How Your Hobby Started

Water Motor 22 hp

Courtesy of Robert Rogers, Antique Acres, Box 71, Cheraw, South Carolina 29520.

Robert Rogers

Content Tools

390447th Avenue, S., Seattle, Washington 98118

DOUBLE REACTION - Water Motor 22 hp.

These historic water motors compose a small portion of the water powered devices installed in the tail race of the large overshot water wheel at Antique Acres, Cheraw, South Carolina. We kind a like to relax and have a little fun down here. Seems like we have more of these old machines than we can properly and objectively operate. Why don't a few hundred of you 'water wheelers' come operate a few next April 16, 17, and 18,1971?

One of the attractions found in the miscellany of gasoline engines in collectors inventory of antique models is the little No. 1 and No. 2 Eclipse Pumpers. These engines were in production by Fairbanks, Morse & Company, during the years of 1911 to 1918. As is the custom of manufacturers, a number of changes and improvements were made on this type during the years they were produced. Engine buffs will find these variations by comparing engines. There were thousands built.

Both of these models were vertical single cylinder, hopper-cooled, four cycle, hit and miss governed, with spark plug high tension ignition. Their great success was the simplicity of design. Being small and compact, they were portable and so simple they could be started by a child.

The crankcase being closed, these engines found much use in dusty, dry country for pumping water for stock at remote locations. The gasoline could be proportioned in the fuel tank so the engine would operate for a predetermined time, allowing the operator to go about his other chores while the engine would run until the water tank was filled and the fuel was exhausted and the engine would stop. The hopper was designed to accept an additional water tank that could be mounted on top of the regular water hopper so longer periods of operation were possible with out replenishing the cooling water. The water hopper was designed so ice could expand upward in cold weather. The operating instructions also suggested the use of two pounds of calcium chloride to a gallon of water for a winter cooling solution.

The cylinder with the cooling hopper, upper crankcase and valve chamber comprised the top casting. The lower crank case with engine base and lower half of main bearing was the lower casting. The main bearings were split on the outer line and were babbitted. The camshaft was driven by a timing gear on the outside of the crankcase. The timing gear and timer, with the governor weight, were assembled as a unit on the side of the engine opposite the large pump jack gear. On the opposite side of the cam shaft was located the pinion to drive the large pump jack gear. When the engines were used for other applications, the camshaft extension had a two inch pulley running at 350 rpm and the larger three inch pulley was mounted on the extension of the crankshaft operating at 700 rpm the engine speed.

The automatic suction valve, intake fuel mixing valve, with the gas tank attached were assembled all in one unit and mounted on the engine as such. The mechanical exhaust valve was located under the intake valve and could be removed after the intake fuel assembly was taken off the engine.

The ignition system consisted of a set of four dry cells with a spark coil and switch mounted in a metal battery box on the side opposite the pump jack.

The original design of the Number One Eclipse Pumper Engine was with one flywheel. Fairbanks-Morse was cast on the side of the flywheel. A starting handle was hinged in a recess on the side of the flywheel.

The engine was mounted on a separate cast-iron sub-base that was the supporting bracket for the gear driven pump jack. Prior to engine Serial Number 2905, the exhaust valve stem push block bushing was different and when ordered it would be replaced by the improved design. Engines from Serial Number 2905 to 5880 had this new style bushing.

On engines after Serial Number 35,960 a still later design of exhaust valve push block bushing was furnished. There was also a change in the timer blades used on engines after Serial Number 5880.

The timer was a hardened contact spring connected to the detent. It made contact with a hardened steel pin in the side of the timing gear. The pistons have three rings and oil groves to lubricate the cylinder walls.

Repair Part Book No. 9204-D dated September 1911 for No. 1 Eclipse pumper showed one flywheel used on the engine; while Repair Part Book No. 9411A dated 1916 on the same engine called for two flywheels. When these engines were geared to deep well pump jacks, they used one flywheel which was also the case when they were made up in units with a piston or diaphragm pump. There was also a change in the design of the pump jacket bracket and the engine mounting. On the earlier models up to February 1945, the type having the No. 1 engine mounted on a combination cast-iron engine base and pump jack bracket was changed in August of the same year. This improvement consisted of dividing the engine base and pump jack bracket so the engine could be removed from the pump and used for other applications.

