(Through the courtesy of Lewis H. Cline, 603 Fremont St., Middleville, Michigan 49333 and with the kind permission of International Harvester Company, 401 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, Illinois 60611, we will be printing a series of interesting information from the book 'Internal Combustion Engines and Tractors.
Anyone having tractors will find them very valuable and those who do not have tractors, will find the data interesting. This first one may be of help to anyone who has a tractor that uses this type of lubricating system, as it contains information on the proper adjustment of these mechanical lubricators.)
FRESH OIL IS NECESSARY TO BEARING SURFACES
The force-feed lubricator is used in preference to crank case systems of lubrication in International Harvester tractors. Its purpose is to supply fresh 'live' oil always to cylinders and bearings. Good, fresh oil has proved itself to be from two to three times as durable as the 'dead' oil that is used in the crank case of some types of engines.
The advantages to the tractor in having fresh oil are much longer life, freedom from repairs, and continuous rated power.
A tractor which has the crank case system of lubrication uses oil over and over again. After a few hours' run, sediment and condensed fuel collect in the crank case, mixing with the lubricating oil. The result is invariable that tremendous wear and loss of power occur from the action of this mixture of grinding sediment and 'dead' oil.
The longer life of International Harvester tractors is partly due to the force-feed lubricator. Fresh oil is furnished to all bearing surfaces in just the proper quantities to maintain a perfect oil film.
The Lubricating System
In working out this very important system of the engine, the designer endeavors to furnish a suitable means of lubricating every working or moving part, friction losses are wasteful, hence each joint or part must be studied for its particular requirements. Some parts, like the piston, rings and valves, are subjected to the high heats noted, others, like the main bearings, crank pins and shaft bearings, get continuous grinding friction. Still others get only minor actions.
Methods of Lubricating
Lubrication for these groups should be ample and satisfactory for the needs. In some of the above cases, the oil is a cooling medium. Points under heal and pressure, such as the piston, rings, main bearings and crank pin, should receive it with the greatest certainty and regularity, so it should be fed by a force feed lubricator. Parts requiring less certainty can be fed by gravity oilers or grease cups, and the minor ones by careful use of an oil can.
One of the chief functions of a force feed lubricator is to force to the cylinders and bearings fresh, clean, cool oil, which tends to cool the bearing surfaces and reduce friction more effectively then dirty, dead oil. This point is further discussed on page 53.
Purpose of Lubrication
The idea in lubrication should be to maintain a constant oil film between the working parts, an oil or grease roller or ball bearing, the oil globules being the halls or rollers. If the parts float on oil they cannot touch each other and wear is impossible. The designer therefore studies these pressures and regulates the sizes of parts, so that a film of lubricant will remain wherever needed if oil or grease is sufficiently supplied. The quality of the lubricant to be used will be discussed in Chapter VIII -- lubricants and Greases.
Illust. 30. Mechanically operated Force Feed Lubricator. A, oil tubes. B, force-feed drive lever. C, filler cap. D, sight feed hood. E, hand crank.
Illust. 31. How a film of lubricant between a bearing and a shaft looks through a microscope. The oil globules act just as ball bearings would.
CARE OF MECHANICAL LUBRICATOR
Illust. 30 shows the force-feed mechanical lubricator with which International Harvester tractors are equipped. From this lubricator the main bearings for the crankshaft, the pistons, with the connecting rod bearings inside the pistons are oiled. The responsibility of getting the oil to the bearings is partly taken from the operator's mind, but the responsibility of the operator, however, is to see that this lubricator is kept filled with the proper kind of oil and that it actually pumps and delivers oil regardless of weather or local conditions. See Page 88 for list of suitable oils.
Remove filler cap at end of cover, pour in a recommended grade of lubricating oil (see page 88) until gauge glass is filled to within ? inch of top; replace filler cap securely and lubricator is ready for operation. Turn hand crank 40 to 50 times before starting engine.
Adjusted at the Factory
The mechanical lubricator is adjusted at the factory to supply the right amount of oil to the different bearings and to the cylinder. IT SHOULD NOT BE TAMPERED WITH UNLESS YOU HAVE A GOOD REASON TO KNOW THAT IT IS NOT WORKING PROPERLY. If the bearings or cylinder become overheated, they may not be getting sufficient oil. Examine the lubricator and see that it is working right.
