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26 Mott Place, Rockaway, New Jersey 07866-3022

Last spring, in between jobs, I decided to go to an auction sale in Hainesville, New Jersey. I had heard of it through a friend in the North Jersey Antique Engine and Machinery Club. My friend Dick Haskins had told me that there was to be an estate auction with some old tractors and old engines in it, near his home. I decided to go and have a look, as you will never know what you will find at an auction.

There were six or seven tractors, all of which ran. There were also all kinds of household goods and antiques, which were good crowd pleasers as well. What happened to catch my eye though, were several rows of old iron and related items. It seemed that these rows attracted just about everyone else, too!

There were ten or twelve engines, some in good condition, and some not so good, as well as a couple that would not even make good lawn ornaments!

Upon closer examination I found the following: The Arrow Motor Model K-2 Pausin Engineering Company, Newark, New Jersey, 5 HP. The engine block and the pump base were made of aluminum. The pump body and the carburetor were made of bronze, and the engine cylinders appeared to have water jackets made out of copper. As I was looking this engine over, my friend Dick came over, and gave me some of its history.

Dick told me that the pump had originally been sold to the local fire department for use as a portable fire pump. The area of Sussex County where we were was very rural, mostly vast farms and small country roads. Since there were not many fire hydrants, the local fire department had to draft (pump water) from a nearby pond or lake in order to fight the fire. As this pump was set up, it could either pump water through two hoses, directly to the fire, or it could be used to refill a tank that would supply another piece of fire apparatus at the scene. As the fire company and the town grew, larger pumps and trucks were bought, and the old pump saw less and less service, until one day it was finally declared surplus equipment.

The pump laid around the fire house for several years, and was then sold at auction to the public as surplus equipment in the 1930s. A local farmer in the town of Branchville bought it to use as an irrigation pump, to water crops and fill feed stock troughs on his farm. For this purpose the old pump served well until the early 1950s when an untrained farm hand put straight gas into the fuel tank without any oil. At this time the engine labored to a stop the pistons seized from lack of lubrication. The pump was then taken to a repair shop, but the engine would only run on one cylinder and backfire when it was returned. The farmer used the pump until one day it let off a really loud backfire and blew its exhaust system off. At this point the farmer had had enough and the old pump was relegated to the back of the barn.

In the early 1960s the farm was holding a sale when another friend, Ed, noticed a pile of old engines in the barn. Ed asked if they were for sale, and was told 'no' by the owners. Ed, being very persistent, kept after the owner to sell the pile and finally, a price was settled upon. In the pile was the old pump.

In the early 1970s, Ed finally got around to looking at the old fire pump. He tried to start it, but it was real stiff to turn and it would only backfire. In 1978 Ed had asked me to take a look at it, but I didn't get a chance to. Ed had the pump sandblasted and then set it on the floor of his shop, where it sat until 1994. This is when it went up for sale at the auction I was attending.

I noted that the pump was semi-seized, that is, the crankshaft and flywheel were stiff and the pistons were almost locked in their bores. It also seemed that the spark plugs had been removed some time ago. Dick and several others had also looked at the pump and just shook their heads and walked away.

The auctioneer finally started on the rows of old engines. Wouldn't you know that he would start at the other end of the row! As the auctioneer sold piece after piece, a pattern soon developed. Most of the engines were going at what I thought was a good price. A few pieces went cheaply and one or two went quite high. One man ended up buying about 60 percent of the entire group.

As I had only a limited amount of money on me, and the auction only accepted cash, there were two that I went after. But I dropped out, because I wanted to go after the old fire pump. Finally, it came up for bid.

The auctioneer started out with: 'Here's a fine example of American manufacturing. Who will give me 300?' His reply was dead silence! 'Who will give me 250 for this fine machine?' After trying again and again with no bids, he said, 'You're not looked at this right. Is anybody here at this auction today? We have an item to sell. Who will make an offer?' I said, '25' in a small voice. The auctioneer looked at me for a couple of seconds with a look of utter disbelief, and looked up to the sky and said, 'Well I'll be, somebody did come to the sale after all!!! I've got 25, who'll give me 30?' and away we went. We bid back and forth until we reached the $225 mark. At this time the other man hesitated. Finally he raised his hand. The auctioneer turned to me and asked, '$250?' I replied '$230.' He looked to the other man and said, '$235?' A shake of the head and it was back to me, '$240?' was asked. A nod given. '$245?' to my opponent, 'Yup' was the reply after another hesitation. 'Two hundred fifty?' to me, a nod of the head sent it back '$255 ?', no answer. Again the question, '$255?' another wait.

