After heavy snow and record-breaking cold weather, there are few of us 'northerners' who don't look forward to Spring! While it's nice to snuggle up in a comfortable chair with a good book (an engine book, of course) while the snow falls and the wind blows, it's not nearly so much fun when it comes to shoveling out! For ye olde Reflector, Spring is the great reward for having suffered through Winter!
By the time this copy is in your hands sometime in March, a bit of outdoor activity will again resume, even for those of us in the snow belt. One time in the 1970s we even put in our small oats crop on March 19th. A few days later it snowed, but that didn't last long; those were the best oats we ever had. Too bad we weren't still threshing, because that crop would have been pure pleasure to put through the threshing machine.
Over the past few years we've noticed that more and more people are beginning to collect old farm implements. Unfortunately, the crop is rather small, since the big majority of them have long ago been cut up for scrap. I he big changes in farming over the past few years have eliminated a great many of the small farms, with entire farmsteads disappearing, and being replaced with open crop land. At the same time, any old implements still remaining have gone to scrap. At our farm, we torched numerous old plows, cultivators, and other implements in years gone by.
Although farm implement collecting may never attain the status of tractor and engine collections, we believe that within the next few years farm implement collecting will become very popular. And why not? We already collect everything from cream separators to meat grinders, so why not farm implements?
Isn't it interesting that in all of recorded history, the half century from 1870 to 1920 saw the most dramatic changes in all time? In 1870 there was no electricity, no running water, no tractor power, no automobiles, and very few farm implements. For instance, there were no corn planters, very few disc harrows, and few corn shelters. For the average farmer, his complete tool and implement repertoire would fit in a rather small shed. By 1900, many farms had begun the trek toward mechanization, and by 1920, virtually all American farms were mechanized to some degree. Thus, we view this period as the Golden Age of invention, and it's this time in history we're all trying to preserve. Our hobby of collecting old engines, tractors, and implements is unique in that we number into the thousands, each having our own specialties, and each being able to find artifacts worth preserving. So, we're on the cutting edge, even though a lot of folks haven't yet and perhaps never will understand why on earth anyone would spend hours and hours putzing with an old engine, trying to bring it back to life, or carefully cleaning and restoring an ancient corn Sheller that probably endured far more abuse in its life than in actual use as a corn Sheller. (Those old spring shelters are excellent to hull black walnuts, and then, an old Maytag washing machine is ideal to clean 'em up.) Moral of the story: Whatever we've got today, those developments of a century ago are the ground- breaking events that made it all happen. Our queries this month begin with:
31/4/1 'The Tractor Show' On Thursday January 19, 1996 'The Tractor Show' will debut at 9:30 EST, on T302, transponder TBA. It will be an hour-long weekly, live show dealing with classic farm equipment. This program will invite viewers to call in and talk on air live, as well as interviews, on location and in the studio.
This show is designed especially for 'Rural America' although not limited to only the United States. It will be available throughout the Northern Hemisphere and it can be picked up on any backyard C-band dish. The show will be hosted by Gerald Devine, producer, and co-host Rachael Landau, with reporting by Linda Wysockey, chief engineer William Heselden, and technical supervisor Philip Devine.
For more information call: Rachael Landau at (315)683-5669, or mail at PO Box 137, Fabius, NY 13063.
31/4/2 Some Interesting Items John A. Davidson, Box 4, Bristol, WI 53104 sends along some interesting photocopies. One is a letterhead from P. F. Olds & Son at Lansing, Michigan, dated September 1895. It shows a small vertical steam engine packaged with a tiny horizontal boiler, the latter being fired on liquid fuel, probably kerosene. John also sends along patent drawings on the Joyner patents; they covered an interesting tandem, double-acting gas engine.
A 1905 letter from Witte Gasoline Engine Co. indicates that they could supply their 2HP horizontal model for $78, the 4 HP vertical for $104, and a 6 HP vertical for $158. A pump jack was available for $6.50
From 1910 comes a Fuller & Johnson letter to dealers, noting that their pump jack engine has 'turned the engine business upside down in a year.' The letter goes on to say that 'the engine retails at $ 70... it nets the dealer $ 16.80, and the people are delighted to pay the retail price.'
Another letter is from J. W. Ruger Mfg. Company. Dated in 1902, the letterhead indicates a rather interesting product combination; 'Manufacturers of Gas & Gasoline Engines & Baker's Machinery.'
