The Cultivator
Thoughts from the editor.

Finding Vintage Engines

It wasn’t all that long ago that a dedicated engine man could pretty much guarantee himself that with enough looking he could find the fabled “engine in the barn.” Once upon a time, it seemed like you couldn’t go into an old barn without tripping over an abandoned engine. But as time passed those engines slowly got found, and the next thing you know it seems like all the good finds have, well, been found. Yet just when you start thinking the well’s running dry, somebody trips across another fantastic engine lost to time, sitting quietly in the dark corner of a barn, still in its work clothes and looking very much as it did when last run.

That’s exactly what South Dakota engine man Dave Thompson found when he retrieved a circa-1918 6 hp Gade from Arden Abild’s farm. Truth be told, the engine wasn’t exactly forgotten, as Arden was well aware of its presence in the granary on his ancestral family farm. Arden had in fact received an offer for the engine some years back, but he’d hung onto it, happy just knowing it was there. For Arden, the old Gade was a material tie to his past and his grandfather, Sid Abild, who set the engine up sometime around 1918 to power a bucket elevator. The engine stayed on the farm longer than most, still used occasionally up to the 1970s.

Eventually, however, Arden realized it was time to let it go, to pass the engine along to someone who could bring it back to operating condition. Looking at its condition, we’re pretty confident new owner Dave will have it back and popping along in short order, and when he does, we hope to run a follow-up on the Gade. See the story of its retrieval.

Speaking of engine men, longtime reader Andrew Mackey has more than a passing knowledge of vintage engines, having shared his wealth of knowledge with GEM readers for some 35 years, most recently with a six-part series of articles detailing various operating aspects of gas and diesel engines. This issue, Andrew shares his knowledge working with oilers, providing a detailed explanation of several types of common oilers and how they work, complete with comprehensive drawings.

Finally, we’re excited to announce the publication of Coolspring: Discovering America’s Finest Antique Engine Museum, Vol. 2, a close look at 40 different engines in the Coolspring Power Museum collection, with detailed photos and a concise history of each engine chosen. As with the first volume, we’ll share those engines here in the pages of GEM with the return of Coolspring Spotlight this issue covering the museum’s rare 1883 10 hp Schleicher, Schumm & Co. slide valve. Visit our store for more information and to order a copy of Coolspring: Discovering America’s Finest Antique Engine Museum, Vol. 2. 

Richard Backus

Learning by Chance

I’m constantly amazed to discover just how much historical information concerning vintage engines and equipment is still out there waiting to be discovered and shared.

A case in point is the Beetle tractor, a mini dozer manufactured by Western Gear Works in Seattle, Washington, from 1946-1948. Designed for the U.S. Forest Service for building trails and general use, the Beetle was small enough to fit in the back of a pickup truck, but powerful enough to do real work thanks to its 61-cubic-inch Waukesha 4-cylinder engine.

Until recently, I’d never heard of the Beetle, a not particularly surprising fact given its rarity and the small number built. My education began after receiving a phone call from Robert Janyk, an estate settler with a penchant for preserving old literature. Settling unclaimed estate property, Robert routinely comes across materials of no immediate or obvious monetary value, materials like a manila Western Gear Works inter-office envelope he sent me containing memos, photographs and mimeographed materials relating to the Beetle tractor.

Over the years, we’ve published several mentions of the Beetle, including a 1998 article by John Lindner following his purchase of Beetle tractor serial number 154, and a 1999 article by Gary Bural, who found a Beetle in Port Orchard, Washington, and subsequently restored it. Convinced that someone somewhere would want the envelope and its contents, Robert had conducted a little research, which led him to GEM. As you’ll read in Flywheel Forum, we heard from several readers interested in the materials following our posting of their availability last issue, eventually passing them on to regular subscriber and collector Marv Hedberg in Minnesota.

The surprise in all of this has been the opportunity not only to learn about an obscure little dozer I never knew existed, but to discover the wealth of knowledge related to the machine and its development. Marv himself knows as much about the Beetle as anyone, owning not just a Beetle tractor, but a prototype grader developed from the Beetle tractor. And a hidden page at (, found only through a keyword search and not listed anywhere on the site’s main page, gives a full accounting of the Beetle’s history, complete with brochures, serial numbers, an original concept drawing and much more.