A third time the question was asked, and this time a negative shake of the head. The auctioneer then said, 'Going once at $250. Going twice at 250, and finally, SOLD! at 250! Thanks for coming!!!'

It was finally mine! The crowd gave us a round of applause and then moved on. After I got the sales slip in my hand, I went to take a closer look at my prize. Several people were now looking at the pump. One asked me, 'When is this going up?' I told him, 'It already has.' They then asked me who had bought it and I told them I had. When they heard the price I paid, one man said, 'What a find!' I also thought I had quite a bargain.

A bit later a man came up to me and told me that the old pump had belonged to his father's fire department and it had been originally purchased in 1917. The pump came with its starting crank and a Zirc to Alemite adapter for the grease fittings on the pump and engine.

The old pump then sat in the garage for a month before I got a chance to give it a good looking over. The first thing I wanted to do was to see if I could free up the engine so it would turn over easily. I sprayed some WD-40 into the open spark plug holes and soaked the tops of the pistons. I also sprayed it into the open exhaust ports and outlets, after turning the pump on its side. After setting the engine back on its base, I tried turning the 15' flywheel by hand. To my surprise, after a few seconds of effort, the engine started to turn much easier; however, it felt and sounded like there was a lot of grit in the cylinders. Now I knew for sure that the engine had to be taken apart in order to be set straight. As I found out later, this was to be a blessing in disguise.

I started my restoration by removing the intake manifold and the bronze carb, as well as the brass cooling manifold and copper tubing. I also had to remove the magneto and its bracket and the magneto drive chain. As I was taking the magneto off the engine, I noticed that when it was turned, it did not take much effort to cut the magnetic lines of force at the firing points. This meant some mag work was in order. I should also note here that I made sure I found the timing marks on both the engine and the mag before the mag was removed. I figured that at the least, I would have to charge the magnets, as the spark was weak for the rear cylinder.

Next came the removal of the cylinders themselves which, on this particular engine, is not an easy task. The cylinders are made of cast iron. The base is machined to fit into the block, and the lower exterior is also turned to receive the copper water jacket. The top is machined flat and is tapped with a 22 millimeter fine thread, in which is screwed a brass insert that seals both the water jacket and the combustion chamber. This plug also acts as the mount for the spark plug. The copper water jacket base is a taper press fit onto the machined base of the cylinder. Besides various tapped holes for the cooling system and the exhaust, on the 'rear' of the cylinder is an approximately 1 by 2 inch inspection port cast onto the base that is machined with 4 holes tapped in the corners. Both cylinders appear to be identical, except for the engine ID plate soldered to the 'front' cylinder water jacket. I forgot to mention that both cylinders also have a brass right angle cock mounted on the sides, using a ' pipe thread and flange to seal the combustion chamber and water jacket.

The cylinders, being mounted only ' apart, both have to be removed at the same time because the inspection port cover between the cylinders actually is nested within a recess in the rear cylinder. There is not enough space either to remove the port cover, or to separate the cylinders enough with enough distance to remove them individually. The cylinders are mounted to the block using four 5/16 bolts, three of which are fed from the top and threaded into the block in the conventional manner; and one of which feeds from the bottom of the block into the cylinder base, because of the placement of the exhaust port and discharge. On this last bolt, placement is critical because when the discharge port was drilled and tapped, this bolt was in place. The taper and the port threads are cut into the end of the bolt, and if you happen to swap a different bolt into the hole, the exhaust pipe won't be able to seat in the port threads properly. As a last note, these bolts (at least on this engine) are not the conventional 5/16-18 thread common bolts. As near as I could tell the thread count is closer to 20 threads per inch.

I unbolted the cylinders from the base and proceeded to lift them off of the block as a set. They weigh about eight pounds a piece, but are unwieldy because of their shape. When they were finally clear of the pistons, I could see immediately why the farmer was having so much trouble running the pump after it was repaired.

This particular two cycle or two stroke engine is of the piston port design. It is basically two 2 HP engines side by side, with a common carburetor and a 180 degree crankshaft. The crank-case sections are separated with a manual grease seal, which I will cover later, and the crankcase itself splits horizontally along the plane of the crankshaft itself.

