Courtesy of Richard A. Griffin, R. 3, Box 243, Adrian, Michigan 49221.
3904 41th Ave. S., Seattle, Washington 98118
The old saying 'He met his fate at Waterloo' was true when Napoleon was defeated at that Belgium city in 1815, however this had not been the case at the namesake of this famous city in Iowa.
It was at Waterloo, Iowa, that such gasoline engine manufacturing companies as The William Galloway Co., Waterloo Gasoline and Traction Engine Co., Water-loo Gasoline Engine Co., Cascaden Manufacturing Co., Davis Gasoline Engine Co., Iowa Gasoline Engine Co., Water-loo Motor Works, Associated Manufacturing Co., Dart Manufacturing Co., Litchfield Manufacturing Co., Padden and Pett Co., Caldwell & Hallowell Co., H. W. Caldwell & Sons, Chase Gas Engine Co. and the Kelly Manufacturing Co. all started business in this city.
Through the courtesy of the Museum of History and Science of Waterloo, I am able to give you the details of the early activities of the above companies who produced many of the nation's engines in the early 1900s.
In 1899 William Galloway (1877-1952) began his industrial business in Reinbeck, Iowa, a small town in Grundy County. He had a partner, D. J. Wilson. They only continued business here for a few months and then moved to Waterloo, Iowa.
Here, they continued in business and in 1902 Mr. Galloway bought a carload of one cylinder Cadillacs and displayed them in front of his office as the first Cadillac dealer, which was across the street from the present post office. He continued this agency for five years when a young man, Mr. C. A. Morris, took over the interests of this dealership.
Having gained considerable experience in the automobile business, Mr. Galloway decided to get into the manufacturing of automobiles. In 1904, with the assistance of Henry Greutsmacher, a carriage maker, they built their first horseless carriage and drove it for a year. This car was equipped with a steering wheel instead of the lever as used on other cars of those times.
After this experience, he organized the William Galloway Company in 1906 and produced a harrow cart in which the operator could ride behind a harrow. From the success of this venture, they added a manure spreader, a cream separator and the Galloway Gasoline Engine to their manufacturing line of agricultural equipment.
They needed a larger plant, so the Cascaden Manufacturing Company plant was purchased and added to their facilities. The capital stock of the Company was increased to $100,000.00.
It was at this time that he started in the general merchandise mail order business and his slogan was, 'The House that divides the melon.' The company was successful and his personal attention in creating satisfied customers made his company known from coast to coast.
To digress a little from farm engines to automobiles -- a historical event was unfolding at this time which fits into our story of the William Galloway Company.
To the northwest of Waterloo on a farm near Rockford, Iowa, the Duesen-berg family had migrated from Germany in the 1880s. Fred, who was one of the three sons, was mechanically inclined and was not content with farming, soon set out on his own and took employment with a farm implement dealer. After a few years, he went to building bicycles and by the age of 20, he was well known for his vehicle as he had won a number of races.
I would like to know of someone who has an engine like this one. It is a Moore Gasoline Engine made by Moore Plow and Implement Company, Greenville, Michigan, Serial Number 1067,4 hp. I have restored and painted the original color except for the water pump mounted on the side. I need to know what the piston and connecting rod for the water pump looks like and sizes. Can anyone help me with this?
A rare 20-40 Sawyer-Massey gas tractor in the Ontario bush. The owner, center, used it to thresh in 1938 for the last time. My father is standing by the rear wheel. My son is seated on the tractor.
I won the Ontario Steam Preserver's trophy at Milton in 1968 for this 6 hp. International engine, which my father bought new in 1922.
This picture was taken at the Eastern Ontario Steam Show at Campbellford, July 1969, early one morning. We were using the 6 hp. to saw a few slabs for the steam engines.
He ventured into bigger fields of endeavor as he sold his bicycle business and hired out to Thomas B. Jeffery at Kenosha, Wisconsin. Tom Jeffery was building the motor carriage known as the Rambler. Fred Duesenberg continued with this company for a couple of years, returning to Des Moines, Iowa, where he opened the second garage in that city under the name of Automobile and Supply Company.
