cooling water. The water hopper was designed so ice could expand
upward in cold weather. The operating instructions also suggested
the use of two pounds of calcium chloride to a gallon of water for
a winter cooling solution.
The cylinder with the cooling hopper, upper crankcase and valve
chamber comprised the top casting. The lower crank case with engine
base and lower half of main bearing was the lower casting. The main
bearings were split on the outer line and were babbitted. The
camshaft was driven by a timing gear on the outside of the
crankcase. The timing gear and timer, with the governor weight,
were assembled as a unit on the side of the engine opposite the
large pump jack gear. On the opposite side of the cam shaft was
located the pinion to drive the large pump jack gear. When the
engines were used for other applications, the camshaft extension
had a two inch pulley running at 350 rpm and the larger three inch
pulley was mounted on the extension of the crankshaft operating at
700 rpm the engine speed.
The automatic suction valve, intake fuel mixing valve, with the
gas tank attached were assembled all in one unit and mounted on the
engine as such. The mechanical exhaust valve was located under the
intake valve and could be removed after the intake fuel assembly
was taken off the engine.
The ignition system consisted of a set of four dry cells with a
spark coil and switch mounted in a metal battery box on the side
opposite the pump jack.
The original design of the Number One Eclipse Pumper Engine was
with one flywheel. Fairbanks-Morse was cast on the side of the
flywheel. A starting handle was hinged in a recess on the side of
The engine was mounted on a separate cast-iron sub-base that was
the supporting bracket for the gear driven pump jack. Prior to
engine Serial Number 2905, the exhaust valve stem push block
bushing was different and when ordered it would be replaced by the
improved design. Engines from Serial Number 2905 to 5880 had this
new style bushing.
On engines after Serial Number 35,960 a still later design of
exhaust valve push block bushing was furnished. There was also a
change in the timer blades used on engines after Serial Number
The timer was a hardened contact spring connected to the detent.
It made contact with a hardened steel pin in the side of the timing
gear. The pistons have three rings and oil groves to lubricate the
Repair Part Book No. 9204-D dated September 1911 for No. 1
Eclipse pumper showed one flywheel used on the engine; while Repair
Part Book No. 9411A dated 1916 on the same engine called for two
flywheels. When these engines were geared to deep well pump jacks,
they used one flywheel which was also the case when they were made
up in units with a piston or diaphragm pump. There was also a
change in the design of the pump jacket bracket and the engine
mounting. On the earlier models up to February 1945, the type
having the No. 1 engine mounted on a combination cast-iron engine
base and pump jack bracket was changed in August of the same year.
This improvement consisted of dividing the engine base and pump
jack bracket so the engine could be removed from the pump and used
for other applications.
The Christmas Parade in Cheraw, S. C., included two of our
units; one included a 1917 Moline pulling a 1917 World War One
Rescue Wagon. The driver is IMA sub scriber Bud Wicker who works
with us full time building buildings and repairing engines for
Antique Acres’ Annual Show to be held Friday, Saturday, and
Sunday, April 16, 17, and 18,1971.
The other entry (Fordson) is being operated by another IMA
subscriber, Robert Stonewall Rogers, III, our son.
Cheraw’s mid-April weather will ‘thaw you out.’ This
is Christmas weather. Mid-April weather is better.
|Engine No.||Hp.||R.P.M.||Belt-Pulley Dia.-Face||Flywheel Dia.-Face||Fuel Tank Gallons||Water Hopper Gallons||Wgt.||Price|
|1||1||700||4′ X 2?’||14′||1 3/8′||?||190||$70.00|
|2||2||700||5′ X 4′||16′||1?’||1.2||250||$138.00|
The Repair Part Book No. 9301C dated May 26, 1913 covering the
No. 2 Eclipse Pumpers showed the double flywheels on pump jacks and
on separate units. The specifications on these engines were as
See chart above.
Complete with pump jack — price about 1918 — No. 1 Engine only
— $62.00 – No. 2 Engine -$110.00.