Thanks to John for sharing these items with us.
31/4/3 Wizard Dynamo Q. I have acquired part of an old Wizard dynamo. It was made by Hercules Electric Co., Indianapolis, Ind. It is Type 01, and was patented Sept. 20, 1904. The drive is a hub with a 2 inch leather insert. It is missing some parts. Any information or literature on this ignition dynamo would be appreciated. Ernest T. Werner, 6613 State Road 158, Millstadt, IL 62260-1741.
31/4/4 A Couple of Rare Ones See the photos of two rare engines. Photo 4A is an Ideal from Olds Engine Works. It is stamped #3 with a Maud S logo on the crankcase cover. The Aermotor horizontal in 4-B is completely original, including paint, battery box, and skids. Al Hauschildt, 19010 Yost Ranch Rd., Sonora, CA 95370.
31/4/5 Unknown Engine Q. See the photo of an engine I got from my uncle some years ago when I went to Wisconsin. He had passed away, but wanted me to have it, so I crated it and brought it back to California with me. I don't know any history on the engine, but in letters, it had 'one of a kind' written on it, along with my uncle's name, Bernard Vandenheuvel. The engine has a 1 x 2 inch bore and stroke, 8-inch flywheels, and weighs 65 pounds. Any information on this engine would be appreciated. Richard W. Eisenreich, 6808 - 24th St., Rio Linda, CA 95673.
31/4/6 Thanks! To Carl T. Mehr, 12513 Elnora Dr., Perm Valley, CA 95946. He writes in part:
I can only imagine how you react every time someone writes to ask what color a green Fairbanks-Morse should be painted, etc., etc., especially in light of the source materials available. I find your Notebook very valuable, and it goes to every gas-up and swap meet with me. Your 'Power in the Past' series and other books are excellent companions. In closing, I'd like to thank you for your efforts in Reflections and hope you will keep up the feature, as I and countless others enjoy and appreciate your contribution to the engine hobby.
Every so often we get taken to task by someone, and sometimes perhaps with good reason. However, it really makes our day shine when we get an 'attaboy' letter. Don't misunderstand, we're not doing this for the adulation; we just hope to be of help to a wonderful hobby. Now for a word of explanation: We publish every letter that's sent to us, and answer every letter we can through the column. The only exceptions are letters that tend to denigrate ourselves or others. With our fast-growing hobby, we constantly gain new readers, or have readers who perhaps don't follow all the latest developments. We have young folks who don't have the experience of us oldsters. So, we always try to answer the queries, whatever they are, and hopefully, we will give new members of our fraternity a feeling of welcome and acceptance. Thanks Carl, for your kind words!
31/4/7 Unidentified Engine Q. See the photo of an unidentified engine. It is 1 horsepower and the s/n is CIC (or CIG) 211. The shaft bearing caps have the number 22N1, and the wheels are 15 inches in diameter with six spokes, and a 1-inch shaft. It has a Webster magneto, Type M. I'd like to find more information on this engine.
Can you suggest a method of removing the wheels? I haven't found a puller large enough to fit. Any assistance will be appreciated. Roger Dunham, 2045 W. Barron Rd., Howell, Ml 48843.
A. Look under the Webster magneto bracket for a number; it should begin with 303????. Our Notebook has a listing of Webster magneto brackets, and perhaps this one will be listed. Presto! you know the make of the engine. (Of course, there are some numbers for which we have no record, but we won't think negatively here). Secondly, why would you want to remove the fly wheels? If there's a specific reason, that's surely okay with us, but this can be quite a job. Don't use a puller around the rim, or you'll likely spring the wheel. You've got to get the gib key out of the shaft first, and once it is removed, the picture brightens. Occasionally, it is possible to pull the gib key, using various appliances to wedge it out of the flywheel. Another method is to make up a slide hammer on a rod, and then weld or braze the rod to the key. We've used this idea with some success. You may be able to drill and tap the key and pull it, or as a last resort, you may have to drill the key and dig it out in little pieces. All in all, we'd recommend avoiding the process entirely if at all possible.