The Christmas Parade in Cheraw, S. C., included two of our units; one included a 1917 Moline pulling a 1917 World War One Rescue Wagon. The driver is IMA sub scriber Bud Wicker who works with us full time building buildings and repairing engines for Antique Acres' Annual Show to be held Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, April 16, 17, and 18,1971.

The other entry (Fordson) is being operated by another IMA subscriber, Robert Stonewall Rogers, III, our son.

Cheraw's mid-April weather will 'thaw you out.' This is Christmas weather. Mid-April weather is better.


Engine No.Hp.R.P.M.Belt-Pulley Dia.-FaceFlywheel Dia.-FaceFuel Tank GallonsWater Hopper GallonsWgt.Price
117004' X 2?'14'1 3/8'?190$70.00
227005' X 4'16'1?'1.2250$138.00

The Repair Part Book No. 9301C dated May 26, 1913 covering the No. 2 Eclipse Pumpers showed the double flywheels on pump jacks and on separate units. The specifications on these engines were as follows:

See chart above.

Complete with pump jack -- price about 1918 -- No. 1 Engine only -- $62.00 - No. 2 Engine -$110.00.

Norman Mullings of Granby, Connecticut, P.O. Box 93, has been active in the restoration of the Eclipse engines and has compiled a partial list of owners. It might be interesting to the collectors of this particular make of engine to have the following list of owners in order to exchange correspondence in solving problems that come up when the engines are rebuilt. If enough collectors can get together they might even form an Eclipse Engine Club. Here is the list of owners: Fred Gertje, Orofino, Idaho; Ron Magnuson, Good Hope, Illinois; Chandler Mason, Middleville, New York; Norman Mullings, Granby, Connecticut; Manual G. Reed, Falls Church, Virginia; Fred Yoder, Lenn Grove, Indiana; George Simpson, Chelmsford, Massachusetts.

The story of the Eclipse engine does not stop in 1918 when manufacture of the No. 1 and No. 2 units were discontinued and when Fairbanks-Morse introduced the Type 'Z' Engine.

In 1937 the company made many improvements and put a new version of the Eclipse engine on the market. This was a 2 hp. vertical, four cycle, hopper-cooled, totally enclosed engine, self oiling, with renewable main bearings, mechanical intake and exhaust valves, and with a gear driven enclosed high tension magneto ignition system. The engine was designed to boll to a gear driven deep well pump jack just as the older models. This engine was in production about four years.

Like the old Eclipse the newer style was quite simple in design with no fragile or complicated parts to break or get out of order. It was only 20?' x 20' in floor space and 28?' high.

Being totally enclosed it was not possible for dust, rain or snow to get into the crankcase, which was provided with a breather to relieve any crankcase pressure and prevent oil from being forced out. The engine was mounted on a steel sub-base with the fuel tank located between the steel base channels. Convenient cover plates were provided to make it possible to get at working parts on the unit.

A Fairbanks-Morse Type RS-1 magneto is completely enclosed and sealed, dust and water proof, so it could operate in all kinds of weather.

The specifications of the 2 hp. Eclipse engine were as follows: Hit and miss engine operated on gasoline only. The throttling governor model could be operated on gasoline only. The throttling governor model could be operated on kerosene. Bore 3 5/8', stroke 3?'. Engine rpm. on gasoline 600 and on kerosene 800 rpm. Fly ball type governor, fuel tank capacity one gallon, lub oil reservoir one quart, water hopper 2? gallons. Flywheels 16' x 1?'. Weight 235 lbs. Selling price, $69.50. This late model engine would make a good addition to any collection, along side the old ones.

Hertzler & Zook Company of Belleville, Pennsylvania, were manufacturers of cord wood saw rigs and several sizes of gasoline engines used to power their outfits. From catalog No. 29 loaned to me through the courtesy of Eldon Bryant of the Broken Kettle Book Service at Akron, Iowa, a description of these engines is possible.

They were known as the 'H & Z' gasoline engines. They were four cycle, horizontal open crankcase, single cylinder hopper cooled machines. The cylinder and crank end of the engines were bolted to the cast-iron sub-base which housed the fuel tank. The cylinder head was water cooled and contained the mechanically operated exhaust valve and automatic intake valve. The fuel mixing valve was bolted to the side of the cylinder head. The governor controlled the butterfly valve on the fuel intake fitting.

