How Your Hobby Started

F. M. Wakins Engines

Courtesy of Clarence ''Skip''Parker, Rt. 2, Ahoskie, North Carolina 27910.

Clarence ''Skip''Parker

Content Tools

390447th Avenue, S., Seattle, Washington 98118

From the library of Norman Mullings comes more gasoline engine specifications compiled in the catalogs and instruction books of these old manufacturing companies. Letters from numerous G.E.M. readers tells of the collections of engine literature that in many instances are valued at prices compatable to the engines themselves.

During my many years selling Fairbanks, Morse gasoline and diesel engines, I would find a need for technical information when calling on customers, and the only way to provide assistance in such cases was to carry a complete set of instruction and repair books. Many of these books were quite old at that time, as it was not unusual to find Type N's, 'Jack-of-all-Trades,' also many of the little 'Eclipse' still running that were 30 to 50 years old. In the 1930's and 40's, repair parts were stocked in many of the branch warehouses.

For the same reason then, it is very useful today to gasoline engine hobbiests who are rebuilding and operating all makes of engines to have an instruction book or catalog that can be a ready reference to locating parts and suggestions on how their particular machines were designed.

The generosity of collectors and book exchanges has been of valuable assistance to me in bringing the detailed specifications of many makes of engines to you. The various book exchange services are also a help to the engine collector in locating these old catalogs and instruction repair books for the engine he is rebuilding. Other sources of such literature are in the libraries, implement dealers and heavy hardware stores that have been in business for many years. Today it is possible in libraries to make photo copies of the literature you need.

Often it is rewarding to have the book exchange service put your name on file for the particular book you need. In that way you get first chance to obtain the book should it come in, and before the new lists are circulated.

Flint & Walling Manufacturing Company of Kendallville, Indiana, were producers of the Hoosier Gas and Gasoline Engines. The two sizes built were a 3 hp. and 6 hp. four-cycle, vertical single cylinder hit and miss engines. A castiron sub-base of sufficient height for the double flywheels to clear the floor and also house the fuel tank made a substantial mounting for the closed crankcase and cylinder. A drip tank cooling system was used, mounted on the engine skid, and the water pump provided the circulating of water over the drip screen cooling tank.

The fuel mixing valve was mounted on the side of the water-cooled cylinder head and the mechanical exhaust valve and automatic intake valve was also located in the cylinder head. A plunger type fuel pump raised the fuel to the mixing valve with an overflow back to the fuel tank.

The battery ignition system had a spark advance device to retard the spark timing and avoid backfire, together with a coil and make and break igniter.

Does anyone know anything about the F. M. Wakins Engines? What about rarity and age? Nameplate reads -- F. M. Wakins gas and gasoline engines, Cincinnati, Ohio. Flyball governor driven by belt from crankshaft, 34' flywheel, bronze bearings, 5' piston and magneto???

Would appreciate hearing from any of the readers on this one. Need information on fuel line hook-up.

Hoosier engines were also built in the horizontal style in sizes of 9, 12 and 15 hp. These were of the conventional type of open crankcase, with double flywheels, water-cooled single cylinder, four cycle design. The heavy cast-iron subbase housed the gasoline tank. A plunger fuel pump raised the gasoline to the mixing valve, which was mounted on the cylinder near the head. A flyball governor is located near the crank end of the engine and gear driven from the pinion on the crankshaft. The ignition is the same as used on the vertical models. The cooling system is of the drip cooling type as used on the smaller units.

From the 1912 catalog of the Domestic Engine and Pump Company of Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, details and specifications of a complete line of portable and stationary machines in both water and air-cooled engines were offered by H. J. Hush, sales agent in New York City.

Many combinations of engines and pumps, cord wood saw outfits and pneumatic water systems were described in the catalog, using the engines as the prime movers for these various applications of the Domestic engines.