31/4/8 Information Needed Q. See photo 8 A of a Lauson water cooled engine with a light and power plant, manufactured by Universal Motor Co., Oshkosh, Wisconsin. It is Model 500'MS, s/n 44161. The name Lauson is ground off the block and there's no place for the name tag. The engine looks like a Model RSC with 2 x 17/8a inch bore and stroke, Zenith 11160A carburetor, and Eisemann magneto. I'd like to know the model, and when it was built.
I also need information on the small air cooled gasoline engine in photos 8B and 8C. It is in good running condition but I cannot find any decals, nameplates, or casting names to help identify it. It has a cast aluminum block and head, the photo is off the camshaft, and it has a sheet metal flywheel, and a Carter Model N carburetor. Any help will be appreciated. Michael E. Schultz, 1650 Schust Rd., Saginaw, Ml 48604.
31/4/9 AMRC Diesel Q. I have a 6 HP air cooled diesel by American AMRC Corp., Inglewood, California. It needs a glow plug, 12 or 24 volt, and inch SAE thread. Would anyone know where to look or be able to suggest a substitute that would work? Kenneth Hegenderfer, 5291 Conrad Rd., Rock-port, W A 98283.
31/4/10 Maytag Upright Q. I have a Maytag upright HP engine. I have completely overhauled the carburetor, new piston rings, etc., but cannot get it to run. It is the old style with the carburetor on the bearing flange. I had to use a head from the newer one with the carburetor on the crankcase. Is this my trouble? Answers please! David Krueger, Rt 1, Box 135, Blackduck, MN 56630.
A. It very well might be the problem, but perhaps the Maytag experts can tell you for sure.
31/4/11 Sawmill Information Q. I would like to know where I could find information on a Frick No. 0 or No. 01 sawmill, or just some brochures on any type of sawmills. Ed Harter, AK-9268, 1100 Pike St., Huntingdon, PA 16654-1112.
A. Sawmill literature is hard to find; the only thing we can think of offhand is the book, The Circular Sawmill, available from GEM.
31/4/12 Farmall Support Groups Q. I have a 1935 Farmall F-12 tractor. It is in remarkably good condition, and I 'd like to know if there are any clubs or organizations dedicated to Farmalls. Any help would be appreciated. Don Claxton, 536 Locust St., Lebanon, MO 65536.
A. May we suggest: Red Power Magazine, Daryl Miller, Box 277, Battle Creek, IA 51006
IH Collectors Association, Fremont Hoover, RR 2, Box 286, Winamac, IN 46996
31/4/13 Letz Grinder Q. See the photos of a grinder made by Letz Mfg. Co. There are blades inside the hopper. What were these for? Greg Camp, RR 1, Box 386, Randolph Center, VT 05061.
A. The Letz burr grinder was very popular; the blades are for grinding ear corn. They broke up the corn and cob so that it could be fed into the burrs.
31/4/14 Identification Needed Q. See the photos of a Wizard engine, 1 HP, with a 3'/2 x 5 inch bore and stroke, and s/n 1697. It is four-cycle, hit-and-miss. Temple Pump Co. made a Wizard, but it was an inverted vertical style. Any information on this engine would be appreciated. Dean Axtell, 1924 SW G Street, Grants Pass, OR 97526.
A. We can't tell you who made this one, but we don't know of Temple Pump ever making a horizontal. Also, our book, Gas Engine Trademarks, only lists the Wizard trade name with Temple Pump Co. Can anyone be of help?
31/4/15 Stover CT Engines Q. I've just purchased my first engine, a Stover CT-1, and would like to know the original color scheme. Thanks for your help. Robert S. Harris Jr., 138 Bon Ton Rd., Lynchburg, VA 24503.
A. Our latest information is that DuPont GS188 Green is a comparable match. We also have Ditzler 44616 Lt. Green listed. Some of these engines have the cast letters trimmed in gold, and some have a combination of red and gold striping.
31/4/16 Champion Line Q. I have a 1919 price list of the Champion Harvester line, but it is from B. F. Aver)) Company. Did 1H and Avery have some sort of agreement for the latter to sell the Champion line? Thomas E. Gipson, 202 Mary Sharp Drive, Decherd, TN 37324.
A. Shortly after International Harvester Co. was organized, the U.S. Government stepped in, alleging violations of the Sherman Anti-Trust Law. This whole business went on for years, finally terminating in 1918 when IH signed a consent agreement whereby they would divest themselves of certain product lines. Included was the Champion Harvester line; it was sold to B. F. Avery & Sons. However, IH retained the manufacturing plants, selling only the product line to Avery.
