How Your Hobby Started

Chapter XXVIII

Mogul Engine

Courtesy of Donald C. Tyler, Box 23, Amsden, Ohio 44803.

Donald C. Tyler

Content Tools

3904-47th Avenue S., Seattle, Washington 98118

To put the setting of an enjoyable day with collectors of gasoline engines in the proper retrospect, it was not held in Washington, D. C., but in the State of Washington. It was not held at George and Martha Washington's home on the Potomac, but at Bob and Mary Batterberry's home near Puget Sound. It was not held at Mt. Vernon, Virginia, but at a beautiful location in the lush green valley of the Skagitat Mount Vernon. It is just a mile off Hi-Way 5 and they enjoy visitors. It is easy to find as their mailbox has a gasoline engine for a marker.

The trucks and pick-ups started arriving before noon with one or two or three engines in each conveyance. There were about fifty engines on display. Many were running, and several tractors were in use cutting wood and operating a small sawmill cutting Alaska cedar logs.

There were late models of gasoline engines, antique engines and rare one-of-a-kind that is seldom seen. (Another meeting in this district will be held in August.)

Possibly the oldest engines present were a small Olds and a 5 HP Fairbanks-Morse hopper-cooled Type 'N'. The one-of-a-kind was a little 4 HP vertical four cycle, single cylinder 'Clift' marine engine made in Bellingham, Washington. These engines were almost handmade and very few ever reached the market. Two rare engines were on display and running. A 5 HP horizontal, heavy duty single cylinder, four cycle Doack, which was built on the Pacific Coast. Then a twin 'V' cylinder Termott and Monohan was a big attraction, as these engines are very scarce. A couple of interesting chain saws were shown; one was made in Germany.

From Elden Bryant of Broken Kettle Book Service comes Catalog No. 22 of Davis-Colbert Company of St. Joseph, Missouri. This company sold feed mills, sweep power grinders, alfalfa mills, corn shelters, wooden tub power washing machines, farm wagons, an automobile wagon, saw frames, special farming tools and the 'American Boy' gasoline engines. Their trademark was attractive. Imposed on a yellow background was an eagle on top of a spread of American flags in natural colors. Enclosed in an elaborate border design around the flags and eagle were the words 'American Boy' at the top of the insignia and Davis-Colbert Co., St. Joseph, Mo. in red letters at the bottom.

There is a striking resemblance between the 'American Boy' and the 'Waterloo Boy' engines. It would appear that the 'American Boy' engines were manufactured in Waterloo, Iowa. This is further substantiated by the fact W. F. Davis started building gasoline engines in Kansas City in 1893. (See G.E.M. Vol. 5 - #3 - 1970), and in 1906 he moved his plant to Waterloo, Iowa.

According to the catalog of Davis-Colbert Co., the 'American Boy' engines were sold by them, but no mention of their manufacturing facilities were stated. The name of this company was changed on the catalog from Davis-Colbert Co. to Colbert Machine Co. of St. Joseph, Mo. It could be assumed that it was W. F. Davis of the Davis Gasoline Engine Co. of Waterloo and the Davis of the Davis-Colbert Co. were one and the same man.

Be that as it may, the marked resemblances of these two engines were the same in every detail, even to the bracket on the front of the engine to which the gasoline tank was supported. Owners of these engines will be puzzled to determine which engine they have, unless the nameplate or the decal is visible.

The machines can be compared by the ratings. American Boy built engines in 1-1/2, 2-1/2, 4-1/2, 6, 8, 10 and 12 HP. The Waterloo Boy, according to their instruction book, built engines according to the following specifications, which are given here to make comparisons:

H P

BORE & STROKE

FLYWHEEL DIA.

CRANKSHAFT DIA.

EXHAUST PIPE

 

Inches

IN.

IN.

IN.

1-1/2

3-1/2 x 5

 

--

--

--

2

4x6

 

22

1-1/2

1-1/4

4

4-1/2 x 9

 

26

1-13/16

1-1/4

6

5-1/2 x 10

 

30

2

1-1/2

8

6 x 12

 

36

2-1/4

1-1/2

12

7-1/2 x 14

 

46

2-1/2

2

These ratings do match in the majority of sizes sold by both companies. To complete this analysis, it would be nice to have the bore and stroke of the American Boy engines, which was not shown in their catalogs.