Norman Mullings of Granby, Connecticut, P.O. Box 93, has been
active in the restoration of the Eclipse engines and has compiled a
partial list of owners. It might be interesting to the collectors
of this particular make of engine to have the following list of
owners in order to exchange correspondence in solving problems that
come up when the engines are rebuilt. If enough collectors can get
together they might even form an Eclipse Engine Club. Here is the
list of owners: Fred Gertje, Orofino, Idaho; Ron Magnuson, Good
Hope, Illinois; Chandler Mason, Middleville, New York; Norman
Mullings, Granby, Connecticut; Manual G. Reed, Falls Church,
Virginia; Fred Yoder, Lenn Grove, Indiana; George Simpson,
The story of the Eclipse engine does not stop in 1918 when
manufacture of the No. 1 and No. 2 units were discontinued and when
Fairbanks-Morse introduced the Type ‘Z’ Engine.
In 1937 the company made many improvements and put a new version
of the Eclipse engine on the market. This was a 2 hp. vertical,
four cycle, hopper-cooled, totally enclosed engine, self oiling,
with renewable main bearings, mechanical intake and exhaust valves,
and with a gear driven enclosed high tension magneto ignition
system. The engine was designed to boll to a gear driven deep well
pump jack just as the older models. This engine was in production
about four years.
Like the old Eclipse the newer style was quite simple in design
with no fragile or complicated parts to break or get out of order.
It was only 20?’ x 20′ in floor space and 28?’
Being totally enclosed it was not possible for dust, rain or
snow to get into the crankcase, which was provided with a breather
to relieve any crankcase pressure and prevent oil from being forced
out. The engine was mounted on a steel sub-base with the fuel tank
located between the steel base channels. Convenient cover plates
were provided to make it possible to get at working parts on the
A Fairbanks-Morse Type RS-1 magneto is completely enclosed and
sealed, dust and water proof, so it could operate in all kinds of
The specifications of the 2 hp. Eclipse engine were as follows:
Hit and miss engine operated on gasoline only. The throttling
governor model could be operated on gasoline only. The throttling
governor model could be operated on kerosene. Bore 3 5/8′,
stroke 3?’. Engine rpm. on gasoline 600 and on kerosene 800
rpm. Fly ball type governor, fuel tank capacity one gallon, lub oil
reservoir one quart, water hopper 2? gallons. Flywheels 16′ x
1?’. Weight 235 lbs. Selling price, $69.50. This late model
engine would make a good addition to any collection, along side the
Hertzler & Zook Company of Belleville, Pennsylvania, were
manufacturers of cord wood saw rigs and several sizes of gasoline
engines used to power their outfits. From catalog No. 29 loaned to
me through the courtesy of Eldon Bryant of the Broken Kettle Book
Service at Akron, Iowa, a description of these engines is
They were known as the ‘H & Z’ gasoline engines.
They were four cycle, horizontal open crankcase, single cylinder
hopper cooled machines. The cylinder and crank end of the engines
were bolted to the cast-iron sub-base which housed the fuel tank.
The cylinder head was water cooled and contained the mechanically
operated exhaust valve and automatic intake valve. The fuel mixing
valve was bolted to the side of the cylinder head. The governor
controlled the butterfly valve on the fuel intake fitting.
1927 Baker 22-40 owned by Mr. and Mrs. Harold Shufelt, Burr Oak,
Michigan. Pictured with tractor is Miss Sue Ann Shufelt with her
grandfather, Herman Shufelt.
1930 English Fordson and 10-20 International owned by Mary, Mike
and Sue Shufelt, respectively, of Burr Oak, Michigan. Pictured is
Harold Shufelt and son, Mike.
A Wico high tension oscillating type magneto was mounted on the
side of the water jacket of the cylinder and was operated from the
valve push rod. This furnished the action for the spark plug
ignition. The following engines were offered for sale:
‘H & Z’ cord wood saw rigs were offered in many
types and sizes, ranging in price from $10.00 (without engine), for
the wood constructed saw frame without saw blade to $32.00 for a
steel constructed model. Pole saw outfits for sawing long logs and
with the flywheel mounted under the frame were also available.