31/4/17 Standard Twin Q. I have a Standard Twin garden tractor, s/n 34C196. Can anyone tell me when it was made, and the correct color scheme? Any information would be appreciated. Robert Redman, 932 Mimosa St S., Salem, OR 97302.
31/4/18 Economy and Mogul Questions Q. I have an Economy engine, sold by Sears, 1 HP XK, and wonder about the original color. The engine is fire engine red, but on the flywheel there is some darker red, almost maroon. Which decal does it use?
I also have a 2 HP IHC Mogu! engine, and need information on timing and making adjustments. William R. Breitkreutz, 600 Church St., Hartford, WI 53027.
A. The only thing we have listed for Economy is DuPont 674 Red. Also, we've been informed that Sears changed over to the 'bow-tie' decal about the same time they began using the Wico high tension magneto.
On the geared magneto used on the Mogul, there are marked teeth on the crank gear and the magneto gear; time them so the marks coincide. The engine should be timed so that ignitor trips when mark on flywheel is in line with the mark on the top of the crankcase.
31/4/19 Sheldon Engine Q. Can you help with the date and color for a Sheldon 2 HP engine made in Water loo, Iowa? It is s/n 130898. Tom Hart-field, 6206 Oak St., Harvard, IL 60033.
A. We're not sure of the color for the Sheldon engines. They were one of several makes sold by Sandy McManus Inc.; the latter also sold the Sandow engines. These were blue, DuPont BS915 or Ditzler 12375. No specific data is available for the Sheldon, but they were sold about the same time as the Sandow.
31/4/20 Beam Trammels Q. Some time ago I was reading a book on old engines that had a section on how to use a trammel for properly setting engine valve timing and ignition timing, and I was wondering if anyone could write up something on it. James N. Oster, 4 Julia Ave., Chicopee, MA 01020.
A. One method of precisely obtaining top dead center, for instance would be: Turn the engine over so that it is a little ways past obvious top center. Carefully mark off the position of the piston by whatever method is possible. (Prior to this time, make up a tram so that one of its points reaches the frame, and the other point of the tram reaches the flywheel. Make a center punch mark in the frame in which one point of the tram will rest.) Having carefully marked the position of the piston, make a scratch mark on the flywheel with the other end of your tram, and carefully make a center punch mark in the flywheel. Now turn the engine on the other side of its center until the piston again reaches its previous mark. Take your tram and scratch another line on the flywheel, and make a center punch mark on the scribed line. Now, you can measure between the two scribed marks, and that will be the exact dead center point.
31/4/21 F-M Engine-Compressor Q. See the photo of a 25 HP Fairbanks' Morse Type N engine with an integral air compressor. It is a hit-and-miss, and was built about 1910. The trip arm for the ignitor at front is different, and all the gears are on the outside of the frame (as compared to the usual plan of the gears being inside the frame). If anyone has any information on this unit, we would be happy to hear from you. Charlie Parish, 4498 E. Hwy 140, Merced, CA 95340.
A. About all we can find is that this unit was made in three different styles, each of them having a different outlet pressure. Also, our information is that this outfit weighs about 8,500 pounds. We'd also guess that despite the size of Fairbanks, Morse & Company, very few of these units were built!
31/4/22 Coldwell Lawn Mower Q. See the photos of a Coldwell mower. It's a Model H42 from Coldwell Lawn Mowers Co., Newburgh, NY, and has patent dates of 09/24112; 12131/12; and 05/11/15. It is powered by a Fuller & Johnson engine, Mode! NC, 3 HP, s/n 16669. Any information on this unit, including the original color scheme, will be greatly appreciated. Dr. David E. Rotigel, RD 4, Box 143, Greensburg, PA 15601.
A. The engine appears to be of 1915 or 1916 vintage, and we'd guess that is close to the time this mower was built. Can anyone be of further assistance on this query?
31/4/23 Warner Aircraft Engine Q. See photo 23 A of a Warner Aircraft Corp. engine, made at Detroit, Michigan. It is Model 1, s/n 1490, and uses a Tillotson YA6A carburetor. Photo 23-B is a Clipper, made by Guy-Leroy Engine Co., exclusively for Ray Whyte Products Inc., Detroit, Mich .It Model 250, s/n A634, with a Bendix-Stomberg carburetor. Any information would be appreciated. Michael E. Schultz, 1650 Schust Rd., Saginaw, Ml 48604.
