3904 - 47th Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98118
Pony Friend made by Friend Pump Company, Gasport, New York. It has a built-in water pump. Year unknown -anyone help?
In the boundless country of our Canadian neighbors, the agricultural equipment of their pioneer days is a heritage which is preserved in provincial and community museums from Quebec to British Columbia.
The history of this great country is a prerequisite for the dedicated people who have collected the antique machines of the steam and internal combustion engine eras and placed them in such spacious museums as the Manitoba Agricultural Museum at Austin, Steam Preservers Association at Milton and the Western Development Museum at Saskatoon, (See Iron-Men Album Vol. 26-No.4).
This concerted enthusiasm carries on to the individual engine collector who celebrates each year at many reunions, such as The Norwich & District Historical Society Show; The Western Ontario Steam Threshers and Antique Association; Pioneer Acres Plowman and Threshers Union; The Golden Horseshoe Antique Society and many others.
These associations are well represented in articles and advertising in the G.E.M. and also the Iron-Men Album. The stories of their reunions are very interesting as well as the details of the fine museums they are building. It gives our magazines an international good neighbor understanding for all the collector's mutual hobby of these historical machines.
With the common purpose as our goal to collect, restore and preserve the equipment of yesteryear, it is with appreciation that I've received valuable engine catalogs for this issue of G.E.M. from Russ Calder of Preston, Ontario; Alex Edgar of Brantwood; Harold F. Gaddye of Binbrook; Bruce Kipp of Woodstock and Donald McVittie of Alliston. I want to thank these gentlemen for the loan of their engine literature and their cordial letters. I would like to quote an appropriate slogan from the Ontario Steam and Antique Preservers Association as - 'The Best of the Past for the Pleasure of the Present and Future.'
Here's a good old running 1918 Model Z 6 HP Fairbanks Morse, Serial No. 307108.
From these sources of information furnished by the men and organizations, the following Canadian internal combustion engines were manufactured throughout the past years: Acme Gasoline Engine, Sandwich, Ontario; Acadia Gasoline Engine, Novo Scotia; Barrie Gasoline Engine, Barrie, Ontario; Chapman Engine Mfg. Co. Ltd., Dondas, Ontario; Canadian Cycle & Motor Co., Toronto, Ontario; Desjardins Limilee, Quebec, Ontario; Dominion Motor & Mach. Co., Toronto, Ontario; Eatons Gasoline Engine Co., Toronto, Ontario; Ellis Gasoline Engine Co., Toronto; G.S.M. Gasoline Engine, Brantford; Gilson Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Guelph; Goldie & McCulloch Co., Galt; The Goold, Shapley & Muir Co. Ltd., Brantford; C. S. Judson Co. Ltd., Winnipeg, Manitoba; London Gas Power Co. Ltd., London, Ont.; The Monarch Gasoline Engine by Canadian Engine Co. Ltd., Donnville, Ont.; The Magnet Gasoline Engine by Petri Manufacturing Co., Hamilton, Ont.; Massey Harris Gasoline Engine, Toronto; D. McKenzie Gasoline Engine, London; Miller & Richard Gasoline Engine, Toronto; Toronto Wind Engine & Pump Co. Ltd., Toronto; Premier Gasoline Engine, Exetor, Ont.; The Standard Gasoline Engine by Standard Supply Co., Dunnville, Ont.; Silvester Gasoline Engine, Lindsay, Ont.; Toronto Junction Gasoline Engine, Toronto; The Toreck Berlin Gasoline Engine by The Toreck Berlin & Thresher Co., Berlin, Ont.; The William Galloway Gasoline Engine by The William Galloway Co. Ltd., Winnipeg.
Most of these thirty engines were manufactured between 1900-1920s and some information is available on a few with details on the following:
C. S. Judson Co. Ltd. of Winnipeg, Manitoba made horizontal, single cylinder, hopper-cooled engines in ratings of 1 - 25 HP - during 1914 the 1 HP sold for $33.50 and the 10 HP for $325.00.
The Ontario Wind Engine and Pump Co. of Toronto were in business from 1895 to 1920. They were manufacturers and built the Toronto Gasoline Engine. They also sold the Stickney and Chapman engines.