Apparently, his experience in servicing the horseless carriages that came to his garage gave him ambition to build a better automobile. With this thought uppermost in his mind, he began to design a car. With his mechanical ability, he required finances to put his theories into practice and he was fortunate to interest a young man by the name of Mason into his company, which was founded under the name of the Mason Motor Car Company. They turned out the first Mason cars in 1906. They advertised a 24 hp. 2-cylinder opposed engine having a 5' bore and 5'' stroke, and with four speed transmission at a price of $1250.00 for a five passenger touring car.
This car was produced for three years when Fred Maytag bought out the company with his friend, William Galloway, who had arranged with him to move the Maytag-Mason Motor Company to Waterloo. There, they turned out five to six cars per day at the Galloway factory. Due to major mechanical troubles in the rear axle, the manufacture of the car was discontinued.
Fred Duesenberg moved to St. Paul, where with his brother, Augie, they built marine engine for speed boats. During World War One, they were called back to New Jersey, where they designed and built large engines for marine products, tractors and automobiles. After the war, these two brothers produced some of the finest automobiles ever built, with the slogan -- 'Duesenberg - The Power of the Hour.'
After this venture in the automobile manufacturing business, The Galloway Company continued to build the farm machinery for which they were now famous. The factory now covered over 14 acres of floor space and employed from 800 to 900 people. William Galloway was President, J. D. Brinkeroff, Vice President; J. W. Henderson, Secretary and Treasurer and J. T. Swift, F. W. Powers, C. E. Prickett and E. W. Miller were directors.
A complete line of gasoline engines were offered the farmers and other trades, as they advertised many interesting features on their engines, as:--'Rigid one-piece construction, with the crankshaft held absolutely square with the bore of the cylinder' -- 'Extra long, easy angle I beam connecting rods'
--'Adjustable Long Life connecting rod bearings' -- 'Automatic constant pressure crankpin lubrication' -- 'Constant level fuel tank' (which was mounted between the flywheels on the frame of the engine) -- 'Machine cut gears' -- 'Sensitive fuel-saving economy governor' -- (This was of the flywheel type, hit and miss adjustable speed variation). 'Easy start, economy gasifier mixing valve' -- 'Exhaust valve 40% larger than intake valve' -- 'Large cooling water hopper' (choice of Webster or Wico magneto). The engines were built in the following sizes and specifications:
|SIZE OF||BORE&||DIA.&||DIA. OF||TWO||CRANK|
During the first World War, Galloway Company built over a million and a half dollars worth of tractors for the British Government. Their tractor was selected after numerous competitive contests with other manufacturers and received the contract on the merit of their worm drive design. They also won First Prize at an exhibition at the Royal Palace show in London, competing with United States and foreign makes. After all of these successful demonstrations and the delivery of the machines, the British Government failed to pay for a portion of this large order, which dealt a big financial blow to the Galloway Company ; as the loss was nearly a half million dollars.
This financial loss caused William Galloway to lose his business in 1920. The new owners operated under the same Galloway name.
During Mr. Galloway's active business career, he was nearly a one-man Chamber of Commerce, as Waterloo and William Galloway were almost synonymous. The Galloway Agricultural Club was a reception center for visiting customers from all over the world. Here at the factory, lodging and meals were available. The generous and municipally spirited Mr. Galloway gave Thomas Cascaden, Jr. the credit for starting the industrial development at Waterloo. Thomas Cascaden, Sr. was building gasoline engines when William Galloway moved to Waterloo. Cascaden Mfg. Company was associated with several other companies as they built the Cascaden-Waughan steam traction engines. They were successors to the Waterloo Threshing Machine Company. The 'Winneshiek' grain separator was built by this company.
During World War Two the Galloway Company, now owned and operated by a different group of men, made bomb fuse parts and anti-aircraft gun tripods and in 1952 they went back into the production of farm implements.
While the company he founded carried on with his name, it was back in 1927 that Mr. Galloway again went back into business on Ansborough Ave., under the name of William Galloway & Sons. His sons, David J. and Hugh J., acted as Secretary and Treasurer. Operating with their well established policies, they soon built up a good business. They tested seeds, sold Canadian oats, oat hullers and other farm specialties. Senior Galloway was then able to buy back his home on Cedar Heights. William Galloway passed away in 1952.