31/4/24 Lincoln Tractor Q. See the photo of a Lincoln tractor. It has a Wisconsin engine, front blade, individual rear brakes, rear implement lift, and no clutch. The latter bothers me, so I'd like to hear from anyone having information on this unit. Don Simpson, 15485 Star' flower, Oak Run, CA 96069.
31/4/25 Repairing Cracked Blocks In repairing cracked blocks, I start at the end of the crack with a drill, and drill almost through, then start in edge again, and again till I get to the end, then using a good nickel rod. Weld not over % inch and move to the other end. Weld slow, keeping heat down, and peen each tack weld to stress relieve it, and grind smooth. Then with a sharp round point chipping hammer, pick the surface to give same surface as the original metal, and it is hard to find the weld. Burley Mayo, Rt 3, Plat Rock AL 35966.
31/4/26 Fairfield Engine Q. I am restoring a Fairfield engine, s/n 1431 made at Fairfield, Iowa. It is similar to the one shown on page 168 of American Gas Engines. I'm looking for any information on this engine, including the color scheme. My engine has a Dixie magneto and a Holley Model K carburetor. Kirby Olson, 23795 Sunrise Rd., Stacy, MN 55079.
31/4/27 Table Saw Q. See the picture of my table saw. It is a JIFF, boughtin 1928 from the A. O. Aloe Co. of St. Louis. It is powered by a B & S Model Q kick-start engine. Further information on this unit would be appreciated. Kenneth W. Keck, 229 Maple, Benld, IL 62009.
31/4/28 IHC Famous Q. I recently acquired an 8 HP IHC Famous that my grandfather converted into a wood splitter more than fifty years ago. I wish to restore the engine, but it is missing many parts, so I'd like to hear from anyone that can help. I'm also advertising for parts. Milan Deprez, PO Box 5, Sherwood, WI 54169.
31/4/29 Alpha Engine Q. See the three photos of an Alpha 8 HP engine we got two years ago. It runs real good, has oilier pump, screen cooled, and a round rod. I was hoping someone might know when it was built; it is s/n 15522. Sherm Simpson, E8305 Greenbluff Rd., Colbert, WA 99005.
31/4/30 Clark Air Drop Cat Q. I went out looking for a Cat or a John Deere crawler, something for a good project. Then I found out about a 1942 Clark that hadn't run in over 20 years. Has anyone got any information on the Clark Air Drop Cat? I've tracked this model down to four previous owners. I know it came to Cohoe, Alaska, in 1946 from Fairbanks, and I'm trying to find out who manufactured it, and where. See the two photos. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Roy Baldwin, PO Box 327, Sterling, Alaska 99672.
31/4/31 Waterloo Boy Q. See the two photos of a Waterloo Boy 2 HP engine, s/n 209717 (taken from the end of the crankshaft). It has a Wizard Type 70 magneto. We believe it is a Model K and burned kerosene. Any information on this engine would be greatly appreciated. Ed & Agnes Turner, 8294 Halsey Rd., Port Byron, NY 13140-9530.
31/4/32 Identification Needed Q. See photos 32A and 32B of a vertical engine, not unlike Novo, but different. It is 44 inches high, with a hopper diameter of 15 inches. Note that the intake and exhaust openings are centered on the hopper, unlike Novo. It is 6'/2 HP, s/n 16009.
Photo 32C is an unidentified engine with a 3 x 4 inch bore and stroke. Any information on these engines would be appreciated. Wayne Matson, 1190 Edge-wood Rd., Chetek, WI 54728.
31/4/33 Cooper-Bessemer Q. My father and I have just acquired a Cooper-Bessemer 25 HP engine, s/n 38100, and using a Wico OC magneto. I'd like to find more information about this engine that might help in restoration. Larry R. Holder man, 2328 W 300 N., Warsaw, IN 46580.
A. We'd suggest you contact the Cool-spring Power Museum at Cool spring, Pennsylvania.
31/4/34 International 1-6 Tractor Q. Malen Bennett, 8798 Hayne Rd., Terre Haute, IN 47805 has an International I-6 tractor for which he needs information and a source for parts. If you can help, please contact him.