Various fuel systems were listed as standard accessories so these machines could be fitted to operate on gasoline, benzine, naptha, distillate or grain alcohol. (One might wonder what would happen today if grain alcohol was available for fuel??) These engines could also be fitted to operate on natural gas.

The design of these engines were of the four-cycle, single cylinder, horizontal style. Sizes ranged from 1? to 12 hp. A distinguishing form of the water hopper would identify this make of engine as it was almost square and rather tall in appearance. They were well made. The cylinders were bored and reamed and carefully lapped to make the walls round and have good wearing surface. Pistons were turned and ground for close fit resulting in good compression and long life. Crankshafts were forged, turned and ground for finish. Governors were of the flyball type with control of the exhaust valve for the hit and miss governing system. A speed control lever adjusts the change in rpm. and to stop the engine.

The 'sparker' as the igniter is called on these machines, is of the make and break type which is rather large and easily accessible in the cylinder head. The electrodes are so arranged that when the governor holds open the exhaust valve, the sparker is also not operating. The sparker or igniter is driven by a cam on the layshaft or camshaft, which in turn is gear driven from the crankshaft. The wrist pin is lubricated by a tube on the inside of the piston and the bearing is adjustable to take up wear.

Portable engines had closed cylinder water jackets. A vertical cooling water pump was driven by a round belt and the pump was submerged in the water tank between the skids on which the engines were mounted. The fuel tank was located in the cast-iron engine bases and the fuel was raised to the mixing valve by a plunger type pump.

The air-cooled engines were fitted with radiating fins on flanges on the cylinder. These fins were sawed in the solid cylinder casting, leaving a large area of exposed surface for radiation of the heat. A belt driven fan on the side of the cylinder forced cooling air through the fins. Otherwise, the design of the engines were the same as the water-cooled models. The air-cooled engines were built in ratings of 2 and 3 hp.

The portable units were well engineered and constructed on steel frames and wheels for horse drawn outfits. High pressure piston type pump combination with a 3 hp. engine was assembled for one of the early power driven fruit and vegetable spraying outfits. Also, diaphragm pump units were available in sizes of 1?-2 and 3 hp. ratings.

Cord wood saw rigs were nicely built and painted making an attractive unit as pictured in the catalog. These were mounted on steel frames and wheels and could be had with hopper or closed cylinder cooling. A friction clutch pulley was standard equipment on the engines which were made in the following sizes;

SEE CHART A

CHART A

HP.

INCHES DIA. SAW

PRICE

4

26

$290.00

628  340.00
830  395.00

The Domestic Engine & Pump Company offered several sizes of domestic water systems with large pneumatic storage tanks under the name of 'Leader Water Systems.' Pumps and engines were painted red and were made to stop automatically when the desired tank pressure was reached.

Specifications of Domestic Engines are as follows:

SEE CHART B

CHART B

HP.

STYLE

BORE& STROKE

R.P.M.

WGT. LBS.

PRICE

1?

H

4 x 4

350-500

400

$ 80.00

2

H

4 x 6

300450

625

 110.00

2

A.C.

4 x 6

300-450

625

 110.00

3

H

5 x 6

300-450

725

 125.00

3

A.C.

5 x 6

300-450

725

 125.00

4

H

5? x 7

300-400

1400

 175.00

6

H

6 x 9

275-375

1700

 225.00

8

H

7 x 9

275-375

2100

 275.00

10

H

7? x 10

250-350

2500

 325.00

12

H

8? x 10

250-350

2700

 375.00

The company also built engines to meet the National Board of Fire Under-writers requirement for installation in public buildings, grain elevators, etc. These Domestic engines were sold under the name of Shippensburg Stationary Engines and the specifications are as follows:

SEE CHART C

CHART C

HP.

BORE & STROKE

R.P.M.

WEIGHT

PRICE

2

    4 x 6

300-450

 600

$125.00

3

    5 x 6

300-450

 800

  140.00

4

 5? x 7

300-400

1400

  180.00

6

    6 x 9

275-375

1700

  230.00

8

     7 x 9

250-350

2000

  280.00

10

7?  x 10

250-350

2500

  330.00

12

8?  x 10

250-350

2700

  380.00

With such slow speed designs and the extreme weight, if any of these engines escaped the junk man, they should still be in fine operating condition.