The William Galloway Co. Ltd. of Winnipeg manufactured engines in ratings from 1-3/4 HP to 15 HP. It would be interesting to piece together the history of how the Canadian Wm. Galloway engines were related to the Wm. Galloway of Waterloo, Iowa (See Vol. 5 No. 3 - 1970 for the Galloway story).
This is my Model B Huber Tractor. I bought it in pieces in a local junk yard.
Canadian Fairbanks Morse Ltd., sold the gasoline and diesel engines built in Beloit Works, such as the early Type T and later the Type Z.
The Standard Supply Co. of Dunnville, Ontario built engines for railroad application.
The Monarch made by the Canadian Engine Ltd. included ratings from 1 to 25 HP. The smaller sizes were two cycle with one flywheel which had a rim that was round in section.
The Magnet Gasoline Engine made by the Petri Manufacturing Co. of Hamilton, Ontario was a heavy duty, water hopper-cooled horizontal, single cylinder machine. The valves were offset from the cylinder in an L type head.
Massey Harris of Toronto built the farm type engines from about 1900-1920s. They were horizontal water hopper-cooled in ratings from 1-1/2 - 15 HP. They had either Webster or Wico type of magnetos for ignition.
Page Wire Fence Co. Ltd., of Walkerville, Ontario built a horizontal, water hopper-cooled engine, in ratings from 1 to 20 HP and used Webster magnetos for ignition.
Conner Machine Co. Ltd., of Exeter, Ontario built the Premier Gasoline Engine. These were patented in 1910 and were vertical type air-cooled, single cylinder to direct the cooling air. Ratings up to 10 HP were made and a chain-driven low tension magneto was used for ignition.
The Chapman Gasoline Engine built by the Chapman Engine and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. of Dundas, Ontario was a compact, single cylinder, four cycle, horizontal, water hopper-cooled machine with an unusual feature in the low speed farm style gasoline engine. It was built with a flywheel magneto somewhat like the modern air-cooled engines. They used a high tension spark plug for ignition. The engine could also be supplied with battery ignition of a lower price.
According to the catalog, they were made in ratings of 1-3/4 to 4 HP. The engine base, crankcase and cylinder was cast in one piece. The main bearing liners shells were cast in place, with babbitt bearing liners, and grease cup lubrication.
The exhaust valve was operated from a sideshaft and the intake was automatic. The governor was of the flywheel type with a spring and weight on a fulcrum on the inside of the left hand wheel. It operated a disc around the crankshaft which in turn transmitted its governoring action to the sideshaft holding open the valve on the idle strokes.
The mixing valve was located on the cylinder head and controlled the fuel supply by a needle valve. The fuel tank was between the engine mounting skids. On the battery ignition engines, a box containing the spark coil and batteries was mounted on the extended engine skids. No detailed engine specifications were given in the Chapman engines.
The Desjardins gasoline engine according to their catalog which was mostly in French, was made by the Desjardins Limilee - St. Andre De Kamouraska at Quebec. Limited specifications from an instruction book states that the company built engines in ratings of 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12 HP. They were of the horizontal, single cylinder, four cycle design having a water hopper for cooling and a water-cooled head.
The engines were built on a cast iron sub-base. The crankcase with the cylinder was cast in one piece with the main bearing shells and pinion shaft hubs. This was bolted to the base. The rectangular shaped water hopper with round corners overhung the cylinder, as it was large, having considerable capacity. The fuel tank was mounted on the front of the crankcase.
The flyball governor was located on the crankcase and driven from the timing gear. This hit and miss system controlled the r.p.m. by a speed lever that holds open the exhaust valve during the idle strokes. The igniter mounted with a tri-polar Webster oscillating magneto on a bracket, had a control lever that moved an eccentric roller under the igniter trip rod. The igniter is located in the side of the cylinder near the head.
The water-cooled cylinder head contained the mechanical exhaust valve and the intake valve was automatic. The mixing valve was a vertical fitting under the cylinder head with an air control and needle valve to regulate the amount of fuel admitted. A ball-shaped muffler was furnished and the engines were shipped on skids. La Cie Desjardins Ltd.
