While this copy will be in your hands during December of 1996, this is actually the first issue of 1997, and begins the 32nd year of the Gas Engine Magazine. It seems impossible that some thirty-five years ago or more, we were urging the late Elmer Ritzman to come out with a magazine for the gas engine and tractor folks, as compared to the ever-popular steam hobby. Elmer finally took the plunge, and here we are, continuing his legacy.
Before Elmer finally went ahead with GEM, ye olde Reflector gave serious thought to starting a magazine devoted to the gas engine and tractor hobby. How well we recall the counsel from some of our friends, mostly to the effect that, 'it sounds pretty risky to me... how much can you write about engines and tractors?...this hobby could just be a flash in a pan, and it'll dwindle out after a few years.' In hindsight, we're glad we never got into the magazine business, what with monthly deadlines and all...we have enough problems just meeting the GEM deadline for the column you're reading!
We're delighted to tell you that we've just signed a contract with Krause Publications to do an Encyclopedia of American Farm Machinery. That might not be the exact title, but it gives you an idea of what we're talking about. We've got a tremendous amount of material through which to sift, and it's a big project, so guess what we'll be doing this winter! It also gives us great pleasure to tell you that we're going to be doing a Standard Catalog of Tractors for Krause Publications. They've pioneered with their Standard Catalog of American Automobiles, and some of you may be familiar with this one.
We've got lots of material this month, but before we start with the queries, here's our opportunity to express our sincerest wishes for a joyous and happy Christmastide, and a healthy and prosperous New Year! We truly wish we could personally thank each of you and please take this message as a very personal way of extending the best of Holiday Wishes! Our first query is:
32/1/1 Johnson Motor Wheel Q. I recently acquired a twin-cylinder Johnson Motor Wheel on which I need information. This 1 HP, two-cycle engine is in excellent shape and has good spark to both plugs. The original gas tank is missing, a sheet metal cooling fan had been attached and the engine had been attached to a homemade mount to operate something other than a bicycle. I would like to authenticate its original usage by mounting it on an early model bicycle after I complete the restoration of the engine.
Any assistance, such as brochures, parts list, owner's manual, or personal knowledge regarding the mounting of the engine on the fender, wheel sprocket, shock-aborbing springs, method of operating head and tail lights off the flywheel magneto, and the like, would be greatly appreciated. Loren Erwin, PO Box 701, Carthage, MO 64836-0701.
32/1/2 Co-op/Cockshutt Tractor Q. I have a Co-op Cockshutt 30 tractor, s/n 5875-K-193. I would like to know more about it, especially its age, the proper color scheme, and any other information I can find. Thank you. Kurt Seachrist, 45534 Riffle Rd., Lisbon, OH 44432.
A. We're not sure of the age, but assuming the first four digits to be the Cockshutt number, that would put it at 1947. We have it that the Co-op tractors manufactured by Cockshutt are Red, Martin-Senour 90T22014. Those made by Duplex and Huber are DuPont Red, B8241. Perhaps someone can supply additional information for you.
32/1/3 IHC Mogul Q. What is the proper color for an IHC Mogul engine? In November 1993 of GEM, your listing gave DuPont 93-29709-H Olive Green, but DuPont can't give me any information. Can you help? Norbert Breitkreutz, 432 E. Lincoln Ave., Hartford, WI 53027.
A. The current DuPont listing is 29609 for the Olive Green. You should be able to get this from any DuPont dealer.
32/1/4 Reid Engine Q. I just bought a 15 HP Reid engine out of the oil fields of West Virginia. I'd like to find out the year built, and the bore and stroke dimensions for the various HP engines. My engine is s/n 4932. Frank O'Meara, 19991 Birchwood Loop, Chugiak, Alaska 99567.
32/1/5 Ferguson Service Unit Q. See the photos of a Ferguson 'On the Farm' service unit. It was used for tune ups on Ferguson tractors. One side has Sun gauges, small tune up tools, and the other side has a Continental engine with an air compressor unit and hose for servicing tires. Can anyone supply further information on this unit? Michael E. Schultz, 1650 Schust Rd., Saginaw, MI 48604.