Syracuse Gas Engine Works of Syracuse, New York, Catalog No. 18, dated 1912 offers two-cycle marine engines in a range of sizes from a single cylinder 5 hp. to 100 hp. in a six cylinder unit. Their sales slogan was quite similar to that of the Packard Motor Car Company, only Syracuse said -- 'Ask the man who runs one.'

These engines were of the general vertical two-cycle, three port design in multiples of 2, 4, and 6 cylinders in line modifications. The ratings were obtained from three different bore and stroke types - B-4' x 4'; C-6' x 7'; D-5?' x 5?'.

One patented feature was the water-cooled exhaust manifold with a warm air carburetor intake built around the hot exhaust. Multi-carburetors were used on the larger engines of the Schebler type. Mounted on the crankshaft at the aft of the engine is a brass and steel spiral gear which drives the distributor or ignition timer and rotary water circulating pump. A set of levers at the forward end of the engine controls the ignition timer and the carburetor adjustment and the engine speed. The cooling system from the gear pump was direct and discharged through the water-cooled exhaust manifold then through the cylinders and overboard. This is one of the best methods of cooling engines today as heated water in the engine water jackets prevents distortion of cold water cooling coming in contact with the hot cylinder walls.

The 'Little Six' Syracuse marine engine was built in the small 4' x 4' bore and stroke cylinders and was arranged with dual carburetors, each supplying three cylinders. Lubricating oil mixed with the gasoline provided the crankshaft connecting rod bearings and cylinders, while the main bearings were equipped with compression grease cups.

Model C was the heavy duty engine of the Syracuse line. It had a 6' bore and 7' stroke and operated at 350 to 900 rpm. The same type of cooling system was employed and the ignition was a battery and spark coil type with spark plugs. All models were direct reversible with a thrust bearing and flexible coupling to the propeller shafts. A clutch could be supplied on the heavy duty units to ease the task of starting the engine.

Often on marine installation of these large two cycle engines, a ratchet would be installed just aft the thrust bearing on the direct coupled propeller shaft. A starting bar or lever which fit the ratchet was used to rotate the engine for starting.

The specifications of the Syracuse were as follows:

SEE CHART D

CHART D

TYPE

HP.

NO. OFCYL.

BORE& STROKE

R.P.M.

FLYWHEEL DIA. IN.

WEIGHT

PRICE

1B

5

1

4 x 4

650

14'

160

$ 140.00

2B

10-12

2

4 x 4

650

14'

235

   265.00

3B

15-18

3

4 x 4

650

14'

340

   400.00

4B

20-24

4

4 x 4

900

14'

425

   565.00

6B

32-42

6

4 x 4

900

14'

575

1200.00

1C

12

1

6 x 7

350

20'

456

295.00

2C

24

2

6 x 7

350

20'

750

500.00

3C

36

3

6 x 7

350

20'

900

750.00

4C

48

4

6 x 7

500

20'

1050

1000.00

1D

10

1

5? X 5?

650

17?'

358

210.00

2D

20-24

2

5? X 5?

650

17?'

470

425.00

3D

30-36

3

5? X 5?

650

17?'

670

550.00

4D

4048

4

5? X 5?

650

17?'

820

850.00

6D

75-100

6

5? X 5?

 1000

17?'

850

1850.00

The above should offer a customer a wide choice of power units to fit most any size and design of boat.

The Capitol Gas and Gasoline Engine Catalog 'A' from Norm Mullings library gives the following description of the machines built by the C.H.A. Dissinger & Bros. Co. of Wrightsville, Pennsylvania. Their slogan was -- 'Simplest, Most Reliable and Strongest built engine in the World.' - also - 'They look well and run well.'