31/4/35 Unidentified Engine Q. See the three photos of a small and surprisingly light four-cylinder engine from a pump house. It is a water cooled headless design with eight bronze valve access plugs. A bronze plate says it was sold through Bruns Kimball & Co., New York, but we have no other information. Can anyone be of help? D. C. Robie, PO Box 414, S. Weymouth, MA 02190-0003.
Carl Justice, 86 Belle Ave., Delaware, OH 43015 writes that they get steam cylinder oil from G & G Oil Co. of Indiana, Inc., 220 E Centennial Ave., Muncie, IN 47303.
In reference to the article in the December 1995 GEM, we can tell you that cast iron (and steel) can be welded. The flexible air intake lines on the old Case 15-27 etc. were soldered to the cast iron air cleaner fittings. The cast iron is tinned first, using a commercial acid flux like Dunton's Tinner's Fluid (M. W. Dunton, Providence, RI). Clean the surface bright with a wire wheel or light grinding. Proper heat and application of acid are critical but easily learned. A propane torch is adequate unless the cast iron is too heavy to heat up. Running the copper rod on the rough cast iron deposits some copper on the surface and facilitates the tinning process. Acid core solder also helps to keep the surface clean to allow tinning. The surface, once tinned, solders almost as easy as copper or zinc. Steel tins more easily than cast iron, so one should practice on steel first. Bill Wojciechowski, 13729 -1st Ave NW, Seattle, WA 98177.
Several people wrote to tell us that various auto supply houses and farm fleet stores have Marvel Mystery Oil. Since that time, we've seen it in the local Target Discount Stores, along with Western Auto, and other places.
31/1/11 Rusby Patent Drill In reference to this query, what you have is a Rusby Patent drill. The part you are missing is a conventional two-jaw chuck that is attached to a long shaft that slides down in the tool from the end with the crank. The small pin with the spring just above the gear was used to lock this chuck assembly in the part that turned. This allowed the user to slide the chuck and shaft in and out. From time to time I see these at tool club meetings from $35 to $75 complete. Ed Hobbs, 4417 Inwood Rd., Raleigh, NC 27603.
30/12/5 Clinton Engine The Model 800 Clinton was made from 1951-1954 when it was replaced with the Model 900, 3.0 HP engine. The 800 series was available in three basic configurations: 800, which was air-vane governed; VS-800 which was a vertical shaft variant with air-vane governor, and A-800 which was mechanically governed. All engines were cast iron block, 2.375 bore x 1.875 stroke and rated at 1.95 HP @2600 rpm, 2.35 HP@31OOrpm, and 2.5 HP @3600 rpm. All models sported a Phelon magneto and Carter carburetor. Standard color was a very dark green enamel. Clinton was purchased, and thus out of business, on March 31, 1982 when all stock holdings were bought by Lomart Industries for $6 a share. Bob's Small Engine Repair, a steady GEM advertiser, has as many parts for Clintons as can be had. Cris Nystrom, PO Box 17054, Fayetteville, NC 28314.
We love sharing some of our old photos with you, and this month we've got a couple of those interesting attachments that converted an old car into a tractor. Photo 31/4/A shows a conversion for which we have no name; we're not even sure of where we came up with this one. In 31/4/B there's the Smith Form-A-Tractor, made primarily for converting ye olde Model T Ford into a farm tractor. The Model T was prone to overheating to begin with, and that no doubt necessitated the hasty removal of the engine hood. The splash lubrication system had its drawbacks too, and so all in all, we'd guess this might have been a handy little chore tractor, but really wasn't all that great in the field, especially v/hen compared with a real tractor. However, these units were quite popular from about 1915 and for about a decade after.
Photo 31/4/C shows an early version of the Big Four tractor from Gas Traction Company. This huge tractor had the belt pulley on the rear of the tractor. Photo 31/4/D is apparently a Cady engine from C. N. Cady Co., Canastota, New York. Outside of this information on the back of the original, we know nothing at all about the engine, its size, or when it was made.
We've recently discovered some slide film that we find to be very satisfactory for making color slides from original color material in catalogs and literature. We've got a number of nice color illustrations of engines that we'd like to share with you, but give us the time and opportunity to make some slides, and once that's done, it takes some time and scheduling for GEM to provide the color photos in the magazine. The comparison might be something like calling the cows in from the back forty, 'It takes time.'