32/1/6 Fennell Co. Engine Q. See the photo of an engine I recently acquired. It is a hit-and-miss model, and the plate reads, W. E. Fennell Co. Pumping Machinery, Boston, Mass. The flywheel has a casting number of U-4044, and the head has a number of 2T-10. Can anyone supply further information on this engine? Tony D'Amato Jr., 50 Bennett St., Hudson, MA 01749.
A. Tony is a young collector, age 12. If you can be of help to this young collector, kindly do so.
32/1/7 Calculating Horsepower Q. In the March 1987 issue, page 10, you gave a formula for calculating delivered brake horsepower as D2LN over X. My memory says that you gave a correction in a later issue, but I have not been able to locate the correction. Is the formula correct? If not, I will appreciate the corrected formula or reference to the proper issue. Joe Williams, 3121 Creek Road, Kingsvilk, OH 44048.
A. First of all, the generic term horsepower can mean several different things. There's theoretical or calculated horsepower which means exactly what it says, and doesn't account for any losses due to friction, etc. There's flywheel horsepower which doesn't account for the losses due to fans, generators and other integral equipment. There's calculated horsepower which is what we're talking about here, and with the proper formulas gives some indication of the output. Then there's brake horsepower with the results shown on a dynamometer or other test equipment. This rating is the most indicative of what's available, since all operating losses are accounted for, and what's delivered to the dynamometer is what's available for work.
E. W. Roberts in the Gas Engine Handbook of 1900 notes that the mean effective cylinder pressure in engines of the time averaged about 65 psi. Also of importance, engines of that era had an average piston speed of about 1,000 feet per minute. Using gasoline fuel, and a four-cycle engine, then the formula is:
H.P. = D2 x L x R/18,000
For a two-cycle engine operating on gasoline, the denominator is 13,500.
In this formula,
D = the diameter of the cylinder in inches
L = is the stroke in inches
R = revolutions per minute
Thus an engine having a 4 x 5 inch bore and stroke and operating at 500 rpm will look like this:
42 x 5 x 500/18,000
= 16 x 5 x 500, or 40000/18000
or about 2.22 horsepower.
32/1/8 Gilson Engine Q. I am a new collector and just bought a Gilson 1 HP engine on original trucks. What is the proper color scheme for the engine as well as for the trucks and wheels? Also there are two small holes on the splash guard; were these for the nameplate? Otherwise, the engine has no serial number. James R. Shaw, 3517 Blocker Dr., Kettering, OH 45420.
A. We have Gilson engines listed with DuPont RS915 Red, and trimmed in DuPont BS902 Blue. We don't know the correct color for the trucks, although most of the wheels were painted black. The holes are for the (missing) nameplate.
32/1/9 Foos Engines Q. I recently spoke with two men who had a 6 HP Foos with the disc crank. I own an 8 HP disc crank model, plus a 2 and a 4 HP Foos Jr., and a 1 HP Foos Type J engine. I would like to know if anyone has a complete Foos Junior with the water tank, fuel tank, and walking beam on an extended base? Any information would be appreciated. R. Pichel, 4260 Lower Samson Rd., Hellertown, PA 18055.
32/1/10 Ideal Engine Q. I would like to correspond with someone having an Ideal engine. Mine has a 4-inch bore, and I need to know about the gas tank and shroud. I also need information on a Detroit engine. Gary Montgomery, 294 Carver Street, Winslow, IL 61089.
32/1/11 Standard Twin Information Q. I have a Standard Twin tractor equipped with a 10-inch plow, built by Standard Engine Co. of Minneapolis, s/n 404C7167. See in photo 11A the tractor on the left is also a Standard Twin but notice the wheel hub is different than mine on the right, with yours truly right behind it. I believe the tractor on the left starts with a 500 number.
Also I have an Attwell tractor with no number but it states, Attwell Chain Tred Tractor, Patent Pending, Seattle, also a number '1' cast into the top of the transmission on the upper right corner. It is powered by an air cooled Wisconsin engine, Model AK with a 2 7/8 x 2 inch bore and stroke, s/n 893532, spec no. 19679-3. It has a 9-inch plow. See photo 11B.