For a piston port two cycle engine to operate properly it must be assembled properly. Whoever rebuilt the engine had reversed the rear cylinder piston, and more, as I later found out.

This engine uses a stepped piston in its design (see diagram 1). As the piston recedes down the cylinder bore, the piston crown uncovers first the exhaust and then the intake ports. Since the piston was reversed, the intake port was uncovered first, the exhaust flame was directed into the intake manifold thus leading to misfires and loud backfires as a result. To get a complete idea how a two cycle engine works, see my article 'Smokers' in the April 1989, Volume 24, #4 issue, page 27 of GEM.

After the cylinders were removed I could see what had bound up the engine. The person who had sandblasted the engine didn't cover any of the external openings on the engine and the cylinders and crankcase were loaded with a lot of coarse, fine grains of grit. This meant a complete teardown was necessary in order to clean the engine up internally.

To remove the engine from the base, it had to be uncoupled from the pump. This is accomplished by removing a cooling line coupling and releasing three large wing nuts and their 'T' bolt assemblies, separating the base into two halves. The pump is linked to the engine through a pin spline which also separates when the base is split. With this done, the engine can then be removed from the base and disassembled.

When all of the grit was washed off, along with many years accumulation of grime and grease, I found another mistake on the other cylinder. The connecting rod and its cap were assembled mismatched, with the big end bearing cap reversed. This meant that particular bearing didn't get the proper oiling necessary to lubricate the crank when the engine was running. At this time, the entire pump was treated to a high pressure washing and a good blowing off with air to get all of the moisture off.

When all of the parts were relatively dry, I wiped the parts dry with a clean rag, and all of the iron and steel parts were sprayed with WD-40 in order to keep them from rusting.

The engine, with the exception of the former assembly errors, was in good condition. There didn't appear to be any damage from the grit and dirt, but the intake and exhaust ports and manifolds were loaded with a heavy carbon buildup due to the incessant backfiring after the engine had been rebuilt. The carbon was removed with a dentist's pick, a screwdriver, and a lot of elbow grease. The exhaust ports were a particular problem because of their design, that is the casting did not leave much room to work in at the rear of the port, to remove all of the carbon which was a real pain in the fingers! I polished the copper water jackets at that time, too.

Now that all of the cleanup was done, I could do a good close up inspection and begin the reassembly process.

The crankshaft was in good condition, with only a little wear noted on the con rod throws. The three mains fit snugly in the block, but I thought that there was too much end play (about 40-thousandths). In order to take out the excess end play, the flywheel and its key had to be removed. The flywheel is about 15' in diameter, with a 2' face. It weighs about 20 pounds and is anchored in place with a 5/16 tapered gib key to the crankshaft. A metal wedge and a small ball peen hammer soon had the key out, and a 6' long  1' diameter by 6' long brass piece of pipe soon had the play out. The trick was to get the gib key back in tight, without loosing critical clearances! I tried three times before I got the flywheel to stop just where I wanted it to. When it was finished I ended up with about 5-thousandths of end play. Any tighter and the crank would bind up on the block journals.

Before I assembled the crankshaft and cylinder assembly, the connecting rod assemblies had to be installed. I decided to check the wrist pin fit as well as the big end bearing clearances now, before I ran into problems. The wrist pins themselves were in good condition, but the small rod end bearings had a lot of wear, and had to be replaced. A machinist friend of mine, Doug Kimble, spent about two hours drilling, miking, and polishing the two new bearings. They had to be made individually because the wrist pins were about 5-thousandths different in diameter. It would seem that each piston was individually fitted at the factory, as the pins fit perfectly in their own piston.

I should note that the wrist pins are free floating. They are not anchored by either the piston or the connecting rod. Instead, they are held in place with aluminum buttons, much like those being used on today's racing two-stroke engines (see diagram 2).

With the piston pins now fitted, I then installed the rods onto the crank-shaft. I made sure that they were facing in the correct direction for the oil pickup dippers to operate. (See diagram 3.) Then I prepared the block to receive the crankshaft. The crankcase houses the three main bearings, which are lubricated by Alemite fittings. I pumped fresh grease through the fittings until it appeared at the bearing, then spread it on the bearing surface. The crankshaft was then put in its place in the bearings, and the two halves were bolted together. The next step was to mount the pistons to the respective connecting rods with the pin retainers taped in place. The entire assembly was then set aside for painting and I continued to work on the pump side of the unit.