The Gilson Manufacturing Co. Ltd., of Guelph built a general line of farm machinery including the Wizard gasoline engines, wood saw outfit, feed mills, feed crushers, self-sharpening plowshare, silo fillers, ensilage cutters, manure spreaders, pump jacks, drag saws, barn equipment, hay tools and hot air furnaces.
The Gilson Gasoline Engines, were simple, rated in sizes of 1-3/4, 3-1/2, 6, 12, 15 and 16 HP. These were single cylinder, horizontal, four cycle, water hopper-cooled and with throttling governors arranged to use either gasoline or kerosene and other kinds of fuel.
A cast iron was used on the larger sizes, but the 'Johnny-on-the-spot' 1-3/4 and 2-1/2 HP units were cast in one piece. Being small in output capacity, they were open crankcase, water hopper-cooled, with a dry cylinder head. The main bearings were babbitt and carried a crankshaft with double flywheels. They were shipped on skids, which extended for mounting the battery ignition box, and the fuel tank was placed between the skids.
The mixing valve was under the cylinder head with direct suction of fuel from the tank. The fuel was controlled by a needle valve and with air adjustment. Drip oiler was used for cylinder lubrication and grease cups for the bearings.
Painted with Gilson green and the nameplate cast on the side of the water hopper, these little engines were attractive with the name, 'Johnny-On-The-Spot', with a picture of a little boy, in a circle, painted on the side of the engine skids.
Specifications of the Johnny-On-The-Spot engines are as follows:
BORE & STROKE
3.3/4' x 4-1/2'
4-1/4' x 4-1/2'
This is a picture of my wife driving our Ford tractor on a 10 foot International grain binder just after we had finished cutting about six acres of oats for the threshing bee at Orofino. This binder has all rubber tires and is driven by the power take off shaft on the tractor. We also have an 8 foot McCormick binder that we used before we got the International binder. The ten foot binder runs lighter than the other one and will go over hills that the one one will not. It is ground driven (the older one) and that probably makes the difference. The timber in the background is representative of what the country looked like 80 years ago. This country was all logged off and cleared before farming was possible. About a million feet of lumber was logged off and sawed from each quarter section.
From the catalog, it indicated that some of the earlier models of these small engines were painted red.
The Gilson 'Wizard' engines were built on a cast iron sub-base which was open at the rear so a rectangular fuel tank could be put in place and the pipe connections made on the exposed part of the tank. An open crankcase with the main bearing shells cast in place was bolted to the sub-base. A crankshaft safety shield covered the crank so it appeared to be a closed crankcase. The cylinder and crankcase were in one casting with the water hopper, all in one piece.
When viewing the engine from the flywheel end, the governor is on the right hand side, while the timing gear and push rod that operates the exhaust valve is on the left side. The flat push rod also triggers the oscillating Webster magneto. The water-cooled cylinder head contains the valves, the intake being automatic. Connecting rod was hollow, so the lubricating from the glass oil cup could flow to the wrist pin and connecting bearings.
The mixing valve or carburetor has a gasoline fuel reservoir for starting when lower grade fuel is used for continuous operation. There is also provided a second needle valve adjustment in the carburetor to permit the admittance of water to the combustion space for heavy loads. On the later models, the carburetor was located above the cylinder head with a fuel pump to provide a constant level in the starting fuel reservoir and with an overflow back to the main tank.
The governor linkage controlled the butterfly valve in the air intake fitting to provide constant speed of this throttling governor control.
On the larger ratings of 12-15 and 16 HP, the cylinders were cast separately and fastened to the crankcase by parallel flanges along each side of the cylinder. On these models, the carburetor was assembled in under the cylinder head. Engines were hit and miss governed and could be had with either high tension battery ignition or Webster magnetos.
The same type of hollow connecting rod design was used on the above size engines to lubricate both the wrist pin and connecting rod bearing from the glass sight-feed oiler.
The Goold, Shapley and Muir Co. Ltd., of Brantford, built farm equipment under the trade name of 'Ideal'. This line of machines included concrete mixers, steel wind mills, gasoline engines and pumps.
This manufacturer built both vertical and horizontal models. In their catalog were statements that they were the oldest builder of gasoline engines in Canada, and testimonial letters were dated from 1909 to 1912.