The deeper you dig, the more you find, discovering the Beetle’s inspiration in the Clark Airborne Crawler, a military mule designed in World War II to be air transported to remote installations to build and repair airfields. That tractor spawned a generation of mini-dozers, including the Beetle, the Mead Speedcat, the Agricat and more. It’s a fascinating little corner of the old iron world, one that, like many, is often discovered simply by chance.

Richard Backus

Piersen Engines and Shows

Well, I’m almost ashamed to report that I’ve yet to get my 1920 5 hp Piersen running. Worse, I can’t even say I’ve put much time into the effort since last issue, focused as I’ve been on helping my kids get their vintage motorcycles ready for the new riding season. Charlie, just turning 21 this summer, has been upgrading and modifying a 1972 Honda CB350 that’s been hiding in the back of the shop for some 10-plus years while Madeline, now 23, is learning about the 1980 Moto Guzzi 500cc V-twin she recently acquired. The Honda’s moving toward new paint and final assembly, while the Guzzi’s apart for new cylinder base gaskets and pushrod O-rings to take care of a persistent oil leak.

In the interim, however, it’s been enjoyable hearing from readers who also own Piersen engines. And also something of a surprise, as outside of my Piersen I’ve never seen another one and simply assumed they were very few and far between.

Which, in fact, they are. Yet at least four made their way to California, where they’re now in the possession of California engine and tractor historian Jack Alexander. Another Piersen made its way to Illinois, now owned by longtime reader and regular contributor Gary Bahre. Gary’s engine is actually a Collis, made in Clinton, Iowa, after Collis acquired Piersen in 1921. Its brass engine tag announces its heritage, with “Collis” stamped in large letters at the top of the tag and “Formerly The Superior Piersen Designed By E.B. Cushman” stamped in smaller letters below. The tag on Gary’s Collis includes a May 23, 1922, patent date, making it one of the later engines made as it’s believed that Collis went out of business in 1923. Jack’s engines span the 1919-1921 time frame, when engines were made in Topeka, Kansas, by Piersen. One of Jack’s engines shows serial number A755 and another A805. Mine shows serial number A775, making it possible Jack’s engines and mine were built within days or weeks of each other.

My lack of movement on the Piersen is a little frustrating, as I’d really hoped to show it off at the 23rd Annual Power of the Past Antique Engine and Tractor Show in Ottawa, Kansas, Sept. 8-10. The largest engine and tractor show in Kansas, Power of the Past draws an impressive and growing selection of engines every year, making it kind of a natural for a hoped-for first showing. I’ll still hit the show, but I guess the engine will have to wait another year.

On that note, among other shows on my list I’m hoping to make it to the 50th Annual Buckley Old Engine Show in Buckley, Michigan, Aug. 17-20, when the Northwest Michigan Engine & Thresher Club hopes to spin the giant 1907 1,100 hp Snow twin tandem engine we featured in the June/July 2016 issue. It won’t be burning gas yet, instead powered by compressed air, but watching that 225-ton monster spin its 18-foot flywheel will be a sight to see.

Richard Backus

A 5 hp Piersen and Good Intentions

Last issue, I noted my ongoing motions toward finally getting my 1920 5 hp Piersen running. With the engine finally pulled out and occupying the middle of my shop, I was confident that I’d finally make some real headway on it – to the point I suggested I might even have it running by now. Heck, I was so sure of myself, I even plugged it in the table of contents as an upcoming, next issue article, confident my good intentions would be met with success. Well, we all know the old saw about good intentions and the road to hell …

But it’s not all bad, because I did in fact make some progress with the Piersen. With the engine finally cleaned up a bit, it was quick work to confirm a good hot spark from the non-stock Wico Model X/XH150B magneto. From what I can find, the original magneto should have been a Berling, a Dixie or an Ohmer, although it appears the latter was used after Piersen was acquired by Collis in Clinton, Iowa, around 1921.

It won’t fire successive revolutions, but I have gotten it to bark a dozen-plus times. Funny enough, at the same time I was working on the Piersen, managing editor Landon Hall was working on his scruffy, new-to-him 1974 Norton 850 Commando motorcycle. Totally by luck, both engines fired for the first time in who knows how long at exactly the same moment!