The pump seemed to be in good shape, so I just flushed it out with clean water and turned the impeller by hand in order to clear any grit out of the housing. I felt no resistance in the pump as it turned, so I began to ready the pump section for painting. I removed the seven Alemite fittings and polished them, taping the lower section of the pump to protect it from overspray, and I removed all of the copper cooling lines and polished them.

When the pump was new, the upper pump housing, flywheel and fuel tank were all painted red. The nearest match I found to the original red was Krylon Cherry Red #2101.1 taped the set-aside block assembly and then painted the pump and the flywheel with three coats of paint, each being about 15 minutes apart. It's a good practice to use a mask when painting because of all the chemicals they use in the paints. Breathing in all of these things can do some serious damage over a period of time.

It is best not to try to do all of your painting in one coat. It usually leads to sags or runs. On a warm day Krylon will usually dry to the touch in about 10 minutes and can be held and handled, usually, in an hour.

The two halves of the pump base and the engine block, as well as the bases of the engine cylinders, were brush-painted with silver acrylic enamel. When the paint was dry, the engine block was mounted on the front pump base.

The engine is held in alignment with two tight fitting alignment pins, so that the engine-to-base relation cannot be changed.

The pump and engine pin coupling was aligned, and after the base aligning pins were mated up, the base halves were locked together with the three 'T' bolts and their wing nuts. The crankshaft was then rotated through several turns in order to double-check the alignment and everything seemed to be in order. I got ready to set the cylinders in place on the block.

As I had noted before, the cylinders and rings were in good shape, and even the cylinder base gaskets were usable. I wiped out the cylinder bores in order to make sure there was no grit remaining, then sprayed some more WD-40 in the cylinder bores and on the pistons. I made sure that the rings were aligned with their locating pins and set the nestled cylinders onto the pistons. I tried to set both sets of rings at the same time, but this proved to be a costly error. The cylinder bottoms have a 45 degree taper machined into their base that acts as a ring compressor for installing the rings. As I was feeding the rings on both pistons into the cylinders, the rear piston (the one toward the pump), began to lag behind the front one. I thought that all three rings on both pistons were fully into their respective bores and began setting the pistons further into the cylinders, when I heard the distinct sound of a ring breaking. I didn't see that the third ring on the rear piston wasn't seated in the cylinder completely and when I pushed the cylinder down, the ring broke. I pulled the two cylinders off the pistons and turned them over to see if the broken ring had done any damage to the cylinder luckily it hadn't.

Now, I figured that I had three options. First: Take one ring off the front piston and assemble and run the engine on two rings per piston. It would probably have worked for awhile, but would put an increased load on the remaining rings, causing a power loss by increased wear and compression loss. Option two was to replace just the broken ring with a new one. This, though, would create another set of problems, that is, a new ring weighs more than the used ones causing a balance problem. More importantly, the new ring would create a new wear pattern in the cylinder that the remaining two rings would take a lot more time to adapt to, again causing a power loss due to lost compression. To run an engine on this type, for any length of time, with a severe loss of power in one cylinder could result in a twisted crankshaft (out of 180 degree phase). This could lead to a blown engine. The third option was to replace all of the engine's rings, hone the cylinders and break in the engine like it was rebuilt. I chose the third option.

The cylinders were then honed with a fine stoned glaze breaker. The bores cleaned up very quickly, and they were rinsed off with kerosene to remove the leftover grit. The cylinders were dried off with a clean rag and sprayed with WD-40 and set aside. Then I removed the five remaining rings from the pistons, and in the act of doing this, another ring broke.

The pistons on this engine are 2' in diameter, and are about four inches tall. The wrist pins were about ' in diameter, give or take a few thousandths, set approximately one third of the way from the top of the crown of the piston. The rings are 2' diameter by 3/16' wide, and sit in a groove that is about 5/32' deep. The rings have a square stepped end mate, and also have a 1/16' locating pin notch cut about 5/8' from one end of the ring. This notch and pin set up prevents the ring from spinning in its groove, thus keeping the ring ends from getting caught in one of the cylinder ports (see diagram 4 for the ring end detail.)