Another interesting angle to this complexing subject comes from Claude Knudson of Gully, Minnesota. Claude has two Davis engines, in his collection of over two hundred. He has a 5 HP horizontal and a 2 HP vertical Davis. On the nameplate it states -Davis - Mfg. by Cascaden Vaughn Co., Waterloo, Iowa. These engines were patented July 3, 1896. Wm. Gallaway bought out the Cascaden Company in 1909. After this date the Davis engines were known as the 'Galloway'.

The small size American Boy engines were built in ratings of 1-1/2, 2-1/2, 4-1/2, and 6 HP. They were single cylinder, horizontal, four cycle, water hopper-cooled in one casting. The hopper was flared from the bottom up and covered with a raised filler collar around opening. The crankcase carried the cast-on main bearing shells and was bolted to the cast iron sub-base.

The water-cooled cylinder head was machined with a one quarter inch insert that fit in the cylinder bore. The head contained the mechanical exhaust valve and the automatic intake. The exhaust outlet was at the bottom of the cylinder head.

Crankshafts were forged from a billet of steel, turned and finished. Connecting rods were of the 'I' beam type with brass bearings on the wrist pin. Connecting rod and main bearings were babbitted.

The flat side rod was actuated from the cam on the timing gear and had the igniter tripping arm. It was held against the cam by a coil spring. The igniter of the hammer type was located in the side of the cylinder. The governor assembly was horizontal and of the flyball type which was gear driven from the timing gear and fitted with speed control lever.

This engine had a missing head -what to do with it?? This is what I came up with! It displays my hobby and makes for a very interesting light post at the same time. It's a 1 HP Mogul engine.

The mixing valve was fitted to the cylinder head on the side opposite the igniter. It consisted of a right angle body with a vertical check valve in the intake chamber and a needle valve that is set on an angle to control the amount of fuel.

Engines were shipped on skids with a battery box and the fuel tank on a bracket in front of the machine. The engines were nicely striped, with the word 'American Boy' on the side of the water hopper. No mention was made of the color scheme.

These small size engines were supplied with wooden trucks with iron wheels for portability. The ratings of 4-1/2 to 12 HP were supplied on steel wagon trucks for horse drawn portable units. Saw rigs were produced in ratins of 4-1/2, 6 and 8 HP.

In addition to the above engine outfits sold by Davis-Colbert Company, they also cataloged American-Silver wood working jointers and band saws in various sizes. A pitless wagon scale was shown in their catalog in sizes to accommodate wagons of the farm size. These scales could be assembled on the surface of the ground on building blocks for foundation and were complete with a beam box and double beam.

The specifications of the American Boy gasoline engines are as follows:

HP

STYLE

R.P.M.

SHIPPING

   

WEIGHT

1-1/2

Stationary

475

325

2-1/2

Stationary

400

575

4-1/2

Stationary

375

800

6

Stationary

325

1275

8

Stationary

300

1625

10

Stationary

285

2600

12

Stationary

270

2800

1-1/2

Hand Portable

475

325

2-1/2

Hand Portable

400

675

4-1/2

Hand Portable

375

925

4-1/2

Portable

375

1100

6

Portable

325

1700

8

Portable

300

2100

10

Portable

285

3250

12

Portable

270

3600

4-1/2

Saw Outfits

375

1250

6

Saw Outfits

325

1800

8

Saw Outfits

300

2150

This is the remains of a Rawleigh-Schryer 2-1/2 HP speed 400, No. B11288 manufactured by Rawleigh-Schryer Co., Freeport, Illinois. Would like to hear from other owners of this type engine.

An unusual truck-mounted fruit sprayer with a wooden tank and plunger pump was available and powered with a Novo engine.

A forerunner to the modern pickup truck was sold by Davis-Colbert and under the name of American Boy Auto Wagon. It was powered with an opposed two cylinder, air-cooled engine having a 4-1/8' x 3-3/8' bore and stroke and was rated at 14 to 18 HP.

The car had the appearance of an old-time passenger car with a short open wagon bed on the rear. It was equipped with a two speed transmission with a reverse. A disc clutch that was controlled by a lever provided the driver with means of putting the car in drive position. Power was transmitted to a jack shaft from which the chain drive to the differential rear axle connected. Gear ratio was 6.5 to 1.