Cascaden-Vaughan Company traction engines and separators were widely advertised and their slogan was, 'It saves the grain' as their patented oscillating device -- the 'missing link' did the business. The 1907 model of the steam traction engine was a large well built power unit with the engine placed on the boiler with the cylinder over the front axle and the flywheels midway of the length of the boiler. This machine looks to be almost an exact duplicate of the traction engine shown on page 65 of Vol. 24 - No. 3, Jan.-Feb. 1970 issue of Iron-Men Album Magazine, which according to the very small print under the front wheel in this picture shows, 'Crescent Engine Company of Chicago.' Possibly, Crescent Engine Company took over the manufacturing of the steam traction engines when, as stated previously, William Galloway purchased the Cascaden Manufacturing Company in 1910 when they quit business and Thomas Cascaden, Jr. went with the Davis Gasoline Engine Company in the Westfield addition at Waterloo.
Davis Gas Engine Company built the Triple Geared Feed Mill called the Cascadens 'Giant Killer No. 14,' for wheat, corn, oats and rye. It was a sweep mill and was advertised as, 'The Most Durable Feed Mill on the Market.' 'Every man his own miller by using Cascaden's Giant Killer.'
Davis Gasoline Engine Company started the manufacture of gasoline engines in Kansas City in 1893. W. F.
A snapshot of my son, Verle, with the 1-hp. Fairbanks-Morse engine we bought and restored together. I notice it gets started about fifteen times a day, not counting a time or two that I might start it.
Davis, the founder of the company, became acquainted with Thomas Cascaden, Jr. and in 1896 moved his plant to Waterloo. The company was reorganized in 1899 under the name of the Davis Engine Works Company with Thomas Cascaden, Jr. as President, William F. Davis as Vice-President, J. R. Swift as Secretary, F. G. Ballow, Treasurer and W. F. Mezrick, Superintendent. In 1902 this company was merged with the Waterloo Gas Engine Company.
Speaking again of the Waterloo Gasoline and Traction Engine Company as organized by John Froelich, as mentioned in the previous installment, has for the officers: John Froelich, George B. Miller, Louis W. Witry and J. E. Johnson. Seldom were engineers, officers or directors of these companies,-but an exception did occur in this case, as Louis W. Witry was the designer of the Waterloo Gasoline engine. This engine was very dependable and they were sold all over the world.
One of the first automobiles ever constructed and used in this vicinity was designed by Mr. Witry and built in their factory. However, the ever increasing demand for gasoline engines caused the company to abandon the building of cars, in favor of the gasoline engine and tractors.
One reason for the popularity of the 'Waterloo Boy' gasoline engine was the simplicity of it. The design followed the general type of single cylinder, horizontal, four cycle machine with cylinder and crank end of the engine cast in one piece. There were only two timing gears and a small governor pinion with two weights. The engine speed was adjustable by a small lever near the governor. An igniter of the make and break type was located in the side of cylinder which was actuated by the exhaust valve push rod. These engines were built in the following sizes:
|HORSEPOWER||BORE & STROKE||WEIGHT||PULLEY SIZE|
|1?||3?x5'||72 lbs.||10' x 6'|
I found this post card in an old house that I helped to move years ago. I cannot identify it nor could I find anyone else around here that could name it. It looks like a Minneapolis made by the Minneapolis Threshing Machine Company of Hopkins, Minnesota, but I have not seen a Minneapolis on the order of this one. The engine sets in the tractor lengthwise, instead of cross-mounted like all the old tractors that the Great Minneapolis Line built at that time. Also, this has a vertical four cylinder engine in it.
Waterloo Boy Kerosene and Gasoline Engines of the stationary and portable types were built in 2-3-5-7-9-14 and 25 hp. in 1921. Gasoline engines were available in 2-3 and 5 hp.
In 1901 J. E. Briden and associates organized the Iowa Gasoline Engine Company at Waterloo. They designed these engines that were small farm type machines of a high grade and in sizes up to 3? hp.
The company produced engines until 1906 when the name was changed to the Iowa Machine and Heat Treat Company. The officers were: C. J. Shaw, President; W. E. Fox, Vice-President; C. Sorenson, Secretary and J. E. Briden, Treasurer.
A number of men of the various engine manufacturing companies in Waterloo combined into a company known as the Waterloo Motor Works. The officers of this company in 1903 were: George B. Miller, President;
O. V. Eckert, Vice-President; A. Lupton, Vice-President; F. B. Ballon, Secretary and Treasurer; T. C. Menges, Superintendent and L. Witry, Foreman. They built various types of engines for stationary machines and vehicles.