I read through several back issues of GEM and looked in the for-sale-ads and the advertisements in order to buy another set of rings for my engine. However, I didn't see any rings advertised that would fit. I made several calls and had no luck. Then I remembered that quite a while ago I had had a custom set of rings made by a gentleman by the name of Joe Sykes, many years ago, and 1 wondered if he was still in business. I kept looking in my old issues of GEM (I have a complete set). I finally found what 1 was looking for. Joe had relocated and incorporated his business! The company name is Niagara Piston Ring Works, Inc., and the address is 49061.D.A. Park Drive, Lockport, New York 14094.

I phoned him and described the rings I needed. It was hard to describe the way the ring ends and their relation to the locating pin notch, so Joe asked me to send him a ring as a sample. While I waited for the rings to be made, I did some research on my pump outfit.

First, I looked into Mr. Wendel's book American Gasoline Engines Since 1872, where I found the following: Pausin Engineering Company apparently took over the Arrow Motor and Machine Company of New York at some time in 1917. Arrow itself had bought the right to manufacture the 'Waterman Engine' of Detroit some time before that. The engine on my pump appears to be a Waterman K-2, originally rated at 4 HP. The original engine only weighed 60 pounds and the K-2 design dates to before 1912. Arrow purchased the Waterman design in early 1917, and Pausin Engineering took over soon after. The K-2 was originally designed as a marine engine and used a battery and coil setup. The K-2 sold for $168.00 in a 1920 catalog.

On the fire pump the marine water pump had been removed from the rear cylinder and the port had been blocked off with the gas tank mounting bracket. The engine was cooled with water supplied with the discharge side of the pump. The water was piped through a coupling between the pump base halves and then into a manifold that feeds both cylinders. After cooling the cylinders, the water discharged into another manifold and, after going back through a second coupling between the base halves, was then sent into the inlet to the pump. There is a valve in this discharge line that must be adjusted every time the pump is run.

When first starting the pump, the valve must be closed so the pump can put out maximum vacuum to lift water from its source. After the pump starts, it has to lift the water to the pump itself and begin to deliver it to the supply hoses. Once this is done and pressure is up, the valve can be opened wide open to supply water to the cylinders. This can lead to a high heat buildup, especially if the engine has to lift the water a long way. The pump I have will put out about 25 pounds of vacuum for the suction side of the pump, and at full throttle will put out over 250 pounds of discharge pressure. Anyway, the pump will not complete the initial lift until the valve to the cylinders is closed. Once the pump is making water, as we call it in the fire department, the valve is opened wide to the cylinders to blow all of the air out of the copper water jackets. After about 30 seconds the valve is adjusted to keep the cylinder jackets warm to the touch as the pump is running. During the course of a fire this must have been a tedious job, as with the changing fire scene demands, the load and flow through the lines would change the amount of water flowing through the pump, requiring constant adjustment of the cooling water in order to maintain the proper cylinder temperature. If the demand for water was over, the pump could be idled for several minutes without flowing water through a hose, by circulating the cooling water through the pump. This way, if there was a flare up of fire, the water would be available right away to put it out, instead of waiting for the pump to prime and lift the water through the hoses again.

I figured that while I waited for the rings to arrive, I would also work on the magneto, as it needed new hi-tension wires and some other work. The magneto is an American Bosch, model FF 220, patented 1915. It has a chain drive, utilizing the chain as shown in diagram 4. I cleaned up the points and set them at .018, but the spark was still weak. I decided to recharge the magnets. The magnet is mounted to the magneto base with a wide nickel-plated brass band and four nickel-headed brass screws. From previous experience I knew that the brass band is quite brittle and I didn't want to disturb it. After looking at the difficulty I would have in disassembling the entire mag, though, I decided to try and remove the retainer band and the magnet. When the screws were removed, I gently pried the brass band off the magnet. Luckily, the band did not split. There were, in fact, two magnets under the band, a fact I had not counted on. Both magnets were marked at the factory with their north poles, and I used a black magic marker to mark which magnet went to the points side, and which went to the gear side. Then I removed the magnets from the magneto frame. I noted that when a keeper was placed on the magnets, they appeared to be pretty weak. I recharged the magnets in the following manner.