The horizontal model, single cylinder, closed water jacket engine was built on a heavy cast iron base which included the main bearing shells and boss for the camshaft and governor.
The long cylinder is bolted to the base by parallel flanges on each side. The high base permits the two large flywheels to clear the floor. A side rod operated from a cam on the timing gear opens the mechanical exhaust valve in the cylinder head. The igniter is tripped by the push rod. The flyball governor operates through gears and is located above the timing pinion. The function of the governor to control the gasoline and air intake maintained a constant speed. A thumb screw adjustment was provided to change the r.p.m. of the engine.
Fuel was injected into the air intake mixing valve fitting by a plunger pump mounted on the side of the cylinder and operated by the side rod. Phosphor bronze bearings are used and the crankshaft was forged from a steel billet then turned and finished. The connecting rod had an adjustable bearing box, similar to a steam engine, and was fitted with bronze bearings.
THE BIG PULL! This house was hauled from way out in the country to Vulcan, Alberta, where it still stands (today it is quite a modern house, having been remodelled). This picture was taken in 1915. The lead engine (owned by W. H. Jurney & Sons) is a 25 HP American - Abell steamer; the engineer, Howard Jurney, (my Dad), can be seen at the rear of this engine. The second engine was owned by a neighbor, and is a 30 HP IHC gas.
Valves were in cages and were accessible for easy maintenance. A combination natural gas and gasoline fuel intake fitting was available for these engines for adaptation for oil filled duty.
The company also built a single cylinder, vertical engine which was a four cycle, water hopper-cooled, much resembling the appearance of a Novo engine. It was a closed crankcase machine with double flywheels and a single weight governor built into the flywheel. The timing gear and push rod for operating the mechanical exhaust valve were outside the crankcase. The valves could be removed from the inside of the water hopper by unscrewing the plugs which were in place above the valves.
These vertical engines were made in two sizes of 1-1/2 and 2-1/2 HP and were called the Brantford Upright Gasoline Engine.
This company also manufactured a horizontal modification which was sold under the name of Ideal Gasoline Engine.
This style engine was single cylinder, four cycle, water hopper-cooled engine, built in ratings of 3-1/2 and 4-1/2 HP. The engine was built on a large cast iron base which afforded an adequate foundation bearing surface. The fuel tank was located in this base and the base was cast with the main bearing shells integral with the crankcase. The cylinder was fastened to the crankcase by parallel flanges along each side.
The water hopper was cast on the cylinder and was ample capacity for cooling the engine under maximum rated horsepower. They were high class machines with many of the features of the closed cylinder engines made by this company.
The same type of side rod operated the fuel pump, exhaust valve and igniter. This provided the customers the choice of the open water hopper or closed water jacket cooling.
Combination pumping units were assembled at the factory with either deep well cylinder type working heads or piston type suction pumps generally known in the trade as Bulldozer Pumps. A portable fruit spraying outfit was assembled with this bull-dozer pump, and engine with a large wooden spray tank for orchard spraying.
An opposed cylinder engine from this manufacturer was produced in 28 and 45 HP. They were four cycle, with a heavy cast iron base to which the cylinders were bolted by parallel flanges along the sides. With a single crankshaft in heavy main bearings, the shaft was extended to both sides to accommodate double flywheels and a drive pulley.
Cylinders were closed, water-jacketed with a circulating water cooling header connecting to the water jackets to a vertical cooling tank with a pump; or a cooling system could be piped for running water.
The governor and camshaft were located in the center of the machine with a lay shaft to operate the exhaust valves which were located on the under side of the cylinder head with the intake automatic valves on top.
A long intake manifold or header with the mixing valve was located on the side of the engine with the lay shaft. The governor was on the opposite side. These opposed cylinder engines were used to power heavy tractors built by the company and patented in 1909 and 1910.
The 28 HP engine was used on the tractor having a rating of 20-28 HP and the 45 HP engine on the tractor with a rating of 3045 HP.
The engines were installed longitudinally on a heavy steel frame. The locomotion drive was through a friction clutch to a reduction gear and to an internal gear of the large drive wheels. The tractor was arranged with a canopy top and the driving wheels were protected with fenders.
