By the time this copy is in your hands, probably in January of 1998, many of us will have put our engines and tractors into hibernation, although for this writer, it's nice to have a heated shop so that we can occasionally start up an engine or two for some light entertainment. The thought of 1998 becoming an immediate reality also reminds us that in just a few months, we'll be off on our grand tour of Germany, Austria, and Holland. We've mentioned this trip several times, and registrations are moving along nicely, but if you're interested in signing up, but have been procrastinating, our clock will soon be running down. We'll probably close out our tour signup in April or May, since the tour will leave in early July, unless of course our maximum of two coaches is filled, in which case tour signup will end at that time. So if you're interested in accompanying our jolly group, let us know!
Recently, our friend Walter Reiff of Stuttgart, Germany presented us with a copy of M-A-N Motorpflug and M-A-N Traktoren 1922-1963. This book, written by Peter Streiber, is a beautiful title depicting the development of the M-A-N motor plows and tractors in Germany. A number of excellent titles have emerged from European collectors in recent years, demonstrating that engine and tractor collecting is indeed a very popular hobby there. Fortunately, our 1998 tour will take us to the H. M. T. Show in Holland, which is Europe's premiere show, with attendees coming from great distances to display their restorations.
An interesting sidelight to the M-A-N tractors is that they were early to use a front-wheel-assist to some extent, doing so some years prior to their becoming popular on American tractor models. Especially after World War Two, many German tractors were available with special fender seats so that the entire family could climb aboard and go to church or take a Sunday drive. At the time, the family tractor was often the only means of transportation.
As we prepare this copy in early December of 1997, we're delighted to have finally gotten caught up on orders for our new Encyclopedia of American Farm Implements. Initially, the book was delayed due to some technical problems, and when it arrived, ye olde Reflector found himself in a happy, yet somewhat embarrassing, position. Orders for the new book went far beyond our expectations, and we soon found ourselves in stacks of orders way beyond what we had anticipated. Our small operation was completely overwhelmed! In summation, we're happy that the new implement book has sold so well, but we're quite unhappy that it took us so long to get all the orders sent out to people.
Recently we were asked to appraise a small homemade steam engine dating from the 1890s. Capable of only 1 or 2 horsepower, it was built for the express purpose of running small household appliances including a sausage grinder, a corn sheller, and some woodworking tools. It was built almost entirely by hand, plus the benefit of a small treadle operated lathe. We're always amazed at the ingenuity and patience of those early inventors. Having almost nothing to work with as compared to today's tools, they nevertheless built machines that did their job, did it well, and lasted far beyond their time. In fact, this little steam engine is still operable, even though it has easily reached the century mark.
While reminiscing about the past, it's inconceivable to ye olde Reflector that we've been writing books and articles about vintage engines and tractors for almost thirty years! That's almost half of our lifetime! Quite often we're asked how we ever got into writing. It's quite simple. At the Midwest Old Threshers Reunion in 1969, this writer, along with Harold Ottaway from Wichita, Tom Graves from Oregon, and a few others, were gathered together one evening, talking about the many different engines that came from the factories at Waterloo, Iowa. Because many of them were so similar, there was a question of their origins. Someone even suggested that there was probably a big factory with a dozen different doors, all carrying a different name.
Initially, we tried to interest someone in compiling this material, and after no success in this regard, we finally decided to go it alone. Finally in March 1971 our first book, Power in the Past: A History of Gas Engine & Tractor Builders in Iowa, appeared. From that meager attempt came other books, and after something over thirty different books, we're at the present time.
This winter we're going to finish assembling our Standard Catalog of Tractors to be published by Krause Publications at Iola, Wisconsin. It will be some -what in the format of their renowned Standard Catalog of American Cars, and hopefully will be the most comprehensive encyclopedia of the tractor that has ever been published. If you have tractor materials that should be included in this book, kindly contact us. In this same connection, and as we've mentioned previously in this column, the trend is toward digitizing photographs, feeding this information via a scanner directly into a computer. While the days of film and the darkroom are a bit threatened, there's no doubt that digitizing is the wave of the future.
For the machinists in our hobby, we've seen and have used lots of different products as a threading lubricant. One of the oldest, and still very good for many things, is a mixture of lard and old motor oil. However, this stuff will get rancid eventually, and then becomes a most unpleasant product. There are all kinds of manufactured products such as Tap Magic, DevTap (from Devcon), and numerous others. We've had especially good luck with DevTap on those difficult metals, particularly when cutting threads on the lathe with a single-point tool.