Photos 11C and 11D show what the Standard Twin looked like after a bush had been chopped down that had grown up through it for twenty-some years.
Any information as to the year of manufacture, color, or anything about the company would be appreciated on all three tractors. I would appreciate corresponding with other owners of these garden tractors. Robert A. LeBaron, 5801 E. 5th St., Tucson, AZ 85711-2403.
32/1/12 Stover Model KD Q. A couple of years ago I acquired an 8 HP Stover engine, Model KD. It is badly weathered, and the bore has a large number of pits, but the surface between them is smooth and true. The main journals are pitted as well, and in addition the governor sleeve on the crankshaft is rusted solid to the crank. Does anyone have any suggestions? David E. Mikkelson, 2361 Millville Ave., Hamilton, OH 45013.
A. It's almost like opening Pandora's box to ask for suggestions, and we'll even throw in a nickel's worth: You don't indicate the location of the worst pitting in the cylinder. If it's toward the back, and you can hone it out so it's fairly bright, why not give it a try the way it is? It run in fairly well, and although it will never be optimum, it might run quite well enough for show purposes. We suppose there might be something out there such as J-B Weld or something else that might help the cause.
Regarding the governor sleeve, if it were my engine, I'd get it outdoors, heat the sleeve up about smoking hot and start in with penetrating oil. It might take a few times of this disagreeable job but it will probably loosen it up. Just don't pry too hard. We can see no problem in heating it up with the torch. In fact, by heating it, you might expand the sleeve enough that it can be moved a little. (Remember, all these jobs can be dangerous, and we're not telling you what you should do, we're just telling you what we would do if it was our engine. Also, you're hereby on your own.)
32/1/13 Babbitt Flux Q. What is the recommended flux for babbitt? Where can it be obtained? Ernest J. Richard Sr., 1510 Demosthenes St., Metairie, LA 70005-2702.
A. We've poured lots of bearings, and we've never used any sort of flux in the babbitt. On the other hand, we've also melted a lot of type metal for the Linotype, and occasionally we've used some sort of powder flux. With or without, we've never noticed any big difference. In our opinion, stirring the metal occasionally while it's coming up to pouring temperature seems to bring up any dross, and by carefully skimming it off before pouring, we've usually gotten good pours the first time.
32/1/14 Associated Engine Q. I have what I'm told is an Associated Chore Boy, but all I can make out on the tag is ed Mfg. Co., Waterloo, Iowa; 1 HP, s/n 324444. Can you tell me if this is a Chore Boy? David Krueger, Blackduck, MN 56630.
A. Look on page 34 of American Gas Engines in case there's any doubt about your engine. That should give you enough clues for a positive identification. The Associated was red, comparable to DuPont 2622. The cylinder itself and the cylinder head are silver; this was done for better heat radiation.
32/1/15 LeRoi Engine Q. I have a Type W3 LeRoi engine, s/n 103230. Can you tell me when this engine was built? V. T. Hunn, 5100 Rubidell Ln., Ft. Worth, TX 76140-8042.
A. We have no information on this engine.
32/1/16 IHC LA Engine Q. I have a McCormick-Deering 1 -2 HP engine, s/n LAA21526. Can you tell me when it was made and the correct color scheme? Gary W. Everett, 15500 Glen-wood Ave., Overland Park, KS 66223.
A. Your engine was made in 1936. Opinions vary, but IHC changed their tractors from gray to red in 1936, so they likely changed the color of the engines at the same time.
32/1/17 Standard Twin Q. I just acquired two Standard Twin garden tractors; 401C5592 with a Wico magneto and 406C8726 with a Fairbanks-Morse magneto. I would appreciate hearing from anyone having information on these garden tractors, especially the age, color scheme, and a source for parts. Allen C. Gruver, 1450 Beaver Valley Pike, Willow Street, PA 17584-7900.