1927 Baker 22-40 owned by Mr. and Mrs. Harold Shufelt, Burr Oak, Michigan. Pictured with tractor is Miss Sue Ann Shufelt with her grandfather, Herman Shufelt.

1930 English Fordson and 10-20 International owned by Mary, Mike and Sue Shufelt, respectively, of Burr Oak, Michigan. Pictured is Harold Shufelt and son, Mike.

A Wico high tension oscillating type magneto was mounted on the side of the water jacket of the cylinder and was operated from the valve push rod. This furnished the action for the spark plug ignition. The following engines were offered for sale:

'H & Z' cord wood saw rigs were offered in many types and sizes, ranging in price from $10.00 (without engine), for the wood constructed saw frame without saw blade to $32.00 for a steel constructed model. Pole saw outfits for sawing long logs and with the flywheel mounted under the frame were also available. These saw frames were also made in various portable combinations. A large unit was assembled with and to be operated with both Fordson and McCormick-Deering tractors. The saw frame was assembled so the outfit was portable and could be moved about by the tractor.

Standard outfits were manufactured in the following sizes and ratings with 'H & Z' engines:


Hp.R.P.M.Bore & StrokePulley SizeShip. Wgt.Price
1?5003?' 5'44 200$ 35.00
25003?'? 5'4'? 4' 250   40.00
34504?'? 6'8'? 6' 480   65.00
54304?'? 8'12'? 6' 690   85.00
73805?'? 10'14'? 6'1200 140.00

These units were priced with wooden wagon frames and steel wheels. Prices were not available on the tractor mount ed outfits.

Beside these major items in the catalog, Hertzler & Zook offered a complete line of blacksmith forges and tools as well as feed mills, cider mills, concrete mixers, saws and hardware supplies.

Also from Eldon Bryant is a catalog on Lauson Frost King Gasoline Engines manufactured by the John Lauson Mfg. Company of New Holstein, Wisconsin. This company made a speciality of portable and semi-portable engine outfits. The engines were carefully balanced and the fuel system so arranged that good operation of the engines were assured if they were not entirely level when moved from one job to another.

The Lauson Frost King Engines were four cycle, horizontal, shielded open crankcase, single cylinder, hopper-cooled with fuel tank in the- cast-iron sub-base. The carburetor was mounted low under the cylinder head to allow for gravity feed from the fuel tank. An extra fuel tank was mounted in front of the engine on the portable outfits.

These portable units were mounted on steel wheels and a water tank for cooling on the closed cylinder units. The engine and trucks were nicely finished with a decal of the Frost King on the hopper. The steel frames were painted and striped with fancy designs to create an attractive portable power plant.


Engine Hp.Dia. Saw Blade In.Wgt.Price
3221100$ 140.00
5241300  165.00
7281500  210.00

A low tension magneto was mounted on the side of the engine which supplied current to the igniter which was also assembled with the magneto as one unit. The exhaust valve push rod actuated the ignition system. The cylinder head was water-cooled and contained the valves.

Lauson featured cord wood saw out fits and manufactured all types mounted on steel frame portable power units. The engines were equipped with friction clutch pulleys for easy starting of the engine and for safety. The portable and stationary engines were produced in the same range of ratings. The specifications of the Lauson Frost King engines were as follows:


Size ModelHPR.P.MWgt.

On numerous occasions the Spring field gasoline engines have been mentioned and illustrated in G.E.M. I am endebted to Roger Kriebel of Mainland, Pennsylvania, for some excellent colored pictures and for the use of his instruction book and his letters for the following information for this story on the Spring field engines. Roger has a 10 hp. and his father, a 6 hp. portable engine.

These engines were manufactured at Springfield, Ohio, from 1895 to about the second decade in 1900. This make of engine was given the honor of appearing on the cover of G.E.M. on Vol. 1 and No. 1 issue in January-February 1966. This was a portable 6 hp. Type A on a wooden wagon wheel horse drawn truck, which truck was handmade by Charles Fegely. This outfit is owned by Ray Geisinger of Kutztown, Pennsylvania.