Frank and Charles Duryea built their first successful horseless carriage in 1893. They founded the Duryea Motor Wagon Company in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1896 and built about twelve motor carriages of the same design. In 1901, they combined their business with J. Stevens Arms and Tool Company, which became known as the Stevens-Duryea Company.
During 1895 Charles Duryea moved to Peoria, Illinois, and built a new type of engine. The early cars had an engine designed by Carl Benz. At Peoria changes were made in the construction of their cars and patent No. 540,648 to J. F. Duryea shows a single cylinder, four cycle water-cooled engine with 43/4' x 5 3/8' bore and stroke. The unusual feature of this engine was the arrangement of the cylinder mounted on the side with the crankshaft operating in a vertical position, with one flywheel turning in a horizontal plane and under the engine. The crank was extended downward with a bevel gear mounted on the end, which was located in a gear box or transmission. These gears made it possible for various gear ratios and a reverse. A drive gear extended from this gear box to a bevel gear on the rear axle and differential. The engine had a hit and miss governor, an electrical ignition with a battery and coil, and a make and break igniter. Two tanks, of a two gallon capacity, were mounted at the rear of the car. One was for engine cooling water and the other for a fuel tank.
By now you may be wondering why all this dissertation on the Duryea horseless carriage and where it had any connection with Waterloo. In 1906 the Waterloo Motor Works advertised as follows: 'Manufacturers of the Famous Duryea Automobile Gasoline Engines'. So not only one, but two of the famous early automobile engines and cars were made in the city of Waterloo.
Another manufacturing company came into being in 1896 at Waterloo, known as the Associated Manufacturing Company. It was founded by W. W. Marsh, President and Treasurer and H. B. Plumb was the Vice-President and
Secretary. Their first product was a hand-operated cream separator, which was very well accepted and for which the company was known for many years. With this success they went into the gasoline engine business and built engines from 1 3/4 hp. to 25 hp.
With an attractive advertising slogan, they built the 'Iowa Oversized Engines' and 'The Hired Man Engine'. They claimed these to be the 'longest-lived engines manufactured'. This company continued in business until 1946 when purchased by the Hamilton Engine Company of Chicago, but continued to operate under the Associated name until they went out of business a few years ago-
Several other companies of which little history is obtainable were also located in Waterloo. The Litchfield Manufacturing Company was established in 1903 by H. L. and C. E. Litchfield. They had been active in Webster City, Iowa where they started in 1879. Their corn pickers, wagons, manure spreaders and tractor trailers had made their reputation over much of our country.
In 1911 they built a very interesting engine. There were only a few of these single cylinder vertical air-cooled engines made by the company, as it seems they had trouble with patent rights.
A 40-62 Huber Tractor which made its first show this past year at the Central States Thresherman's Reunion. It takes a lot of time and work to overhaul, clean and paint this machinery and then it's another thing to take care of it thereafter -one thing, I do have a nice big shed to store my equipment.
I am indebted to our good readers, Mr. and Mrs. Claude Knudson of Gulley, Minnesota for an excellent colored picture of one of the beautifully restored Litchfield engines. This was the mystery engine that Claude Knudson tried for fourteen years to learn the name of the manufacturer. GEM readers came to his assistance and the Museum at Waterloo furnished the rest of the missing links, so now the engine is properly catalogued among engine collectors. I understand this is a six cycle engine, which adds even more to the value of this antique. Are there any other six cycle engines in existence?
Besides the engine manufacturers already mentioned in Waterloo, there was The Dart Manufacturing Co. headed by Charles W. Hellen and it was part of the Galloway enterprises. In 1914 this company was incorporated as the Dart Motor Truck Company.
Then there was the Padden & Pett Company that built gasoline engines, pumps and windmills.
Caldwell and Hollowell Company and H. W. Caldwell & Son, who have been mentioned previously, were associated in Chicago, and later Caldwell was a partner of John Charter, who at one time operated in Waterloo. Later John Charter was an engineer with Fairbanks, Morse and Company.