This month we begin with:
33/2/1 Gardn' Mastr' Tractor Q. Don Price, 8942 Rap Rd., Cook, MN 55723 has a Gardn' Mastr' Garden-all tractor, Model JRE, s/n 20861. It was made at Liberty, Indiana, It also has a 'John Deere Quality' decal, although he hasn' t found any John Deere dealers who know anything about it. If you can be of help to Don in finding more information on this tractor, please contact him at the above address.
33/2/2 Sandow Engine Q. I have a Sandow engine made by Detroit Motor Car Supply Co., Detroit, Michigan. It is a 2 HP, two-cycle engine . I know a lot about air cooled engines but this engine is a new venture for me. Can anyone tell me about the ignition and how to make it run? Any information would be greatly appreciated. Jim Thompson, RR I , Box 103A, Athens, IL 62613 or email at email@example.com
A. If you can be of help to Jim, especially anyone having one of these engines, please contact him.
33/2/3 Cushman Cub Q. I just bought my first engine, and am excited about restoring it. It is a 3 HP Cushman Cub, Model R20, s/n 72670. What is the correct color, and does anyone know when it was built? I would also like to know how it was striped. Any information would be appreciated. Dan Saumer, Rt 2, Box 318, Pine City, MN 55063.
A. There are no known serial number lists for the Cushman engine. We have DuPont 7498 Green listed as the correct color for the Cushman Cub, although we have seen numerous of them painted gray as well. We don't believe there was any striping used on the Cub, just the colorful Cushman Cub decals on the side of the water hopper.
33/2/4 Chicago Pneumatic Compressor Q. See the photos of a Chicago Pneumatic compressor. It uses a Hercules engine, Model TXA, 6x7. The engine is s/n100 l06. The engine is missing the governor and the carburetor. Any assistance would be greatly appreciated. Leon L. Koehn, RR 1, Box 142, Ringwood, OK 73768.
A. We have no file data on this engine. Can anyone be of help?
33/2/5 Novo Engine Q. I have a Novo 1 HP engine, s/n 74954 on a factory cart with a Myers 3-inch horizontal water pump. Can anyone supply further information on this outfit? 1 would like to hear from other owners of the 'pumping outfits.' James W. Priestley, 117 Lind St., McMinnville, TN 37110.
A. Your engine was shipped on 7/19/1922 to R. H. Newell Co., Milford, Maine.
33/2/6 Cushman Cub/Massey-Harris Q. For a time Massey-Harris sold the Cushman Cub in Canada under the Massey-Harris name. Does anyone know when or for how long M-H sold the Cub? Also, Harris Bros. Co. of Chicago shows the Monarch engine line, as noted in the book, American Gas Engines Since 1872. Does anyone have any specific information on this engine line? Any correspondence would be appreciated. Jim Schmidt, 175 McNale St., Stratford, ONT N5A 1Z5 Canada.
A. We're not sure at all regarding the M-H/Cushman question. Over the years, we've been told that Harris Bros, was a large company that apparently specialized in factory closeouts, along with their regular merchandise lines. In 1921 though, their Monarch engine line was virtually identical to the Nelson Bros, engines concurrently built at Saginaw, Michigan.
33/2/7 Goold, Shapley & Muir Q. I just acquired an Ideal by G. S. & M. of Brantford, Ontario. It is a 3 HP engine and runs on propane gas. I was told it was a hit-and-miss engine, but it seems to run like a throttle governed engine. Any information on this engine would be greatly appreciated. Stuart Johnson, 5055 S. 38th St., Climax, MI 49034.
A. By definition, hit-and-miss governing enables the engine to take in a full charge at each intake stroke, and when the governed speed is reached, the governor (generally) actuates a catch mechanism that holds the exhaust valve open until speed drops sufficiently to release the catch and provide another power cycle. There are other ways too, such as cutting off the spark, to achieve the goal, but usually the above scenario is how it was done.
Throttle governed, or volume governed, engines use a butterfly valve in between the carburetor or mixer and the engine intake valve. The governor, acting on this butterfly, regulates speed by controlling the opening and closing of the passage. If there's a butterfly (or perhaps a slide valve) it is a volume governed engine. If there's a hookup mechanism it's a hit-and-miss.