Their products range in size from 2/2 hp. to 200 hp. and were on the market about 1910. Their catalogs show' pictures of the manufacturing facilities including the machine shop, erecting floor and assembled engines. A special boring machine was used to finish and hone the cylinders.

These were four cycle, horizontal, single cylinder, open crankcase with a shield over the crank and were of the heavy duty double flywheel type. The side shaft was driven by enclosed gears on the crankshaft. A shaft bearing was located under the intake opening near the head.

The cylinder head was in one piece with no valve openings. The valves were located in a valve box at the side of the engine and operated from cams on the side or lay shaft. The valves were in a vertical position on both sides of the cylinder forming what might be termed a 'T' head engine. The rocker arms under the cylinder had rollers that follow the cams on the intake and exhaust. Just ahead the cams on the shaft is a bevel gear that operates the governor which is an enclosed flyball type. A speed variation adjustment is arranged to change the engine rpm. by 50%. Bronze is used on the smaller engines up to 6 hp. for the connecting rod bearings. The valve cages are ground to fit the flange on the intake and exhaust openings so no packing is required. There was a compression release on the exhaust valve stem to assist in turning the engines while starting.

A gasoline fuel cup was mounted on the top of the intake valve cage for priming and an injector was used to supply the proper amounts of fuel, which were controlled by the governor for the load on the engine.

The ignition on these Capitol engines were of the battery and coil type with an igniter which this company also called a 'sparker' in their catalog. This was mounted on a separate plate on the side of the cylinder and the oscillation was actuated from the lay shaft.

These engines resemble the early Otto design with the overhung cylinder, lay shaft and governor. The departure was the unique valve arrangement.

Portable units were mounted on steel frame wagons with steel wheels. Cooling was either hopper or closed cylinder with water tank and circulating pump. The fuel pump was on the side of the engine with an overflow back to the main tank. Batteries and coil were enclosed in a box which was also used as a driver's seat on the horse-drawn outfits. Semi-portables were available, all assembled on steel skids and well painted.

Specifications of the Capitol Gasoline Engines are as follows: (Nameplate had C.H.A. Dissinger & Bros.)

SEE CHART E

CHART E

HP.

R.P.M.

WEIGHT

2?

400

  400

3?

360

  600

5

340

 1000

6

300

 1200

8

280

 1800

10

270

 2400

12

250

 2800

14

225

 2900

16

225

 3000

18

200

3 200

20

200

 5000

24

200

 5500

28

180

 6000

35

180

  8000

40

180

10,000

50

160

10,500

60

160

11,000

80

160

11,500

100

160

12,000

140

160

14,000

Portable units were made in 3?, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20 and 24 hp.

From the Broken Kettle Book Service, a catalog of the Ellis Engine Company built in the hub of the automobile manufacturing vicinity of Detroit, states in the format of their literature, that the use of their engines will 'eliminate the back-breaking drudgery of the house, shop and field.' Their policy was that of the 'Grand Old Man' of the auto industry (but they did not give his name) who said - 'Start it Right'

'Make it Right'

'Sell it Right'

'Treat your customer Right'

In order to create a demand for their two cycle engines they gave a complete comparison in their catalog between the simplicity of the two cycle design and the more complicated four cycle machines.

This is a situation that has existed down through the history of the development of the internal combustion engine. Why the general acceptance of the four cycle design has been the general rule in the engine industry is difficult to say.

Each school of design has its own valid arguments of the superior performance and reliability of their particular type. There are good reasons on both sides and possibly had the two cycle been the most popular chosen type of the majority of the engine builders, and had all of the engineering research applied to that design instead of the four cycle, it may have resulted in favor of the more simple constructed version. It will now, in our present era, be very interesting to follow a still more simplified machine to see if the pistonless engine can become the accepted type.