With a good spark confirmed, I turned my attention to the mixer, which is an over-flow design. The incoming air charge passes through a gulp valve of sorts, a spring-loaded disc that appears to open against spring pressure during intake in response to cylinder vacuum. The fuel charge is pulled in with the incoming air, passing through a simple jet at the base of the mixer. I suspect the mixer works, but so far I’ve been using the priming cup for starting and I haven’t been able to spin the engine fast enough or long enough to get successive combustion cycles. Unlike an engine with a spoked flywheel, there’s little to grab to really get the engine spinning, and there’s presently no hand crank, which, as we know, is something of a twin-edged sword.

A potential issue is what appears to be an unpredictable loss of compression, as if one of the valves is hanging up. When compression is present, it’s surprisingly fierce, requiring a fair bit of effort to spin the flywheel. But occasionally, it’s as if the engine has latched out, and it spins easily. A bit more inspection should confirm the issue.

The old oil’s been drained and replaced (I’m always amazed how clean non-detergent oil looks even after untold years of sitting) and I’ve confirmed the Piersen’s odd oil reservoir – a Ball canning jar – works properly. Next up is a thorough cleaning of the gas tank and, I hope, finally getting it to bark for more than one or two revolutions.

Richard Backus

Getting Started in 2017

In a bid to stick to my stated New Year’s goals of last issue, namely finally getting my 1921 1-1/2 hp IHC Model M and/or my 1920 5 hp Piersen running – or at least on the road to running – I recently pulled both engines out from under cover. Taking the coward’s way out, I’ve decided to start with the Piersen, if only because it seems to be complete and therefore an easier prospect to get running without having to tear it down.

Pulling the Piersen out from its long slumber has so far revealed at least one pleasant surprise. Dusting it off, I realized I’d never really examined the homemade cart it’s sitting on, basically just a few pieces of 2 x 6 pine bolted to an old set of trucks. The trucks are actually a bit nicer than I realized, but the real surprise was discovering a spare intake/exhaust rocker arm wire-tied to the cart. That’s a big find, because the rocker arm currently fitted had broken at some stage in the engine’s life and then been brazed together.

Thinking back, I remembered that the engine’s previous owner, Bill Sterrett, now deceased, had told me that he had a spare rocker arm, but hadn’t bothered to fit it since, well, why bother? If the repaired one worked, it just meant he had a replacement ready at hand should the other fail. How I’d missed the spare rocker arm I can’t say, but I’m awfully glad to have found it, and like Bill, I’ll now probably leave the brazed rocker arm in place.

Although it hasn’t been started in decades, it was a running engine before Bill relegated it to storage. In that time it’s been undercover and indoors, so it hasn’t suffered the ravages of weather and it rolls over on compression just fine. With any luck, by next issue I’ll have the Piersen running again.

The 43rd Annual Farm Collector Show Directory, our annual guide to engine, tractor and farm shows across the U.S. and Canada, is now available. As before, the 2017 directory lists swap meets, threshing bees, engine shows, tractor shows and farm shows – more than 1,000 events across the United States and Canada.

It features complete event listings and advertisements from show sponsors and hosts, providing complete event information and telling you who to contact if you need to learn more. Indexes in the back of the directory let you look up shows chronologically and by feature, and there’s also a listing of national clubs and publications. Shows are pinned to state maps to give at-a-glance locations, a handy feature when you’re just thumbing through and trying to decide where your show wanderings might take you this year. You’ll find full ordering information here. In the meantime, even if it’s the off-season right now, make sure to keep those flywheels spinning!

Richard Backus

Gearing Up for 2017

I know it’s early for New Year’s resolutions, but this being the December/January issue, it seems appropriate to set out some goals for the new year.

Chief among them is to finally start working on the 1921 1-1/2 hp IHC Model M I picked up some years ago. I’ve had plenty of excuses for not getting around to it. Regular work limits play time, as does real life, what with kids in school, leaky roofs to replace and old cars to keep on the road.

Yet much as I like to procrastinate, I’m running out of excuses: The kids are out of school, with daughter Madeline graduated from college and son Charlie from woodworking school; the roof’s been replaced; and while the old cars continue to play up, they’re running OK. There are always other projects, but it’s time to get the IHC – and the 1920 5 hp Piersen sitting next to it – running.