On this mag, the magnets must work side by side. Both magnets are matched at the factory for magnetic strength. If the magnets are mismatched, the weaker magnet will 'steal' magnetic force from the stronger magnet, causing a weakness in the magnetic field that the magneto depends on to operate properly. Where a set of magnets is nested together, it is best to charge them all at the same time so as to give them all an equal charge.

Both magnets were clamped together, side by side, just as if they were installed on the magneto, with two stainless steel radiator hose clamps. (See diagram 5).

The twinned magnet set was then placed on the magnet charger, making sure that the entire magnet base was fully on the charger. I put the current through the charger for about 30 seconds. As the current was flowing, I hit the magnets with a brass drift pin an equal number of times on each side, in order to help the magnets set up the stronger magnetic field. This was repeated four times. A keeper was set across both magnets, and they were removed from the charger. The magnets were mounted back onto the magneto frame, and the retaining band was reinstalled with its four screws.

Then I installed the two new hi-tension leads into their respective sockets in the mag and then gave it a spin. The mag now gives off a fair 3/8' spark, but the rearward side take off definitely is weaker. I suspect that the farmer just pulled the rear hi-tension lead off its respective spark plug without grounding it. This would have led to a high voltage buildup on one side of the armature, causing a breakdown of the secondary coil insulation. This breakdown leads to leakage (a short) in the output of the coil causing the engine to lose spark. Thankfully, it isn't very bad yet, but I am afraid that someday I'll have to replace the armature coil when it quits altogether. I thank Lee Pedersen, who helped me out with the new ignition wires and both the terminal end brass and the spark plug end clips. Lee was right, the pump does look sharp with the red hi-tension leads!

Just about the time I was finishing up the mag work, the rings arrived, so I was getting nearer the end of my project. I opened the box and found six new rings just as I ordered, and the ring that I had enclosed as a sample. I installed all six rings into their grooves, and they fit perfectly! The pistons were sprayed with WD-40, and again I tried to install them into the nested cylinders. I enlisted the help of my son Andrew to do the job properly.

I had him hold the rear cylinder, while I worked on the front one. I put the front piston at top center and jammed the flywheel so the crankshaft couldn't move. I held the cylinder and fed in the top ring, making sure that the ring was both set in its groove and that it was also set on the locating pin on the piston. The next two rings were set into the cylinder in the same manner. Then I set the piston about three-quarters of the way into the cylinder bore and had my son now hold both cylinders in his hands.

1 released the flywheel, turned it 180 degrees, very slowly, while guiding the free piston to keep it from flopping around. The trick is to keep the nested cylinders together, keep the already installed piston and rings still in its bore, start and install the free piston and rings into the other cylinder. The flywheel was again blocked tight, so I went to work trying to install the other piston and ring set. Now I had Andrew hold the front cylinder while I took control of the rear one. I had to raise the cylinder in order to clear the crown of the piston into the bore. As I raised it, the front cylinder also had to come up, and before I realized, it the piston almost came out. We ended up freeing up the flywheel in order to turn the crankshaft another 90 degrees. This final turn allowed me to feed the piston and rings into the other cylinder without loosing the first set up. After the piston rings were started, Andrew and I then set the cylinders onto the gaskets and the block and started the base bolts into the block and cylinder.

At this time the intake manifold was installed and the cooling manifold unions started. This was done to align the cylinders on the block so that when the cylinders were bolted down tight, the mounts would be in agreement and they wouldn't be forced. When all of the bolts and couplings were aligned, everything was tightened up. Some oil and gas was poured into the open spark plug holes and the engine was turned over. It turned easily and a loud sound (Thung!) at each half turn of the crank, told me that the crankcase was also sealed tight, as the air trapped inside was forced out the transfer ports into the cylinders.

The time had come to remount the magneto onto the engine. I set the engine to top dead center on the front cylinder. The flywheel is marked with an index line that is in line with the number one cylinder at this point. The chain itself is an oddball in that it is made of steel and has no roller bearing (see diagram 6). It is an endless chain also and has no master link. The magneto was also set so number one would fire at TDC when the mag was in the retarded position. The chain was set over the sprockets and the mounting bolts were installed and tightened.

With most of the major work finished, I decided to try to start the engine for a test run. I sprayed some more fuel and oil mix into the cylinders and installed two Champion spark plugs onto the heads. I installed the ignition wires and put on the hand crank.