Mr. and Mrs. R. S. Rogers, Jr., spent most of the hottest summer months visiting virtually all the steam and gas engine Shows along the Eastern Seaboard from Toronto to their home at Cheraw, South Carolina. With all this added experience, the Rogers plan to make a repeat of their nice April South Carolina Show. (The third person in this picture is Mrs. Denis McCormack.)

The Ellis engines were built in only two ratings according to their catalog. There were 3 and 6 hp. vertical single cylinder, enclosed crankcase construction. Their design offered a solution to the usual objectionable operating characteristic of a 2 cycle gasoline engine. Being of the 3 port design, a throttle valve was placed in the by-pass for the fuel from the crankcase to the cylinder, which provided control of the rpm. of the engine, its fuel consumption and horsepower output.

On the 3 hp. unit it was possible to operate the engine with one port open and it would develop only 1 hp. With 2 ports open, it would operate on 2 hp. and with the ports wide open it would deliver 3 hp. The same results were obtained on the larger machine with one port open as it would develop 2 hp. and with 2 ports open it would operate at a rating of 4 hp. and produce full 6 hp. with all ports wide open, and at operating speeds from 250 to 1000 rpm.

The ports were of an odd design in that it was like having three pipes leading from the base where the fuel and air is under compression on a 2-cycle engine, up to the port into the combustion space of the cylinder. If you closed off two of these pipes you would allow only 1/3 of the normal amount of fuel to enter the cylinder; when fired it would produce approximately 1/3 of the full rated power.

Other 2 cycle designs accomplished the same results by using a butterfly valve type of baffle in the by-pass and by closing it at various degrees cut the power developed proportionally.

The governor was of an unusual type that combined the timer and speed control and the air intakes were all part of the governor assembly.

The Ellis fuel atomizer, as the carburetor was called, consists of a glass bowl with a float. A pipe from the top of the bowl connected to the lower port of the cylinders. As a vacuum was created it draws the fuel up into the atomizer. A needle valve controls the amount of fuel admitted to the by-pass port when it comes in contact with the atomizing disc, or check valve in the intake. At this point the air and fuel mix and is warmed by a heating chamber which is kept warm by the exhaust gases.

Lubrication by a force feed lubricator, oils the cylinder walls on two sides and also for the splash system to the crankcase. A special water-cooling tank is supplied with the engines. It has a by-pass to warm the engine when started, similar to the thermostatic valve used in cars. Engines were equipped with raised cast-iron bases and two flywheels. A friction clutch pulley could be supplied. Regular ignition system consisted of the battery, coil and spark plugs -- a magneto could be fitted if desired.

Ellis specifications were as follows:

SEE CHART F

CHART F

HP.

BORE & STROKE

CRANK SHAFT IN.

WEIGHT

PRICE

3

6

3?' x 3?'

4?' x 4?'

1?'

1?'

357

453

$130.00

  198.00

The Olin Gasoline Engine Company of Buffalo, New York, built a vertical 4-cycle single cylinder, hopper-cooled machine of a most unusual design. It resembled a vertical two cylinder ammonia compressor like Frick or York built in about 1940.

The cylinder and base were in two castings. The cylinder was flanged at the bottom and was bolted to the enclosed crankcase. This base was extended to the right when facing the side of the engine where the mixing valve was located. The crankshaft was in one piece and carried by an outboard bearing at the far end of the engine base. The single flywheel was overhung on the outside of this outboard bearing. Between the outboard bearing and the crankcase was a flat belt pulley. In order to put on a drive belt, it would have been necessary to lace it after it was put around the pulley.

The cooling water hopper around the cylinder extended over the engine base towards the outboard bearing about one quarter of the distance. A sight glass gave visual evidence of the water level in the hopper.

The push rods and valve springs were in the open on the same side of the engine as the fuel intake. The valves could be removed by taking out a screw plug over them inside the water hopper. The mixing valve was located down by the lower part of the crankcase with a long intake pipe up to the intake.

Trailer in trouble on Chinook pass (elevation 5440 feet) Cascade Range, Washington. The engine is a 10 hp. Y Fairbanks Morse SN403512. It was given to me by a man in Eastern Washington. There is reason to believe this engine was sold by C. Mull in 1927.