A fourteen inch steering wheel with spark and throttle control levers under the rim provided the controls for driving. Brakes were contracting on the rear wheels. Wheel base was 77' and the clearance was 14'. Tread was 50' and capacity 1000 lbs. The total length was 9 feet, 7 inches and the solid rubber tires were 34' x 1-1/2' or pneumatic tires could be used which were 30' x 3'. Empty, the vehicle weighed 1200 lbs. The body was painted black with red running gear.

From a catalog of T. G. North well Company of Omaha and Soux City, Iowa dealers for the Gade Air-Cooled gasoline engines, we are privileged to have their catalog No. 23. This is through the courtesy of Eldon Bryant of the Broken Kettle Book Service.

These engines had some unusual design features not found in the general run of air-cooled engines, as they did not have a fan to blow air through the cooling fins. Instead, these four cycle engines were equipped with the usual intake and mechanical exhaust valves, and in addition the cylinder was arranged with an exhaust port located as in two cycle machines, at the lower end of the piston travel. This port was uncovered by the piston reaching its lower point of travel in the cylinder. With air rushing through this port and the open exhaust valve, they claimed the engines cooled satisfactorily to operate in all climates.

Ratings of 1-1/2, 2-1/2, 3-1/2 and 6 HP were manufactured. Under normal operating loads and speeds, these moderately horsepower rated engines with ribbed cooling fins on the cylinder were sufficient to radiate the heat of combustion to make a successful operating horizontal machine.

The cylinders were cast separately and machined all over to make the cooling fins as effective as possible. The cylinder was bolted to the crankcase by a parallel flange along each side.

The crankcase was open and the main bearing shells were cast in place. These bearings were babbitted. The cast iron base extended well under the cylinder for support of the machine.

The governor was on the flywheel and functioned as a hit and miss speed control. The pushrod that opened the exhaust valve, also tripped the igniter that was located in the side of the cylinder. The mixing valve was on the cylinder head. It had a needle valve to control the fuel and an air valve.

The fuel tank was mounted on the wooden engine skids at the front of the machine. This company sold all kinds of agricultural equipment and various engine combinations were available. The engine cylinders were painted aluminum color with the base, flywheels and other parts dark green. Engines were shipped on skids.

The specifications covering the Gade Air-Cooled gasoline engines are as follows:

HP

BORE & STROKE

R.P.M.

FLYWHEEL

CRANKSHAFT

WEIGHT

 

INCHES

 

DIA. IN.

DIA. IN.

 

1-1/2

3-1/2 x 5

500

18

1-1/4

300

2-1/2

4-1/4 x 6

425

24

1-1/2

625

3-1/2

5x7

350

28

1-11/16

900

6

7x8

325

30

2

1600

Possibly one of the most common names of small gasoline engines was Gray. There was the Gray Motor Company of Detroit which turned out many models which have already been described in past chapters.

Then, there was the A. W. Gray & Sons of Middleton Springs, Rutland County, Vermont. This company was founded in 1840 with Leonidas Gray as President and A. W. Gray as Treasurer and Superintendent. Besides gasoline engines, they built three sizes of threshers, as well as saw frames, special drag saw outfits and horsepower tread mills.

From the catalog of 1911 and 1912 as furnished by Broken Kettle Book Service, they built engines in sizes from 3 to 25 HP. The engines were of a simple design and were horizontal, four cycle, single cylinder with closed water jacket. They were built on a cast iron base with an open crankcase. The 3 HP unit was constructed with the cylinder, crankcase and base in one casting. The larger engines were built with a cast iron sub-base which was used for the main fuel tank which was piped to the mixing valve so the fuel could flow to the low mounted valve.

Double flywheels were used and the governor was mounted on the spoke on the left hand side. It was a hit and miss governor that controlled the speed of the engine by holding open the mechanical exhaust valve. A pushrod on the side of the engine operated the exhaust valve and was moved by the cam on the timing gear.

A battery jump spark ignition system was used and the spark plug was on top of the cylinder head.

These Gray engines rated from 6 to 18 HP had a different style of design which was quite a departure from the general design of competitive makes. There was a long flat cast iron sub-base under the length of the machine with two pedestal supports, one under the crankcase and the other under the cylinder. The supports were high enough so the flywheels cleared the floor.