I found out very quickly why you are not supposed to go all of the way around with your starter crank! I made a full revolution and on the second, the engine kicked back, sending the hand crank just a fraction of an inch from my face and ear! I tried a second time, and got a set of rapped knuckles for my trouble. I double-checked the magneto and found the thing set at full advance. I retarded the mag and tried again, but the engine wouldn't fire. I thought that I had possibly fouled a plug, so I pulled them both out. They were dry! I primed the engine again and pulled the flywheel over by hand a couple of times. The crank was tried again by just pulling up sharply on the handle and, on the third try it started! Although it only ran a few seconds before it quit, between the noise and the smoke, I had to leave the garage. Man is this thing LOUD!

Now that I knew it would run, I hastened to complete the restoration. I bought a fuel tank from Lee Pedersen (thanks again Lee) and soldered the original mount, which was made of 1/8' thick copper, to it. The carb was remounted onto the intake manifold, and I made up a new fuel supply line from some ' copper tubing. The fuel tank was mounted on the rear cylinder inspection port (where the marine water pump would have gone), and the new fuel line was connected.

Before I put fuel in the tank, I decided to make sure the carburetor didn't have any dirt in it. It's a good thing I did! The carb is made by Schebler and is model 1 x 10. The body is made of bronze and there are some brass parts on it. There wasn't much dirt in it, but there was one problem. The cork float had de-laminated, it had come apart! I removed the float and looked it over. At the time I decided to try to repair the float, and a call to Hit & Miss Enterprises found that this particular float was not immediately available. Ed suggested trying to repair the float by gluing the de-laminated sections together with his gas tank sealer. If it didn't hold, or if it made the float too heavy, then Ed said that he would try to have a float made up special, but it would cost more. I got the sealer and it worked fine.

First I made sure that all of the dust was blown off of the cork. Then I used a small modelers paint brush to spread the tank sealer in between all of the laminations. I let it all sit for a few minutes, to get tacky, and then I clamped the laminations all together in their proper place with three small 'C' clamps. The entire float was left to dry overnight.

The next day I took off the 'C' clamps and painted the entire top and sides of the float with the sealer, and again it was set aside to dry overnight. On the third day, I painted the bottom and repeated the sides. The float was then left alone for two days in order to make sure it was all dry. The float was then reinstalled in the carb and I turned on the fuel to see if the float would, indeed, shut off the flow of fuel. I crossed my fingers as the fuel level rose higher and higher, but it finally stopped about '  from the overflow point. (See diagram 7 for details of the float.)

The next section of the restoration deals with the exhaust. I made up an exhaust pipe from some 1' copper pipe and a few adapters, a 90 degree seat elbow and a sweat Tee fitting. The ' male by copper adapters were silver-soldered onto two 5' long pieces of pipe. The 90 degree elbow was in turn silver-soldered onto a 3' piece of pipe and the Tee was also silver-soldered onto a 1 foot long piece. The adapters were screwed into the exhaust ports, and the other assemblies were mounted as shown in the picture. The 3' piece was then silver-soldered into the other end of the Tee, but the Tee and the elbow were not soldered to the pipes leading from the exhaust. These, instead, were anchored with two TEK self-tapping bolts, so if the engine should have to be disassembled at some time in the future, the exhaust manifold won't have to be cut apart in order to remove the cylinders. As you can see, the entire assembly was also bent into a downward configuration in order to clear the pump gauge. I also had fitted an adapter on the end of the pipe to fit a muffler, but it was removed, as the muffler caused the engine to overheat severely when one was installed. I tried several types but they all had the same result.

The last thing to be made up was a cooling reservoir. I went to the local Auto Star auto parts store in Rockaway, on New Jersey Route 46, and asked the owner if he had a 35 gallon barrel I could have, and I told him what it was for. He said sure, and got one from the back of his shop. When I asked how much, he told me to take it, it was just in his way and I would be doing him a favor by taking it!

When I got it home I drilled two holes 13/8n in diameter through the side, and my friends at the Rockaway Sentry Hardware came through again with a couple of 1' by 6' nipples, and four locknuts and washers to seal the pipes to the side of the barrel. With a couple of 3' long 1'  hoses and the cooling system was all set.