Battery ignition system provided jump spark to the spark plug and the timer was at the lower crankcase on an extension of the camshaft. Bearings were bab bitted and were removable. They were lubricated by a splash oil system.

Only one size engine was shown in the catalog having a rating of 5 hp. at 600 rpm.

Another Olin gasoline engine was described to me in a letter from John Wilcox of Columbus, Ohio. It is a 10?' x 17' bore and stroke, 20 hp. with a serial number of 2067. This unit was built by the Titusville Iron Works, in that city, in Pennsylvania. This is a 4-cycle natural gas, hot tube, hit and miss governed which holds open the exhaust valve to control the speed. This very early (circa 1897) was sometimes sold under the name of Ruger Gasoline Engine. This engine was a horizontal open crankcase machine and the design originated at the Olin Company in Buffalo. The automatic intake valve is in the center of the exhaust valve, which has a large hollow stem allowing the fuel mixture to enter. The governor is located in the timing gear.

A Twin City Garden Tractor in operating condition.

Reliving the early '40's' pulling a 2-14 A-C plow with a Farmall F-12 tractor.

It would be interesting to learn more of the history of these two entirely different OLIN engine designs, and what other sizes and types this company manufactured.

C. E. Coey & Company of 177 LaSallc St., in Chicago, had sales agents for a variety of equipment such as the Coey Gasoline engines, the Coey Automobile an attachment for bicycles to run on railroad tracks, sewing machines, a folding bath tub, the Hulett Burglar Alarms, meat and vegetable choppers, Chicago Rapid Steam clothes washers and photo supplies which included the Rex box camera.

The Coey gasoline engine No. 1 was made in sizes from 5 to 100 hp. They were horizontal 4-cycle, single cylinder, hit and miss governed, with open crankcase. The base of the engine was arranged with the main bearing housings, and the cylinder was bolted in place. The flyball governor, cams and igniter were operated from a lay shaft, which was driven from gears on the crankshaft. The igniter was located in the center of the cylinder head.

Coey No. '2 engine is of the same horizontal design and rated at 3 hp. with closed cylinder and is furnished with fuel and cooling water tanks mounted on skids in front of the engine.

Coey gasoline engine No. 3 was a vertical 4-cycle, closed type cylinder, with open crankcase, and double flywheel machine built in 1?-2? and 3? hp. ratings. The mechanical exhaust valve was operated by a push rod actuated from a fulcrum arm that was pivoted below the crankshaft and driven by the camshaft. The gas or fuel pump was operated from the camshaft. The igniter was located in the side of the water-cooled cylinder head. Cylinders were supported by an 'A' frame. Fuel tank was located in the cast-iron base.

Coey No. 4 engine was a I lip. rated unit called the 'Little Surprise.' It was of the horizontal design with open crankcase and supported on wooden skids, with a water-cooling tank and battery box. The flywheel rims were round in cross section. Gears were on the right hand side when facing the crank end. No other specifications were available.

The Coey automobile had a single seat with an upward flared design and full leather rolled edge upholstering, and a leather dashboard. It was steered by a tiller handle. The general appearance somewhat resembled the curved dash Oldsmobile, only possibly a somewhat higher car.

The engine was a 2-cycle single cylinder, 5 hp. 4?' bore by a 5' stroke and with a closed crankcase. The weight of the engine was 225 pounds. Cooling system on the engine consisted of a water tank, and a circulating water pump mounted on top of the cylinder. There appeared to be no radiator, so the tank must have been quite large to keep the engine cool. There was a starting crank on the side of the car from the engine.

Little is known of Mr. Coey, but two bank references were given in the advertisement from which this information was secured. Both these references were banks of the southeastern part of Spokane County in the State of Washington. One other bit of information stated that Mr. Coey at one time was an associate with E. R. Thomas of Thomas Motor Car Company.