All of these Gray engines were horizontal, single cylinder with an enclosed water jacket for cooling. The 5, 8, 10, 13, 15 and 18 HP were of the above design with water-cooled head. The valves were in the cylinder head. A side rod operated the mechanical exhaust valve and the intake valve was automatic. The igniter was also tripped by a lever on the same rod.

The governor was of the fulcrum weight type on the outside of the flywheel and was of the hit and miss type that held open the exhaust valve on the idle strokes while holding closed the intake valve. A thumbscrew was arranged for changing the engine speed.

The mixing valve on these larger engines was mounted on the side of the cylinder head and was supplied from a plunger type fuel pump on the side of the cast iron sub-base that also served as a fuel tank. There was an overflow from the mixing valve reservoir back to the fuel tank.

The 25 HP unit was built with a conventional type of cast iron sub-base supporting the crankcase and cylinder. The cylinder was bolted to the crankcase by parallel flanges along each side. A counter balanced crankshaft was used on this large engine. The muffler was cylindrical and was attached to the right hand side of the head. Fuel pump and exhaust valve was operated by the side rod, as was the igniter. Air starting could be supplied for the larger size engine which consisted of a hand air pump and a quick opening valve. Standard accessories consisted of a tool box with wrenches, hand oiler, exhaust muffler, oil cups, cooling water tank and oil and grease.

A combination saw rig was offered with a 6 HP engine having a circular table saw arranged on the rear of a horse drawn truck and a wood splitter mounted on the front end. The outfits were nicely finished and striped, however no color was shown. Besides the gasoline engines and threshing machines, this company built fodder cutters.

Specifications of the A. W. Gray & Sons gasoline engines are as follows:

HP

R.P.M.

SHIPPING

  

WEIGHT

3

350

760

5

360

1065

6

300

1950

8

290

2130

10

280

2425

13

275

2600

15

275

2675

18

260

2775

25

225

6000

The Mianus Sales Corp. of New York City with manufacturing facilities in Stanford, Connecticut built marine engines in two and four cycle machines. The company dates back to 1899 and they had a trademark in a rectangular design with their name across the top and the words Diesel and Gasoline Engine, below. The two cycle engines were built in sizes from 3 to 15 HP and the four cycle in ratings of 25 to 40 HP, while the diesels were made from 7-1/2 to 125 HP.

The Mianus gasoline engines were of a conventional design of the small two cycle marine engines which were vertical single and two cylinder machines with closed crankcase and the two port design. The cylinder and upper half of the crankcase was in one piece. The cast iron base and lower crankcase contained the main bearings. Water-cooled nickel plated cylinder heads contained the spark plug. A plunger type water circulating pump was driven by an eccentric on the crankshaft behind the flywheel. The ignition timer was located in this position and mounted in front of the forward cylinder. Battery high tension ignition was used.

Schebler carburetors were used and fitted to the side of the engine on the entrance of the port passage way to the crankcase. Hand hole plate was on the other side to provide access to the bearings. Sight feed oilers were used to lubricate the piston and cylinder and grease cups on the bronze main bearings. Extended cast iron lower base provided the mounting for the clutch and reverse gear when supplied with the engine.

The specifications for the Mianus marine engines are as follows:

HP

BORE & STROKE

R.P.M.

FLYWHEEL

SHIPPING

 

INCHES

 

DIA. IN.

WEIGHT

3

4x4

550

14

175

5

4-5/8 x 5

500

16

280

6

4x6

550

18

415

7-1/2

5-9/16 x 6

450

14

300

TWO CYLINDER

10

4-5/8 x 5

500

16

500

15

5-9/16 x 6

450

22

750

The Model 44 four cylinder automotive type was built in vertical closed crankcase with cylinders cast in block, with splash lubrication and closed water jackets for circulating water cooling from a built-in water pump. A reverse gear was assembled on the extended cast iron base. Engine was of the 'L' head design with enclosed valve pushrods and removable cylinder head and with the marine type flywheel forward on the unit.

The Mianus Model 44 engine was rated 25 to 40 HP according to the following specifications:

HP

R.P.M.

PROPELLER

25

850

20'

30

1000

18'

35

1200

16'

40

1400

16'

The T. G. North well Company of Omaha sold the United Gasoline Engines according to a catalog of this company received from Broken Kettle Book Service, and another catalog on the same engines from Phil King of Granville, Massachusetts.