Hit-and-miss engines that sound like a throttle governed engine are either working about up to their maximum capacity, or as a rule, aren't properly adjusted. Remembering that a properly set hit-and-miss engine should drop off the catch block, fire a shot, and hook up again (as when running idle at a show), two major causes are, 1) there isn't enough fuel ,or 2) the governor mechanism is not working properly. Oftentimes the linkages are worn out and need to be reamed and refitted with bastard pins for a nice fit. The catch finger when at rest needs to be fairly close to the catch block; the distance from the catch block to the finger is what determines the difference between impulse strokes. If the finger is too far away from the catch block, it has to travel too far and this makes it almost impossible to attain correct governing. Virtually every hit-and-miss engine was originally designed to release the finger, fire a single shot, and then hook up again. Some engines will do this consistently, but owing to their own idiosyncracies, others will not. However, when you hear an engine that consistently has to fire three or four times before hooking up, it isn't running as it should, and almost always the problem is with the governor mechanism. A final point is to not expect good governing when the catch block and the finger are worn off and rounded. Almost all of these parts are capable of some adjustment, and by careful study, one can see how they should work.
33/2/8 Pressure Gauges Back in the September 1997 issue (32/9/1) Douglas Poor asked some questions about pressure gauges. In response we have the following from Dennis A. Pollock, 705 Indiana SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108:
The hairspring is used to take out the backlash between the sector gear and the pinion gear and this is about all it can do considering its size. In areas of high vibration or pulsing pressure, the spring cannot hold the two gears together, so the better gauges will almost always be filled with a clear thin liquid that stops the erratic movement of the pointer. The pinion gear is the small gear attached to the pointer shaft. The hairspring wants to pull the pointer back to zero and as the pressure is applied to the Bourdon tube the spring wraps up and gets smaller in overall outside diameter. The sector gear has a slot that is used to adjust the range of the gauge. The Bourdon tube is an oval tube that wants to straighten out when pressure is applied to it and the thickness of the material in the tube determines the pressure range that it can tolerate without blowing up.
The forked arm is used to increase the sensitivity of the gauge. The more accurate gauges have screws solidly located to the frame around the outside of the tube and used to limit its motion. As the tube straightens out under pressure the screws are screwed in to contact the tube and calibrate its motion.
Bourdon tubes are usually used for pressure and diaphragms are used for vacuum. A diaphragm is two round metal disks that are soldered or fastened together at their periphery with air space sealed between them. To increase the sensitivity or travel, several diaphragms are fastened together in the center so that they only touch where they are fastened. The difference between a diaphragm and a bellow is that the bellow are all open to each other on the inside and this area is usually connected to an outside source of vacuum. In very, very accurate gauges a diaphragm is used to compensate for changes in local or differential pressure and some sort of bi-metal spring is used for temperature compensation. For nor -mal use the Bourdon tube will compensate for local pressure on its own. Even when a diaphragm is used in a gauge, there will still be a hairspring to take out the backlash. This is such a basic idea of removing backlash that I doubt if it was ever patented.
I started working on these things in 1957 and have probably forgot most of what I knew.
33/2/9 T. Eaton Company Q. Vincent A. Ellinger, 688 Millstone Dr., Rochester, Ml 48309-1648 wants any information on an engine from T. Eaton Company, Toronto & Winnipeg, with s/n KE173451.
A. Your engine is a Stover, with this particular one having been shipped to Eaton in 1928. Stover shipped thousands of engines to Eaton, who in turn sold them throughout the provinces of Canada; apparently also shipping a limited number to other countries within the former British Empire.
33/2/10 Earthmaster Tractor Q. See the photo of an Earthmaster tractor, s/n J988. Can anyone advise the proper color scheme, when it was built, and other information? Any help will be greatly appreciated. Gordon]. Read, 1911 Grandview Ave., Medford, OR 97504-4823.
33/2/11 Gardn' Mastr' Tractor Q. In the August 1997 GEM (32/8/3) was a query about an unidentified garden tractor. See the photo of my Gardn' Mastr'. It was made by Garden-All Tractor Inc., Liberty, Indiana. H. W. Richardson, 400 Parkway Circle, Montevallo, AL 35115.