The design of the Springfield engines were quite unusual. The Model B-8' x 1.4' which is owned by John Wilcox of 47 Deland Ave., Columbus, Ohio, was fitted to operate on natural gas. It has slide valves with a side or lay shaft on the right hand side of the engine when facing the crank end. This shaft is gear driven from the crankshaft and operates the valve mechanism which is built cross wise of the cylinder head. An inertia governor drives a second slide valve that opens the gas intake and operates the igniter. Some models had hot tube for ignition while others used the hit and miss igniter system.

Being a four cycle, single cylinder heavy duty engine, the cylinder was cast separately and bolted to the cast-iron base that contained the main bearings in the open crankcase. The crank bearings are oiled from an oiler mounted on a post next to the crankshaft. A hole in the cheek of the crank picks up oil from an oiler wick. The mains are oiled from oil reservoirs cast on top of each bearing cap which contains a wick to the bearing. The governor is driven from a belt on the inside of the flywheel on the left hand side of the cylinder. Some models were equipped with a fuel pump which was operated from an eccentric on the lay shaft. Other units had a water pump mounted in this location but only one pump on an engine could be driven in this manner.

The departure from the general engine design that made these engines so different was the unique method of the lay shaft driving the camshaft. From a set of helical gears on the crankshaft and bevel gears at the cylinder head, the camshaft, which was mounted cross-wise and above the cylinder was driven. A cam located on the side near the governor operated a vertical intake valve. At the other end was located the exhaust valve cam. When an engine had a fuel pump, it was driven by a bell crank on the exhaust side of the camshaft.

1/8 scale 32 x 54 Nichols & Shepard thresher. Weight 54 pounds. Took four years spare time to build. Weigher works and has cylinder teeth. Model made by Stanley E. Baringer, 304th St., LeSueur, Minnesota.

The poppet valves being vertical with the head down, they were held on their seat by the valve springs. On some engines these valve springs were 'U' shaped while on other models they were the conventional type. In the middle of the camshaft is located a 'dog' that operates the igniter. The electrodes were adjustable and the top one was insulated.

The belt driven governor controlled the valve which permitted fuel to be injected through a small tube or opening to the air intake chamber from which the suction of the engine takes in the fuel. The fuel tank was located above and across the top of the cylinder.

These engines were large for their horsepower ratings and on the larger sizes the flywheels were very heavy to roll by hand to start the engine. To overcome this condition, they introduced an innovation for starting these large engines that is used today for starting most big diesels.

In their instruction book they outline a compressed air starting method using about a cubic foot air receiver that was pumped up to 40 psi. by a belt driven air compressor from the engine. The piston would be set just past top dead center, then with a quick opening valve an injection of air into the cylinder would turn the engine to start.

These Springfield engines were built in ratings up to 50 hp. in 1907. Portable units were offered from 5 to 25 hp. and a traction unit was built in sizes from 6 to 25 hp. The early instruction book for the operators of these engines was most interesting and cognizant of the fact that customers in these times were not familiar with the hazards that could be caused while working with this new kind of power. For instance, they cautioned the operators never to look into the igniter opening while someone turned the flywheels, with the cylinder out, as an explosion could cause physical injury.

As to the matter of adjusting the fuel injection plunger, it explained the effect upon the appearance of the exhaust, such as too much fuel would cause dark smoky and odorous exhaust, while too little fuel would cause a back fire through the air intake pipe. Then it stated that the operator should not be afraid as it only indicated that more gasoline was required for the right mixture. Again quoting -- 'Never allow anything to rattle, knock or become loose on the engine.' All such suggestions could well be kept in mind in the operation of engines today.

Not many of this make of engine are in existence and most of them are in the eastern part of the country. They were very well constructed and nicely fitted out with brass, oil cups and accessories. Present day owners say they run very well and are a collector's pride and joy.

35 x 70 Nichols & Shepard gas engine on the sawmill which belongs to Ziegen-hagen bros. That's Bill on the engine.

The Golden Roll

Amos F. Brandt, 78, of Bainbridge RD 1, died February 5 at his home.

He was a member of the First Church of God, Elizabethtown. He was a partner in A. F. Brandt Sons, of Falmouth, and also operated a threshing business.

He was a member of the Rough & Tumble Engineers Historical Association and was interested in both steam and gas engines.