32/1/18 Fairfield Engine Q. How is this for an enigma? This motor is, without doubt, a Fairfield. We are aware of four of these motors here in Australia. (However, they are shown in Australia by Invincible Motors Pty. Ltd., at Sydney.Ed.) Invincible closed in the 1960s, and there appears to be a connection but we may never know the details. Reg Ingold, 37 Seaham Street, Holmesville 2286 Australia.
32/1/19 FWD Tractors Q. My name is Michael Massa, and I study agriculture in Germany. In March 1996 I visited the Antique Gas & Steam Museum at Vista, California. My special interest is in four-wheel-drive tractors.
I'm looking for someone who can tell me more about the Knudson Company. They went bankrupt in the mid-1980s and most of their tractors were sold in Washington. They built hillside 4WD tractors of 300 and more horsepower.
I'm writing my diploma about 4WD tractors and track-type tractors and for me it is very necessary to find someone to provide technical facts on this model. Michael Massa, Heilbronner Strasse 54 74223 Flein, Germany.
32/1/20 Breisch/Peters Jay Peters of Breisch/Peters, Maria Lane, Schwenksville, PA 19473 writes:
Thanks for using the news release about our new engines. However, more than one alert reader has brought a small problem to our attention. We furnish all materials to build ONLY the Flame Licker and the Upshur. I can see how easy it was to make this error, but I hope this correction will suffice. The engine builder has to round up some material for our other castings kits; however we provide, as part of the kit, plans and directions for making the engines and any parts that are not included in the kit.
32/1/21 Witte Engine Q. See the photos of a Witte drag-saw engine recently restored. The nameplate reads: Witte Power Unit, Manufactured in the USA for Canadian Importers Ltd., Avonmouth, Bristol [England], s/n 99894.
Details obtained here in the UK regarding the importers are somewhat sketchy and with an absence of information here, I'm looking to you folks for assistance. The hopper is a little larger than those depicted on the literature I have, the oiler is on top, as opposed to the crank face of the hopper, and the dimensions are 3 x 5 inch bore and stroke. See the photos. If anyone can help, please contact Bill Bontoft, 18 0akleigh, Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, DN16 3NB United Kingdom.
A. Your engine and a number of others like it were sold to Canadian Importers in October 1940. Beyond that, we don't have any specific information on your engine.
32/1/22 Unidentified Tractor Q. See the photo of an unidentified garden tractor. It has a huge worm drive gear case with 40-107 cast into the left side of the case. On flat surface on top is stamped 4318. It has a Wisconsin AK engine with an automotive-type clutch that drives a chain to the gear case. I need some parts, and any information regarding this tractor. Wesley Faust, 1395 South Peach St., Medford, OR 97501.
32/1/23 Taylor Vacuum Engine Q. I just acquired a Taylor 2 HP vacuum engine, Type C, and s/n 13260. How old is this engine, and can anyone provide me with any operating information? Is the company still in business? A. J. Derie, 3 WoodLane, Maynard, MA 01754-2415.
A. Taylor began in the 1920s, but no information has surfaced regarding their subsequent activities. However, parts were available from Universal Milking Machine Co., Waukesha, Wisconsin as late as 1948. The vacuum piston was cast integral with the engine piston. Outside of that difference, the Taylor operated in a manner similar to other engines of the period.
32/1/24 Winton Car Engine Larry 'Airborne' Powell, 129 East 13th, Junction City, KS 66441 writes:
After my article appeared in the July 1996 GEM I have received two letters. The first was from Don Scheppelman, a Winton car collector. He corrected the year of the Winton as a 1903-04 two-cylinder. The second letter from Daniel Burkhart identified the unidentified tractor as a Big Bull 25 HP model made by Massey-Harris.
32/1/25 Termaat & Monahan Don Brantmeier, RR 5, Box 77 A, Eldon, MO 65026 sends along some historical information on Termaat & Monahan Company of Oshkosh, Wisconsin. They built primarily marine engines up to 1912, and in the latter year they began building their familiar four-cycle stationary models. This lasted until 1920. In 1919 T & M came out with their Wiscona Pep engines, apparently continuing them until about 1925.