33/2/12 Lauson Type AC Engine Bill Garner, PO Box 926, Cleveland, TN 37364-0926 has a Lauson Size C, Type AC engine of 4 HP, s/n 8223. He needs various information on this engine, including the meaning of the 'AC terminology. If you are familiar with this engine, kindly contact Bill at the above address.
541. Device for Truing Engine Crankpins.
Figure 161 shows a hand-operated device for truing an engine crankpin. It consists of two wood blocks with a hole the same size as the crankpin. The blocks are held together by bolts and fitted with handles.
The pin should be covered with oil, a piece of fine emery paper should be placed in the blocks, and the fixture clamped on the pin. Just sufficient pressure should be put on the bolts to make the paper bite the steel. The device should then be turned round to grind the pin.
If possible, the crankshaft should be removed from the engine to enable the tool to be used freely; but if this cannot be done, by shortening the handles it can be used with the crankshaft in position.
W. E. Warner.
33/2/13 Truing Crankpins Robert A. LeBaron, 5801 E. 5th St., Tucson, AZ 85711 often favors us with informative articles and information...this month he found an interesting method for smoothing up a crank-pin from an ancient book on engines. The book was entitled Oil and Gas Engines. See the device and its accompanying article in the inset 33/2/13.
33/2/14 REECO Engine Q. I have a 3 HP Model E Hercules made for Rider-Ericcsson, Walden, New York. It has gray paint and remnant of a REECO decal in red. Since not a great number of engines were made by Hercules for REECO, I would like to refinish the engine in REECO colors. Can anyone advise the correct color scheme? This and any other information on this engine would be greatly appreciated. Chris Orcutt, 46 Pepperidge Rd., Portland, CT 06480-1343; email at Christoper_M._Orcutt@ccmail.bms.com
33/2/15 Mietz & Weiss Q. Can anyone tell me anything about a Mietz & Weiss one cylinder engine? It is missing a lot of parts, but 1 would like to rescue it before it is broken up. Also I have a John Bean Royal 10 that would be good for parts; about when was this engine built? Bob Cowan, 818 Hill Ave., Hoquaim, WA 98550.
A. Apparently Bob has found this engine, and doesn't feel he has the expertise to restore it, but hopes there might be someone who could ... this might be a good find for someone who is capable of making missing parts!
33/2/16 Shaw Engines Recently a fellow stopped with an engine very similar to the Shaw mentioned recently in GEM. Although this engine was very rusty, there was some good paint that was a pale blue or sky blue color. There were some differences, but it was quite similar. Harold Rossow, POB 15, Weston, ID 83286-0015.
33/2/17 Faultless and Sattley Questions Q. I have a 2 HP Faultless engine, s/n 6186 made by Faultless Engine Co., Kansas City, Missouri. It is a hit-and-miss with an igniter, battery, and coil. There is one similar to it on page 170 of American Gas Engines. Can you provide any information on this engine, such as the year built?
Also, I have a Sattley 1 HP engine, s/n 65460, and a Fairbanks-Morse 2 HP engine, s/n 791747. Can you tell me when these engines were built? Willard McLain, Rt 1, Box 288A, Miller, MO 65707.
A. The only engine we can tell you about is the Fairbanks-Morse; it was made in 1936.
33/2/18 Allis-Chalmers 'C' Q. See the photos of an Allis-Chalmers Model C recently acquired. It is s/n 34408. For purposes of restoration, I would like to find sources for some original Allis-Chalmers parts, including gauges and meters. Can anyone point me to parts sources for A-C parts? Alexander C. Black, 3105 9th St., Douglas, AZ 85607.
A. Your tractor was built in 1945. Would any parts suppliers please step forward?
33/2/19 Witte Diesel Engine Q. I recently acquired a Witte Diesel engine without a nameplate. I have been told it was a 4 or 6 HP engine. I need an operators manual and parts list. It appears to be essentially complete except for the oil lubrication system. I know nothing about diesels and therefore any information will be greatly appreciated...I will pay the cost of duplicating any meaningful literature. W. C. Schwartz, 122 Ormsby Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15210.
33/2/20 Howell Engines Q. In pursuit of an old engine I ran into Mr. Richard Clark, then 83 and a third generation well driller. He showed me a catalog of a drilling rig he bought in 1911 equipped with a Howell engine (R. R. Howell Co., Minneapolis, Minn.) Is anyone aware of these engines? William D. Butz, 2408 Earlmar Dr., Modesto, CA 95350.