I made a set of carrying handles in the following manner: I bought 4' sweat copper by male adapters and soldered a ' sweat street 90 degree elbow in each adapter. These assemblies were then screwed into the respective threaded holes at the corners of the pump, with the open sockets of the 90 degree ells facing each other on each side of the unit. I measured the distance to the bottom of the socket, and cut a piece of  ' hard type L copper tubing to fit each side. It's a good thing I measured each side individually because there was a ' difference in the length of the pieces. I then separated the split sections of the pump, and inserted the copper pipe into the empty sockets of the 90 degree ells. They were carefully aligned and the pump base was reassembled. With a few light taps of a small rubber mallet, the copper slid home in the ells as the base 'T' bolts and their wing nuts were made up. The copper pipes were purposely left loose in the ells so that the pump base could be disassembled if necessary at a future date, without having to cut the handles off. If you use this method to make handles for a unit you have, make sure to use at least a type L tubing (not M or Nit's too thin) and be sure that the tubing is NOT bending temper or soft copper before you use it. Bending temper of soft copper may pull out of the ells if there is too much weight or if they are not soldered in place.

The engine was then covered with newspaper and tape, and the exhaust pipe was painted with Krylon High Heat-Semi Flat Black Spray Paint to give the pipe a uniform appearance. After the paint was dry the paper and tape were removed, all of the copper and bronze, as well as the brass, was polished and the old fire pump was ready for the shows!

Here are some of the facts about this pump. The pump itself is a positive displacement gear drive pump, driven directly off the end of the engine crankshaftthrough a pin and socket spline. It will pump between 80 to 100 gallons per minute at 70 psi gauge. It will empty the 35 gallon cooling barrel in about 20 seconds at full throttle! The old pump, according to the gauge, has an operating range of 0 to 105 pounds, with a danger zone after 105 to 150. There is a pin stop at #250, and one day by accident, as I was running the engine at full throttle, I happened to close both valves on the gated wye on the pump discharge. The engine labored nearly to a stop as the pressure built up. When I saw the gauge, I killed the engine by closing the throttle, and let the pressure bleed off through the engine cooling system. I was lucky the pump didn't blow a gasket!

Fuel to oil ratio: I have been using a 12:1 ( pint of oil to a gallon of gas) due to the engine's age and its type of construction, for now. I may try to go to a 16:1 ( pint oil to a gallon of gas) later on, after the rings are broken in, but for now I'll keep to the 12 to 1 mix. Warm up: The engine cooling jackets will get too hot to touch, with no water flow, in about 5 minutes running; however, I try not to let them get that hot.

I usually run the pump in the following manner at the shows: First, the pump is placed where the water won't bother other show participants. The pump and its cooling system are assembled and the barrel is filled with water. The pump is started and allowed to warm up at idle until the cylinders are quite warm. The engine then circulates the water between the barrel of water and the pump only. After the engine cylinders get quite warm to the touch, the engine cooling system is opened and the return valve is throttled off until the pump is reading 70 to 80 psi at full throttle. The engine cooling valve is throttled so as to keep the cylinders warm to the touch. The pump will then run another five to eight minutes when the barrel of water will get pretty warm. I then open the gate to my fire hose and nozzle and close the cooling barrel return. As the pressure rises, I open the nozzle on the fire hose and let fly! In about 15 to 20 seconds the water level nears the bottom of the barrel and the syphon created by the pump begins to suck air into the pump and the engine begins to speed up. Then I close the nozzle and idle down the pump for a few seconds, then shut off the cooling system valve. The resulting pressure build up will stall the engine (about 90 psi on the gauge), the barrel is again refilled and the pump is ready to go again! The old fire pump draws quite a crowd when it is under a full load!

Fuel consumption: The pump uses about a quart of fuel in an hour of running time. Again I am using a 12 to 1 fuel to oil mix. Lastly, the engine will idle roughly at between 700 to 900 rpm, and has a top loaded speed of about 3,000 rpm.

I am in the process of looking for a 1' by ' New York thread smooth bore nozzle to use with my pump. I have a 1' by   iron pipe thread type already, but it won't fit on my hose because of the thread difference. Right now, the adjustment nozzle I am using takes too long to get into the straight steam mode. By the time I get a straight stream out of the nozzle, the water barrel is nearly empty!

If anyone needs help in restoring one of the Waterman or Arrow engines, I can probably help with technical problems. I do have four piston rings (used, though). I am currently looking for an owners or operators manual for the Pausin Engineering engine, or any related material on the company itself. I'd also like to hear from anyone else who has an outfit like this one.