The cooling system consisted of a large radiator in front of the engine and a second tube radiator above the engine, under the canopy. Steering system was Goold, Shapley patent which was a double rack and pinion which moved in opposite directions when the pinion, which was between them, was turned. Steering rods were connected to the end of the racks and to the front axle to provide positive motion for turning the vehicle. Two exhaust mufflers were installed, one at each end of the opposed cylinders which were mounted in a vertical position. The governor was located on the engine with a speed control lever to the driver.
Gilson engines were painted green and the specifications are as follows:
FLYWHEEL DIA. INCHES
CRANKSHAFT DIA. -INCHES
28 x 2
38 x 2-1/4
Specifications of the Goold, Shapley and Muir gasoline engines are as follows:
The London Gas Power Co. Ltd., of London, Canada manufactured an engine very similar to the Novo. It was vertical, single cylinder, four cycle, water hopper-cooled machine built in sizes of 1-1/2, 2-1/2, 3-1/2, and 4-1/2 HP.
The cast iron base has an enclosed crankcase in on casting, with main bearing housing cast in place. These were babbitt-lined and the half of the bearing separate and bolted in place.
A circular flange on the bottom of the cylinder casting provided means for fastening to the top of the crankcase. The open water hopper contained openings for the insertion of the vertical valves, with plugs on top.
A pinion on the crankshaft drives the timing gear and the camshaft for operating the exhaust valve push rod and the fuel pump. The intake valve was automatic. A circuit breaker located on the side of the crankcase was also operated from the camshaft, and battery ignition system and a high tension spark plug was used on these engines.
A single weight spring-loaded governor was used and installed on the flywheel with a speed adjustment. The hit and miss action of the governor holds open the exhaust valve on the idle strokes.
The mixing valve is a simple gasoline chamber with a needle valve and an air intake fitting. The fuel pump maintains a constant fluid level in the mixing valve with an overflow back to the main fuel tank in the base of the engine.
There were no specifications as to bore and strike and r.p.m. etc., as this information was taken from a repair parts book furnished by Alex Edgar of Ayr, Ontario.
While the Petter engine built by Petter Oil Engine Ltd., of Yeovil, England does not strictly comply with the design of engines normally included in these articles, it has in respects been used in the same kind of applications throughout Canada as the gasoline engine in the small comparative ratings. This report has been made possible by the loan of catalogs from Harold Gaddye of Binbrook, Ontario. Undoubtedly, many are in museums and in private collections.
Petters engines were designed to operate with petrol (gasoline), parafiin (kerosene) and other crude oils. Under this classification, the smaller rated engines really could be called gasoline engines. They would be known under the terminology as a semi-diesel engine, or an engine of moderate compression ratio that has no electrical ignition system. They are started by a blow torch heating the combustion chamber starting tube. After the engine has run long enough to be warmed up, the torch is turned off and the engine continues to burn the injected fuel by the heat of combustion due to the compression pressure.
The Petter Jr. model is a two cycle, single cylinder, vertical engine with a closed crankcase, a fuel injection system and a crankcase air intake of the two port design. This small engine is really a gasoline engine as it has a high tension magneto ignition system and uses a spark plug. The engine is started on gasoline and after it is running, it is changed over to use kerosene. They were built in ratings of 3, 5 and 8 HP.
The 1-1/2 HP 'Little Pet' engines were available in styles with water hopper-cooling, closed water jacket or air-cooled. This air-cooled model was intended for light loads and had a fan to force cooling air through an air jacket around the cylinder.
This engine was constructed on a cast iron sub-base which was used for a fuel tank. The crankcase and cylinder were cast in one piece. Hand hole plates were provided on one side of the crankcase for access to rod adjustments. The air intake flapper valve was on the opposite side of the crankcase. The end closures carried the main bearings.
The cylinder head on the water-cooled units was water-cooled and contained the spark plug. The piston is of the wing type having a defecting rib on the top to guide the incoming charge of fuel to the top of the combustion chamber and to create better scavenging of the burned gases. The exhaust manifold is large and connected to the exhaust outlet port to provide quick expansion of the burned gases emitting from the combustion space.