Testing Amount of Oil Supplied
The right way to test the amount of oil supplied to the different parts is to count the number of drops or disconnect the ends of the pipes where they to go into the bearings or cylinder, and measure the quantity each tube is listed in Tables on page 52. The table of oil proportions and quantities for the Mogul 8-16, 10-20 and Titan International 15-30 is based on only 50 turns of the hand crank because of the larger number of feeds and the greater quantity of oil supplied. Please bear this point in mind when testing your oiler as to the quantity of oil it is feeding.
How to Measure the Oil
A small one-ounce bottle can be obtained at any drug store if you do not have one on hand. Use this as a check on the size of tablespoon -- a tablespoon is just half a liquid ounce.
In measuring with the average tablespoon, do not try to heap the oil up, but be sure that the spoon is just level full.
If the proportion supplied to the different tubes is correct but the total amount is not enough as shown by the total number of tablespoonfuls, an adjustment should be made on the lever as shown in Illust. 32.
Ordinarily when the oil drive rod is connected to hole 1, the ratchet on the inside of the lubricator moves one notch at a time (it cannot move less and operate the lubricator). When connected to hole 2, the ratchet moves two notches at a time, which will about double the oil supply. When connected to hole 3, the ratchet moves three notches, which gives about three times the quantity of oil as the first hole and about one and one-half times as much oil as the second hole. There may be variations from this due to adjustments on the oil drive rod and wear of joints. Because of this fact it will be safest to turn the flywheel over by hand and count the number of notches moved by the ratchet. For example assuming that the oil drive rod is connected to hole 2 and that the ratchet moves two notches, also, when it is connected to hole 3 that the ratchet moves three notches. NOW suppose that you find on measuring that the oil supplied by 200 turns of the hand crank is about 6? tablespoonfuls, while it should be 10 tablespoonfuls. By changing the oil drive rod from hole 2 to hole 3, the quantity of oil supplied will be about 1? times as much as in hole 2 which will be practically the required amount.
The Sight Feed Hood
The purpose of the sight feed hood is to enable you to see that oil is being supplied to the different tubes. By knowing that one-half the oil should go to the cylinder, one-third to the clutch side bearing, and one-sixth to the flywheel side bearing, and by carefully watching and estimating the amounts delivered by the different tubes, you can tell if the oiler is radically out of adjustment. It must be remembered that the size and number of drops of oil vary considerably, depending on the oil, on the temperature, etc. You cannot depend on counting the drops to determine the exact amount of oil supplied by the different tubes. You will notice that the drops run together in a chain and are very hard to count. The right way is to count the drops five or six different times of one minute each, then average the results. The number of drops supplied per minute should be used only as an approximate check on the total amount of oil going to the bearings.
Knowing that, as near as can be determined, there should be from 45 to 50 drops of oil going to the cylinder per minute, 30 to 35 drops to the clutch side bearing per minute, and 15 to 20 drops to the flywheel side bearing per minute, you have a basis on which to judge whether the lubricator is supplying sufficient oil. If, for instance, 15 or 20 drops are being supplied to the cylinder per minute, you will know that the lubricator is out of adjustment and should be fixed promptly. Do not try to adjust the lubricator until you have disconnected the tubes and made the tests as described above.
How To Make Inside Adjustments on 8-16 Mogul Lubricator
Let us again caution you not to make any adjustment inside the lubricator unless absolutely necessary. It perhaps will be better if you can have one of our experts assist you in making the inside adjustments of the lubricator. In making inside adjustments proceed as follows: Remove the cover of the lubricator. A feed regulator will be found in front of each sight feed. Use a screw driver and turn the screw clockwise, or to the right, to supply more oil, and anti-clockwise, or to the left, to reduce the supply. Disconnect the pipes where they enter the bearings or cylinder. Place a clean bottle under each tube, give the hand crank 200 turns and then measure the oil that comes from each tube. (see page 52 for quantities). When properly adjusted, connect the tubes and turn hand crank 40 to 50 times before starting engine. Be sure that the quantity of oil supplied is large enough--better to have a little too much instead of not enough oil.
Illust. 32. End view of mechanical lubricator. A, the oil drive rod. To increase the supply of oil, use hold 3, to decrease it, use hold 1.