These saw frames were also made in various portable combinations. A
large unit was assembled with and to be operated with both Fordson
and McCormick-Deering tractors. The saw frame was assembled so the
outfit was portable and could be moved about by the tractor.
Standard outfits were manufactured in the following sizes and
ratings with ‘H & Z’ engines:
|Hp.||R.P.M.||Bore & Stroke||Pulley Size||Ship. Wgt.||Price|
|1?||500||3?’ 5′||44||200||$ 35.00|
|2||500||3?’? 5′||4′? 4′||250||40.00|
|3||450||4?’? 6′||8′? 6′||480||65.00|
|5||430||4?’? 8′||12′? 6′||690||85.00|
|7||380||5?’? 10′||14′? 6′||1200||140.00|
These units were priced with wooden wagon frames and steel
wheels. Prices were not available on the tractor mount ed
Beside these major items in the catalog, Hertzler & Zook
offered a complete line of blacksmith forges and tools as well as
feed mills, cider mills, concrete mixers, saws and hardware
Also from Eldon Bryant is a catalog on Lauson Frost King
Gasoline Engines manufactured by the John Lauson Mfg. Company of
New Holstein, Wisconsin. This company made a speciality of portable
and semi-portable engine outfits. The engines were carefully
balanced and the fuel system so arranged that good operation of the
engines were assured if they were not entirely level when moved
from one job to another.
The Lauson Frost King Engines were four cycle, horizontal,
shielded open crankcase, single cylinder, hopper-cooled with fuel
tank in the- cast-iron sub-base. The carburetor was mounted low
under the cylinder head to allow for gravity feed from the fuel
tank. An extra fuel tank was mounted in front of the engine on the
These portable units were mounted on steel wheels and a water
tank for cooling on the closed cylinder units. The engine and
trucks were nicely finished with a decal of the Frost King on the
hopper. The steel frames were painted and striped with fancy
designs to create an attractive portable power plant.
|Engine Hp.||Dia. Saw Blade In.||Wgt.||Price|
A low tension magneto was mounted on the side of the engine
which supplied current to the igniter which was also assembled with
the magneto as one unit. The exhaust valve push rod actuated the
ignition system. The cylinder head was water-cooled and contained
Lauson featured cord wood saw out fits and manufactured all
types mounted on steel frame portable power units. The engines were
equipped with friction clutch pulleys for easy starting of the
engine and for safety. The portable and stationary engines were
produced in the same range of ratings. The specifications of the
Lauson Frost King engines were as follows:
On numerous occasions the Spring field gasoline engines have
been mentioned and illustrated in G.E.M. I am endebted to Roger
Kriebel of Mainland, Pennsylvania, for some excellent colored
pictures and for the use of his instruction book and his letters
for the following information for this story on the Spring field
engines. Roger has a 10 hp. and his father, a 6 hp. portable
These engines were manufactured at Springfield, Ohio, from 1895
to about the second decade in 1900. This make of engine was given
the honor of appearing on the cover of G.E.M. on Vol. 1 and No. 1
issue in January-February 1966. This was a portable 6 hp. Type A on
a wooden wagon wheel horse drawn truck, which truck was handmade by
Charles Fegely. This outfit is owned by Ray Geisinger of Kutztown,
The design of the Springfield engines were quite unusual. The
Model B-8′ x 1.4′ which is owned by John Wilcox of 47
Deland Ave., Columbus, Ohio, was fitted to operate on natural gas.
It has slide valves with a side or lay shaft on the right hand side
of the engine when facing the crank end. This shaft is gear driven
from the crankshaft and operates the valve mechanism which is built
cross wise of the cylinder head. An inertia governor drives a
second slide valve that opens the gas intake and operates the
igniter. Some models had hot tube for ignition while others used
the hit and miss igniter system.