32/1/26 Midget Racer Q. I am trying to locate plans for a gas engine powered midget racer. Some plans of this type were available in the early 1950s. If anyone can be of help, kindly contact: Mike Nicolella, PO Box 534, Bridgeville, PA 15017-0534.
32/1/27 Mogul Jr. Engine Q. I own a 'slant top' 1917 Mogul Jr. engine and have often wondered why IHC built both the 'flat top' and the 'slant top' varieties of this particular engine. Everyone I ask seems to have their own opinion. Can you set the record straight? Richard Kibler, 1555 Greening Drive, Copley, OH 44321.
A. These engines bear a 'UB' prefix and were built 1915-18. The slant-top, from our information, was designed that way so the water wouldn't spill from the hopper when moving it around on its 'wheelbarrow' cart.
32/1/28 Hercules Engine Russell Timms, Yan Year Rd., Doreen 3754, Victoria, Australia, sends along three photos of a Hercules gas engine made in San Francisco, California. He has two of them; the numbers are three digits apart. See the photos.
32/1/29 InfoNeeded Q. What is the proper color for a Rumely OilPull 30-50 model, s/n Y194, built in 1928?
What is the problem with the propane freezing on my Superior 40 HP engine after running it for awhile? George Kovach, PO Box 24, Blairmore, ALTA, Canada.
A. We're told that Rumely changed over to the peculiar blue-gray, steel gray, or what have you, in 1926. We're also told that it closely corresponds with DuPont 71939 Blue.
Your letter mentions that you're drawing from a 20 pound propane cylinder. We've never spent a lot of time around propane (we loathe the stuff) but it's our guess that you are drawing too much fuel too quickly from the cylinder. You may do better using one or two 100 pound cylinders to avoid this problem.
32/1/30 Toro Mower Q. I have a Toro Pro Commercial Mower with a sulky seat, Model P779. It is powered with a Wisconsin Model H9333 aluminum engine; this unit has three reel mowers. Is there any information available? I've tried many Toro distributors with no luck. Bill Herman, 5493 Laura Loop, Poulsbo, WA 98370-7815.
32/1/31 IHC Titan Jr. Engine Q. I have an IHC Titan Jr. J HP engine that belonged to my grandfather, who used it on an orchard sprayer. Then my father used it in the workshop, and an aunt used it on the washing machine and churn. I acquired it about 20 years ago, and as shown in the photo, it putts two small grinders , along with many other things.
When I removed the head I found the rings to be cam ground with expanders in the two top rings. When were cam ground rings and expanders first used? Any information would be appreciated. R. W. Doss, 5950 Winson Dr., Huntington, WV 25705.
A. We don't know when expanders were first used; can anyone help?
32/1/32 Information Needed Q. I would like to design and machine a small model steam engine with about a one-half inch bore. Ideally I'd like a set of drawings for a slide valve engine, possibly a v-twin with double acting cylinder, but at the very least, the valve lever and cam system dimensioned so that I may scale it to the desired size. Any information would be appreciated. Ed Yung, 230 Jefferson, LaPorte, TX 77571.
A. We'd suggest some of the model magazines; a few are devoted to model steam. Perhaps some of our modelmakers can provide sources of information.
32/1/33 A Beginner Q. Where does a beginner begin? Where do you find information on various phases of restoration, the correct paint colors, finding replacement parts, etc.? Tom Philips, 124 Fort Hill Ave., Canandaigua, NY 14424.
A. It looks like you've found a good starting point with Gas Engine Magazine. Many of our regular advertisers offer new parts, used parts, and accessory items. Others offer many different books, decals, and other supplies.
32/1/34 Unidentified Engine Q. See the photo of an engine we haven't been able to identify. It has no tags or other markings. We think it may be a Majestic, but with so many original parts missing, it is hard to tell. Can anyone be of help? James W. Windle, 4001 Fox Run Rd., Powhatan,VA 23139.
32/1/35 Ford 9N Problem Q. How can I set up my old Ford 9N to a 12-volt alternator? How do I reduce the voltage for the coil and distributor? The Ford has a positive ground. How will this affect the points, etc.? Any help would be appreciated. Gene Ellingsworth, 1759 -60th Ave., Osceola, WI 54020.