The engines were manufactured in Lansing, Michigan and were available in ratings of 1-1/2, 1-3/4 to 12 HP. During their tenure in business, modifications were made in the ratings of engines produced.

The small size units of 1-1/2, 1-3/4, 2-1/4 and 3-1/2 were constructed with the cylinder, crankcase and base in one casting. The water hopper was cast separately and bolted in place. Cylinder head was not water-cooled. These engines were horizontal, single cylinder, four cycle, with open crankcase. Double flywheels were used and the main bearing shells were integral with the crankcase and they were babbitt-lined. Water-cooled cylinder heads were used on the larger engines.

This is a picture of a vertical Witte Pump Jack Engine. I believe this is a 1/2 or 2 HP I would like to communicate with anyone who knows of this engine.

The mixing valve was a simple type with the needle valve and air intake control. The body of the valve was jacketed to permit exhaust gases to move around it to heat the intake mixture. The mechanical exhaust valve and automatic intake were located in the head. A flat pushrod on the side of the engine actuated by a cam on the timing gear was controlled by the hit and miss governor. The weights of the governor were located on the outside of the spokes of the flywheel. It functioned to a sleeve on the crankshaft which in turn was connected with the detent to hold open the exhaust valve and the intake closed on the idle stroke. The speed could be changed by a thumbscrew on the governor to vary it by 50 to 75 r.p.m.

A hammer type igniter was located at the side of the cylinder and directly in front of the intake valve. A lever on the exhaust pushrod tripped the igniter. Either battery or magneto ignition was available and the magneto was located above the timing gear and driven by, the gear.

The exhaust was piped in a vertical position to a silencer above the water hopper. On the 4-1/2, 6, 9 and 12 HP the exhaust was out of the right side of the cylinder head and into the silencer. The fuel tank was located in the cast iron base and with an auxiliary tank in front of the engine for gasoline for starting when the engines were run on heavy fuel for continuous operation.

Crankshafts were forged from a single billet and turned and finished all over. Four piston rings were used and the connecting rods were forged. Replaceable die cast babbitt bearing liners were used in the connecting rod and mains.

These United Engines were painted bright red with the dry cylinder head on the small sizes painted aluminum color. The nameplate had the manufacturer's name, the horsepower, serial number and Lansing, Michigan. In addition, there was a decal shield on the side of the water hopper with the word 'United' at the top and in white letters, diagonally across the shield, the words - 'America's Greatest Value', with Lansing, Michigan across the bottom of the shield. The striping on the engine was in white, and on the flywheel spokes the striping was in the shape of an arrow.

No date was shown on these catalogs, but they were undoubtedly of the 1910 to 1920 era.

There was no mention of the personnel of this company. Should any of the collectors have such information, it will be included in subsequent chapters and passed along for all.

While this article was being prepared, we enjoyed a visit from Mr. and Mrs. Harold Gaddye of Brimbrook, Ontario, Canada. Harold has about one hundred and fifty engines and tractors. We enjoyed pictures of many of his engines and a real good visit from our Canadian friends.

Specifications of these United engines were as follows:

HP

BORE & STROKE

FLYWHEEL

WEIGHT OF

WEIGHT LBS.

 

INCHES

DIA. IN.

EA. FLYWH.

 

1-1/2

3-1/2 x 5

18-1/2

45

350

2-1/2

4-1/4 x 6

22

75

600

4-1/2

4-1/2 x 9

26

150

900

6

5-1/2 x 10

36

225

1400

8

6 x 12

36

300

1700

12

7-1/2 x 14

46

525

2150

The specifications of the second catalog were as follows:

HP

BORE & STROKE

R.P.M.

FLYWHEEL

CRANKSHAFT

WEIGHT

 

INCHES

 

DIA. IN.

DIA. IN.

LBS.

1-3/4

3-3/4 x 5

450

18

1-3/8

400

2-1/4

4 x 5-1/2

450

20

1-3/8

500

3-1/2

4-1/2 x 6

425

24

1-5/8

750

4-1/2

4-3/4 x 8

375

27

1-3/4

1000

6

6 x 10

300

40

2-1/4

1700

9

6-3/4 x 10

275

42

2-1/2

2100

12

8 x 13

250

48

2-3/4

3000