Being a four cycle, single cylinder heavy duty engine, the
cylinder was cast separately and bolted to the cast-iron base that
contained the main bearings in the open crankcase. The crank
bearings are oiled from an oiler mounted on a post next to the
crankshaft. A hole in the cheek of the crank picks up oil from an
oiler wick. The mains are oiled from oil reservoirs cast on top of
each bearing cap which contains a wick to the bearing. The governor
is driven from a belt on the inside of the flywheel on the left
hand side of the cylinder. Some models were equipped with a fuel
pump which was operated from an eccentric on the lay shaft. Other
units had a water pump mounted in this location but only one pump
on an engine could be driven in this manner.
The departure from the general engine design that made these
engines so different was the unique method of the lay shaft driving
the camshaft. From a set of helical gears on the crankshaft and
bevel gears at the cylinder head, the camshaft, which was mounted
cross-wise and above the cylinder was driven. A cam located on the
side near the governor operated a vertical intake valve. At the
other end was located the exhaust valve cam. When an engine had a
fuel pump, it was driven by a bell crank on the exhaust side of the
1/8 scale 32 x 54 Nichols & Shepard thresher. Weight 54
pounds. Took four years spare time to build. Weigher works and has
cylinder teeth. Model made by Stanley E. Baringer, 304th St.,
The poppet valves being vertical with the head down, they were
held on their seat by the valve springs. On some engines these
valve springs were ‘U’ shaped while on other models they
were the conventional type. In the middle of the camshaft is
located a ‘dog’ that operates the igniter. The electrodes
were adjustable and the top one was insulated.
The belt driven governor controlled the valve which permitted
fuel to be injected through a small tube or opening to the air
intake chamber from which the suction of the engine takes in the
fuel. The fuel tank was located above and across the top of the
These engines were large for their horsepower ratings and on the
larger sizes the flywheels were very heavy to roll by hand to start
the engine. To overcome this condition, they introduced an
innovation for starting these large engines that is used today for
starting most big diesels.
In their instruction book they outline a compressed air starting
method using about a cubic foot air receiver that was pumped up to
40 psi. by a belt driven air compressor from the engine. The piston
would be set just past top dead center, then with a quick opening
valve an injection of air into the cylinder would turn the engine
These Springfield engines were built in ratings up to 50 hp. in
1907. Portable units were offered from 5 to 25 hp. and a traction
unit was built in sizes from 6 to 25 hp. The early instruction book
for the operators of these engines was most interesting and
cognizant of the fact that customers in these times were not
familiar with the hazards that could be caused while working with
this new kind of power. For instance, they cautioned the operators
never to look into the igniter opening while someone turned the
flywheels, with the cylinder out, as an explosion could cause
As to the matter of adjusting the fuel injection plunger, it
explained the effect upon the appearance of the exhaust, such as
too much fuel would cause dark smoky and odorous exhaust, while too
little fuel would cause a back fire through the air intake pipe.
Then it stated that the operator should not be afraid as it only
indicated that more gasoline was required for the right mixture.
Again quoting — ‘Never allow anything to rattle, knock or
become loose on the engine.’ All such suggestions could well be
kept in mind in the operation of engines today.
Not many of this make of engine are in existence and most of
them are in the eastern part of the country. They were very well
constructed and nicely fitted out with brass, oil cups and
accessories. Present day owners say they run very well and are a
collector’s pride and joy.
35 x 70 Nichols & Shepard gas engine on the sawmill which
belongs to Ziegen-hagen bros. That’s Bill on the engine.
The Golden Roll
Amos F. Brandt, 78, of Bainbridge RD 1, died February 5 at his
He was a member of the First Church of God, Elizabethtown. He
was a partner in A. F. Brandt Sons, of Falmouth, and also operated
a threshing business.
He was a member of the Rough & Tumble Engineers Historical
Association and was interested in both steam and gas engines.