Two other companies were the Chase Gas Engine Company and the Kelly Manufacturing Company, who in 1915 built kerosene engines, drays and graders. Undoubtedly there is much more history connected with the enterprising companies of this city in the hey-day of engine building such as their problems, competition and endeavors to build a more dependable engine than the other manufacturers. These companies had a great potential for engine business with the farmers that were learning for the first time what labor saving equipment meant to the hard working men in the pursuit of agriculture. This is somewhat evident judging from the trade names the engine manufacturers gave to their small stationary and portable gasoline farm engines, such as: 'Jack-of-all-Trades',
'The Master Workman', 'Tom Thumb', 'Sattley', 'Economy', 'Titan, Jr.', 'F & J Farm Pump Engine', 'Bulls Eye', 'Bull Dog', 'The Hired Man', 'Jack Junior', 'Iowa Oversized Engine' and 'Eclipse Pumper' and possibly many more.
These small engines were applied in every possible combination to make complete engineered units with the engines and the driven units properly designed for one to the other. Such outfits as water pumps, windmill pump engine units, engines geared to large walking beams to raise water from very deep wells, in combinations of geared drive to piston pattern pumps. The application of engines to cord wood saws ran the entire gamut in the stationary and portable rigs. The use of the wood stove in those days made a big demand for this type of equipment. The outfits were well constructed on steel wagon frames with steel wheels and in the cold parts of the country, they were available with heating type cast-iron radiators used as the cooling device for oil-cooled engines to prevent freezing.
This picture is of all the Rumely Oil Pull Models - have had many, many old timers visit me this summer and they have convinced me that they were never ever collected together in one place at one time before this. When I think back on the time and expense that I went to -- I can see why! These 18 Rumely machines came from twelve different states and Canada.
I had them hauled to LaPorte, Indiana, on the 4th of July and took them back into the Rumely Plant, where they were built (now Allis Chalmers). Then, they were taken down the Main Street of LaPorte in their 4th of July Parade. A. D. helped me out by locating all the old-time Rumely employees still living and sent each one a letter of invitation and set up chairs for them to see the parade. They truly enjoyed this, I know, as they expressed their thanks.
My father worked for Rumely Company from 1910 to 1931 and then for A. Chalmers until he retired. He passed away eight years ago and if he had lived, he would have had the day of his life on the 4th of July.
You can see from the hood on the E-30-60 Rumely, that we even had an accident with the viaduct on the way to LaPorte. I could almost write a story from the experiences I had in collecting, restoring and locating all models of the machines. They were all running on the trucks during the parade, but quite a few quit on us because no one was with all models and they need a gentle hand on them from time to time.
(Earl had a paper listing the models as: Back Row- Rumely Do-All, Rumely 6, Rumely 15-30 Gas Pull 1912. Center row: E-30-60; G-20-40; M-20-35; S-30-60; H-14-28; R-25-45; F-15-30; Z-40-60; Y-30-50 and B-25-45. Front Row: L-15-25; H-16-30; W-20-30; K-12-20 and X-25-40.)
The old engine catalogs show suggested applications of engines on the farm in the dairy, for irrigation, grinding grain, cream separators, churns, corn shelters, sheep shearing machines and running the first power-driven family washing machines. When the urban dweller began to enjoy the use of electricity, it was not long until the suburban home had the same conveniences, made by his own gasoline engine-driven electric light plants.
As early as 1902 these generator plants were available in a number of types. The engine driving the generator with a long flat belt and a switchboard on the wall producing direct current was possibly the first type available. Then came the combination engine and battery plant, making it possible to enjoy the electricity in the evening and at night without the bother of looking after a running engine, and to have a quiet period of the environment.
Development of the small lighting plant was rapid and generators and engines were designed for direct connection to improve dependability and conserve space. These units were quite reliable and were available in sizes from ? K.W. to 7? K.W. which were sufficient capacity to supply electric lights for many stores and shops in those days before the use of so many electric signs.
The gasoline engine was a pioneer in our country. It developed the rural areas, making it profitable for the power companies to extend their transmission lines into these districts where the homes were already wired for electric generating plants. As the power lines reached farmers, they would then sell their private electric light plants to their neighbors beyond the reach of the high line. In this way gasoline engines for power and for generation of electricity filled the needs in rural areas until the districts were populated to warrant further extensions of the power lines of the power companies.
One of the rare ones, this 1? hp. Emerson-Brantingham is now in running order. The engine belongs to me but Jim Kovar, R. R., Clarinda, Iowa, put it back in good form. He has given me the instructions to color the engine red, the trademark green and the letters yellow. This engine was in poor shape (cobbled up - to some of you) but Jim has a loving mother's touch with engines that need a helping hand.
My Omaha 4 hp. gas engine patented in 1900. I have 17 engines.