The water hopper is designed so that it can be left open, or a top put on, to make a closed water jacket of the circulation of the coolant. The flyball governor is spring loaded and acts on a fulcrum and sleeve to control the amount of fuel injected as required by the load on the engine to maintain the proper speed. The engine is set to run at 750 r.p.m. The magneto is gear driven and mounted on the side of the crankcase.
The water-cooled version of these engines is called the 'Petter Jr.' while the air-cooled is known as 'The Little Pet'. This later machine was shipped on skids and weighed only about 30 lbs. and sold for S90.00.
The 'Petter Jr.' engines specifications were as follows:
FLYWHEEL DIAMETER INCHES
17 x 2-1/2
22 x 3
26 x 2-1/2
The Petter semi-diesel engine was built in a single and two cylinder machines. They were two cycle, vertical, with closed crankcase and mounted on a cast iron sub-base. The enclosed crankcase was similar to the smaller machines with the air flapper intake valve. The same type of wing piston was standard and the exhaust manifold was of the small design. The injection fuel system was used and the hot tube starting device. The stationary models were fitted with double flywheels and the governor provided close speed control. Specifications of the Petter semi-diesel stationary engines are as follows:
FLYWHEEL DIAMETER INCHES
33-1/2 x 4-1/2
42 x 4-1/2
33-1/2 x 5-1/2
39 x 6
Air compresser built by Tom Jensen. Two cylinder refrigeration compresser and motor, 12 gallon tank. Works very good. I always say if you haven't got it, make it.
Engines were painted dark green with polished flywheel face.
A complete line of marine engines were manufactured by Petter including the 'Petter Jr.' They were of the customary marine style with a cast iron base on which the engine and reverse gear was assembled. A chain cranking device was fitted to the flywheel end that was raised and chain driven to the crankshaft. The usual blow torch heating arrangement was used and in later models, electric heating plugs were available. Units were offered in ratings of 6 HP at 250-725 rpm, a 10 HP at 250-600 rpm and a 15 to 40 HP with no specifications.
Electric generating sets were assembled for battery charging for residential lighting. These were belt-driven units with a switchboard mounted on and above the generator. The smaller capacity generating outfits were 600-1000 and 2000 watt capacity available either with or without storage batteries.
The direct connected generating sets were built in the following sizes of the Petter Jr. engines: 1-1/2 HP - 750 rpm -3/4 KW - L 80; 3 HP - 750 rpm - 1.5 KW - L 150; 5 HP-750 rpm - 3 KW - L 165; 8 HP - 600 rpm - 4.5 KW - L 245
Besides the power units and lighting plants, Petter also built pump combination with piston and centrifugal pumps in capacities of 350 to 2200 gallons per hour. Other pump assemblies were available with 1-1/2, 3, 5 and 8 HP engines on trucks for portable outfits in capacities of 140 to 600 rpm. Also, rotary and piston pump outfits were made for particular applications.
It is with some constraint that this installment has been written. Not being familiar with details of many of the Canadian, engines and proper names, there are possibly some errors and corrections to be made.
As this article is being written, word has been received that Gerald S. Lestz, has become the new owner of the Steamgas Publishing Company. I wish him every success in publishing these two well established magazines. Both the Iron-Men Album and the Gas Engine Magazine have met with enthusiastic acceptance of the readers.
I hope to see continued dissemination of useful information for the readers to assist every engine buff in the pursuit of their hobby.
'Hornsby' Petrol Engine approximately 1910 vintage, manufactured by R. Hornsby & Sons Ltd., Grantham & Stockport, England. Bore 4-3/4', stroke 5', No. 34,336. Low tension ignition. Governor opens a third valve when speed drops lower than set on the spring. Third valve closes off petrol and air mixture which is fired and then closes when correct speed is reach - an unusual type of hit and miss governor. I am standing behind engine.
'Hornsby' No. 34,336 was mounted on an old wooden sledge when I got it. The under cart and cooling tank rig I made up out of bits and pieces, so it could be made portable. This picture was taken at our Annual Floral Festival in Methven. We had it in the procession pulled by a small Burrell traction engine.