A. We're not at all sure that Howell ever built any engines. The company was a major supplier of industrial equipment; everything from burr mills to well drills. Looking through catalogs of various years, their engine line varied from time to time. Although their engines may have been built to Howell's specifications, we're not convinced that Howell actually manufactured any engines of their own.
33/2/21 Unidentified Engine Q. From some boxes purchased on an auction I found this small two-cycle engine. I don't think it was homemade because of the casting design. The only thing I can find that is at all similar is the Fopay on page 181 of American Gas Engines. Any information anyone can supply on this engine would be greatly appreciated. Richard Johnson, W. 5551 Pineview Rd., Neillsville, WI 54456.
33/2/22 Fuller & Johnson Q. I am restoring a Fuller & Johnson Model JA air-cooled engine as described on pages 106-108 of The Fuller & Johnson Story. I am looking for parts and information from other owners, including whether the piston, battery box, push rod, and other parts from the more common engines will interchange with it. Reed S. Benton, RD 1, Box 116, Wassaic, NY 12592.
33/2/23 Correction! In the December 1997 GEM, specifically under 32/12/3, the address for Mac Macomber is 139 Fogerty Rd., Griswold, CT 06351. Please contact him regarding the above query at this new address.
33/2/24 WK 40 International Q. What is the year built of the WK40 tractor, s/n 4073? Also what is the point setting, plug setting, and other maintenance information for this tractor? Coy L. Eudy, 16464 Austin Rd., Stanfield, NC 28163.
A. Your tractor was built in 1936. We don't have specific tuneup data for the WK-40, but if it's like most other IHC tractors of the period, the magneto points will be set at about .013 and the spark plug gap is .020 to .025.
33/2/25 Unidentified Engine Q. Rich Howard, Hysham, MT 59038 sends two photos of an unidentified engine, obviously in need of a good many parts. If you can render appropriate aid, kindly contact Rich at the above address.
33/2/26 Standard Walsh tractor Q. See the photos of a recently acquired garden tractor. It is a Standard Walsh, No. 500D2746 made by Standard Tractor Co., Minneapolis, Minn. The story is told that this tractor was bought new in 1929. The fellow went to use it in the garden, got to the end of the row and hollered 'Whoah' and it didn't stop. By the time he realized it wasn't going to stop it was clawing its way over the garden fence. At that point the garden tractor went back to the shed where it remained. Is this what's called NOS..'New Old Steel'?
33/2/27 Duro Engine Q. I have a Duro engine made by Stover, s/n 101683. Any information on this engine would be appreciated. Frank Grensing, N6318 Lakeshore Dr., Tony, WI 54563.
A. Although these engines were built by Stover, the regular Stover serial numbers do not apply. Information on the relatively scarce Duro engines is rather hard to find.
33/2/28 Emerson-Brantingham Q. See the photos of a 1 HP Emerson-Branungham engine. Every part has a casting number prefix of EA. I need to know the Webster magneto bracket number, or did the engine use a battery igniter? Richard McMunn, 684 McMunn Lane, Villa Ridge, IL 62996.
A. We believe your engine used a Webster 303M3 bracket.
33/2/29 J. W. Lathrop Engine Q. I recently acquired a 7 HP J. W. Lathrop marine engine, s/n 21729. It was made at Mystic, Conn. The engine appears to be in excellent condition, and I hope to get it running soon. If any readers have any information on this engine, I would appreciate hearing from them. Alan Turner, 558 Blount Rd., Elizabeth City, NC 27909.
33/2/30 Stickney Engine Katherine Lindgren at McPherson County Old Mill Museum & Park, PO Box 94, Lindsborg, KS 67456 writes concerning a 7 HP Stickney engine in their farm collection, and would like more information on it. If you can help, kindly contact these folks at the address above.
33/2/31 Evinrude Engine Q. See the photo of an Evinrude horizontal two-cycle engine. It has a cast iron muffler, is attached to a cast iron frame with a horizontal centrifugal pump. Can anyone supply any information on this unit? Emery McRoberts, PO Box 208, Blairsden, CA 96103.