Adjusting Lubricator Pumps On The Mogul 10-20, Titan 10-20, Titan And International 15-30 Tractors.
The lubricators used on these tractors have a feed regulator screw on top in front of each sight feed (see lllust. 30), therefore it is not necessary to remove the cover as on the lubricator used on the Mogul 8-1 6, because the adjustments are made from the outside and not from the inside. Use a screw driver and turn the screw clockwise or to the right to supply less oil, and anti-clockwise or to the left to supply more oil, then to test the amount of oil being supplied by each tube, proceed as outlined in the previous paragraph.
As there is apt to be some sediment and water collect in the bottom of the lubricator, it should be cleaned occasionally. In the back of the lubricator near the bottom a 54-inch pipe plug will be found. Remove it and drain out all the sediment and water that has collected. Rinse the lubricator out well with kerosene. After the kerosene has drained out, replace the pipe plug, refill the lubricator with oil and turn the hand crank to make sure the pipes leading to the cylinder and bearings are full, which will insure a sufficient quantity of oil being supplied to the bearings and to the cylinder, before starting the engine.
A little shellac on the joint of the lubricator cover will prevent any leakage of oil.
I Tablespoonful equals approximately 6.3 cubic centimeter.
I Tablespoonful- is approximately 180 drops as delivered from pipes in good condition.
30 Cubic centimeters equal I fluid ounce.
2 Tablespoonfuls equal J fluid ounce.
1 Tablespoonful equals 4 fluid drams.
Do not try to economize on oil -- oil is cheaper than repairs.
Illust. 33. Oiling diagram for the Titan 10-20 showing installation of mechanical lubricator and oil tubes.
Illust. 34 This shows the method of oiling crank pin bearings C by means of the oil, rings B. A shows the oil collecting groove for the piston pin bearing.
Illust. 35. Oiling diagram for the Mogul 10-20 showing mechanical lubricator and oil tubes.
Illust. 36. Diagram showing method of oiling crank pin bearing C by means of the oil ring B. A shows oil collecting groove for the piston pin bearing.
Illust. 41. Grease cup not properly filled. The first few turns will not send grease into the bearing -- but will compress it in the cup.
Illust. 42. Another careless way of using a grease cup -- entire bearing is not lubricated.
Illust. 43. The proper way to lubricate with a grease cup. Note grease full length of bearing and oozing out at ends.
Care and Use of Grease Cups
Hard oil is used in bearings where the pressure is too great for thin oils and in other places where only a small amount of oil is needed. In any event, even though the grease cup is simple, it must be given some real attention. A very common mistake is made in filling by not squeezing the grease down in the top of the cup. When the cup is not properly filled, the first few turns down do not force the grease into the bearings but simply compact it in the grease cup (Illust. 41). Because of this fact a man may think he had done his part and greased the bearings when he really hasn't. Illust. 42 shows another thing that happens when the grease cup is carelessly used. This bearing is only partly supplied with grease. Illust. 43 shows the right way to handle the grease cup. Screw the top down until it can be plainly seen that the grease is oozing out at both ends of the bearing.
Keep Grease Free From Dust
The can containing your supply of grease should not be allowed to stand open so that dust can get into it. Dust is gritty and if carried into the bearings with the grease will cut the bearings rapidly and often cause them to heat excessively.
When filling the grease cups it is important to wipe the dust from the cup and especially out of the threads on the cup before filling. Dust accumulates on the cup and in the threads, and when the top is unscrewed this dust is carried up to the edge. When grease is put in, the dust gets in with it and bad results are very likely to follow.
Oilers - Oil Holes
See that all oil holes, oil or grease passages, are open and that the oil or grease actually reaches the bearings. Frequent inspection and cleaning of all oil holes, oil and grease passages, may save a bearing from being seriously damaged. It often happens that the oil passages get clogged right at the bearing so it is best to completely clean the oil passage all the way to the shaft.
Several parts of Mogul and Titan tractors operate in an oil bath. Because of the very nature of this system of oiling it is sometimes neglected. A man may think that because he has supplied a certain amount of oil at a certain time that the bearings are properly lubricated. It is always best to inspect these parts frequently and be sure that they are supplied with a sufficient amount of oil. By doing this you take no chances. Too much oil is not as harmful as too little oil. At any rate, oil is cheaper and better than delays and repair parts.