A. The main thing we see is that you would have to install a coil resistor ahead of the coil, and this should be readily available. Perhaps someone has made a similar changeover and would offer some advice?
32/1/36 Koban Engines Will Cummings, 8710 Vickery Rd., Castalia, OH 44824-9777 writes that he has found several 1915 advertisements pertaining to the Koban rowboat motor, a small two-cylinder outboard design. Will also sent along several photocopies of the ads, but they were just too dark to reproduce. Does anyone have further information on this one, or are there any Koban rowboat motors still in existence?
32/1/37 Unidentified Power Plant Q. See the photo of a recent acquisition. It has no nameplate or other data, so I'd appreciate hearing from anyone who can identify it. Don C. Pejsa, PO Box 4034, Oroville, CA 95965.
32/1/38 Field Force Pump Q. I am Nicole Guriel, age 12, of Simi Valley, California. I am part of the Moor-park 4-H Club and am in 6 projects. One of these projects is Farm Machinery, which my father, Nick Guriel, leads. We're working on restoring a hit-and-miss engine. It is a Field made by Field Force Pump Co., Elmira, New York, 2 HP, s/n 5014. I would appreciate hearing from anyone who can help us with information on this engine. Nicole Guriel, 1434 Rambling Rd., Simi Valley, CA 93065.
See photos MM-1 and MM-2 of a Maverick engine I just completed. The drawings and information were by Philip Duclos in recent issues of Home Shop Machinist Magazine. The basic engine is made from normal shop material, aluminum and steel. The engines run and start very good. William E. Byrd, PO Box 203, McMinnville, TN 37111.
See the photos of several models I've built. MM-3 is a 1/5 scale of a 3 HP IHC Famous engine. MM-4 is a 1/5 scale of an engine of my own design, and is hit-and-miss.
Photo MM-5 is a 1/5 scale of a 10 hp Fairbanks-Morse throttling governor model of 1919 vintage, and MM-6 is a 1/5 scale of a 10 HP Sandwich hit-and-miss of 1916 vintage. All of the engines run well and have very good detail. James May, 808 Elm Street, Sandwich, IL 60548.
A Closing Word
For those interested or involved with our upcoming tour to Australia, please note that a visa is required in addition to your passport. Be sure to have the visa, or you won't be able to come into Australia. For reasons we don't know, Australia is one of the few countries we know of where a visa is required from everyone coming into the country. For those who have the travel information from Wade Farm Tours, contact them immediately if you need to obtain a visa!
Recently, our friend, Walter Reiff from Germany stopped in for a few hours. He brought along a new book, Deutsche Stationar Motoren by Armin Bauer. It's an expensive book, and it's written in German, but it certainly does contain some interesting engines, and on top of that, it's entirely in color. It's always seemed to us that the German-built engines shed their own special ambiance.
In our forthcoming book on American farm implements, we plan to include as many trade names as possible. This should be very helpful in identifying various implements. For instance, how many people know that a Deluge pump was made by Fairbanks-Morse, or that a So-Ezy hay press was made by Williams Mfg. Co. of Macon, Georgia. Each section of the book will have as many of these various trade names as we can scrounge together.
Right now we're looking at a book with 2,000 illustrations, maybe more. If any of you have old farm machinery literature that might be of help, we'll be glad to hear from you. Even though we already have lots of information, the field is so vast that we certainly don't have more than a thumbnail sketch of the big scene.
It's interesting how the farm implement industry developed. During the 1870s and 1880s great strides were made in developing new horsedrawn equipment. This started to peak by 1900, and all was well until the coming of the small tractor in the 1913-15 period. That required new thinking and new designs for farm implements. The result was that a great many of the implement builders had merged or gone out of business by 1925. Many of those still hanging on got their coup de grace during the Great Depression, and for those still surviving, the cessation of most implement production during World War Two brought the era of horse drawn implements to an end. We suppose that there's something good that can happen as a result of even the horrific years of World War Two. One of those things was that the face of American agriculture and mechanized farming in particular, would never be the same.
Again, Best Wishes for Christmas and for the coming New Year.