33/2/32 Pattin Bros. Engine Q. I have a Pattin Bros. 15 HP engine, s/n 2537 with hot tube ignition. I would like to know when it was built and the correct color scheme. Also, I would like to correspond with anyone having one of these engines, regarding its operation. Any information will be greatly appreciated. Rob Coyle, 2090 Keokuk St., #71, Hamilton, IL 62341-1200.
33/2/33 Whitman & Barnes Q. I am looking for any information on this engine and boiler that had been in a barn for over 60 years. The nameplate data is: Whitman & Barnes Mfg. Co., Auto Steam Engine, Syracuse, New York. Any information would be appreciated. Jack H. Wolcott, 517 - 129th Ave W., Tampa, FL 33612.
33/2/34 Unidentified Engine Q. See the photos of an engine I recently acquired. It has no name tags or part numbers. Cast into the bottom of the gas tank is 'Battery Charging Set, Designed by James L. Yarian, Patents Pending.'
The whole unit is 15 inches high with a cast iron fuel tank 7 x 15 x 2 high. The engine has a 2? x 1 inch bore and stroke; intake and exhaust ports are a smooth bore with no pipe threads. Any information on this engine would be greatly appreciated. Fred Zwayne, 4915 S. Under Ave., Chicago, IL 60638.
33/2/35 Collis Engine Q. See the photo of a water cooled Collis engine. The name plate reads: Collis, Formerly the Superior Piersen/ Designed by E. B. Cushman/ 5 HP, 950 rpm, s/n 5-3089. The Collis Company, Clinton, Iowa. Any information on this engine would be greatly appreciated. Jim Geisman, 6684 Cochran Rd., Horton, MI 49246.
33/2/36 Thanks! To Robert G. Calhoun, 309 Decatur Rd., Marquette Heights, IL 61554-1218 for sending along a photocopy of the parts catalog for Caterpillar No. 34 combines. Mr. Calhoun was a parts catalog illustrator for Caterpillar for 35 years, retiring in 1984.
G. D. Mason, 33 Baldock Drive, Kingg's Lynn, Norfolk, PE30 3DQ England, makes model engines and would like to hear from model suppliers. If you can help, kindly contact Mr. Mason.
Galen Bengston, PO Box 507, 411 Lincoln, Quinter, KS 67752 sends photos of some recent models. MM-1 is a Stirling-Steele 4-cycle engine; MM-2 is an Atkinson Cycle Engine; MM-3 is an Allman Inverted Engine, and MM-4 is a Free Breeze Stirling Fan.
Model makers, and those with casting sets and related model making activities, are encouraged to submit their letters and photos to this column.
A Closing Word
After a hiatus of several months, we understand from Motor books that the book American Gas Engines Since 1872 should be back on the shelf by the time this copy is in your hands. There have been quite a few inquiries about this book since it went out of print last summer, and it took several months for the publisher to decide whether to reprint it again. We have no idea of the price for this latest printing, nor do we know whether it will again be printed, once this supply is exhausted.
It's easy to be critical of publishers, especially when we look only at one side of things. However, these companies are ostensibly in business to make money, and when they don't think they're making enough on something or other, they turn to something else. Anyone that's in business for themselves can testify to this simple fact.
By pure coincidence, we recently came across a cast iron seat for a Geo. W. Brown corn planter that was built at Galesburg, Illinois. This pioneering corn planter manufacturer is noted in our recent book, American Farm Implements, so this piece of cast iron trivia will soon be cleaned up and adorn our office wall. Hopefully, another edition of this book will contain a cross reference of trade names to aid in identifying various machines. The indexing is easy, since the computer can do it in a few minutes. The problem is in those long days of keyboarding all this information from many different sources, eliminating the duplicates and correcting the typos. All-in-all, we'd estimate this little process to take a couple of months or maybe more. After all that, the computer will have it indexed every which way in five minutes or less. Have computers attained their maximum potential yet? We think not! The very scenario described above would have been unheard of only a few years ago, and what we're describing today will be horribly slow ten years from now. The moral of the story is this: We think that since our present is flying by so fast that we have all the more reason to preserve some of our past! If computers can help to achieve that goal, so much the better! Sometimes though, we long for a break in the heady pace that propels us forward...ah, we have one coming up next July when we can spend three leisurely weeks in Europe looking, smelling, tasting, and enjoying with scarcely a care in this world!