Both engines are fairly complete, the Piersen in particular. Still wearing its original paint, I plan on leaving it as is cosmetically. Mechanically, I think it only needs a partial tear-down and inspection. It hasn’t been run in probably 15-20 years, so the seals for its odd combined flywheel/radiator are probably suspect. The single rocker arm that opens both the intake and exhaust valve was welded up long ago after breaking, and while it looks OK, I want to look into replacing it, likely by modifying something from another engine, as Piersen parts are thin on the ground. I think the crankshaft and big and little end connecting rod bearings are fine, but I need to find out why the magneto isn’t hot.

The IHC will take a little more work. Like the Piersen, it’s still in its work clothes, but in this case they’re pretty threadbare. A kerosene-soaked rag just barely brings up traces of the original lettering on the hopper on one side, but otherwise the paint is pretty much gone, only a few areas showing traces of the original IHC green.

I like original over restored, so I’d like to leave the IHC alone, but I’m resigned to the fact I will probably have to paint it. Mechanically, I’m not sure what’s in store. A farm auction find, the IHC has no history. The gas/kerosene mixer is missing parts and I’m pretty certain the mag is dead. On the plus side, the crankshaft and connecting rod bearings appear good and the cylinder has compression. Unlike the Piersen, I expect to strip the IHC down to its base.

Of course, there’s one other project I have to start first before launching into the Piersen and IHC; renewing my latest find, a nice 1947 Southbend 9-inch Model B lathe with a 4-1/2-foot bed. It was hiding in a corner in good friend Walt Hull’s blacksmith shop, and when Walt discovered I was looking for a lathe, he decided to pass it along to me. I think I’d better get started if I’m not going to blow my New Year’s resolutions before the new year even starts!  
Richard Backus Editor-in-Chief

Learning by Accident and the Monovalve Diesel Engine

I learn a lot by accident, although I think serendipity is a better word, the learning often the result of a chain of events sparked by a simple question or observation.

This issue’s Patent Page, an examination of a unique single valve – or monovalve – 4-stroke diesel engine, underscores this thought. Prior to last issue, I was unaware of the American Diesel Engine Co. and the 2- and 4-cylinder monovalve diesel engines it produced in the 1930s, but then reader Brian Barber wrote in to ask about a monovalve diesel engine he vaguely remembered. A little research turned up an article by Warwick Bryce in the October/November 1994 issue of GEM  about the American Diesel Engine Co. and the monovalve diesel designed by Charles A. Winslow, which led to some leads to more information on the engine, which led to a further examination of the design for this issue.

Winslow’s monovalve engines were an interesting bid to grab a share of the growing diesel engine market by offering a unique product that, it was claimed, possessed distinct advantages over any other engine available, a superior product guaranteed to render superior service. That’s hardly an unfamiliar claim, and judging by what little we know it might have been true, yet the monovalve failed to find market footing.

There could have been many reasons for that. While it did seem to offer some advantages – chief among them low fuel consumption – the design also had inherent limitations, including flexibility in engine speed. With a single valve and a huge opening duration, an engine like this would perform best in industrial applications, where steady speeds are desired, but would likely perform poorly in automotive applications, where engine speed flexibility is key.

Yet the monovalve 4-stroke diesel concept was, for at least a time, a high-profile, developing technology. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, both Packard Motor Car Co. and Guiberson Diesel Engine Co. manufactured a 9-cylinder radial monovalve diesel engine. Packard’s engine, the DR-980, was intended as a competitor to the popular 9-cylinder radial Wright J-5 Whirlwind, the engine that powered Charles Lindberg across the Atlantic in 1927. The Packard engine proved to be very efficient in tests, but was ultimately a non-starter owing to poor development and running issues including extreme vibration. Packard had high hopes for the engine, anticipating production of 6,000 units a year. Ultimately, it’s believed fewer than 100 DR-980 engines were built.

Guiberson, which developed its monovalve diesel around the same time as Packard, turned to a standard intake and exhaust valve layout and continued production of diesel radial aircraft and tank engines through World War II.

Ultimately, other designs prospered and the monovalve concept faded away, revived briefly in 2011 as the subject of a Southern Illinois University engineering thesis.

Richard Backus