Sandow engines


Arlo Jurney

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Several readers have contacted us regarding a recent comment in this column that General Motors has clamped down on unauthorized reproduction of decals, literature, and other items. One of our readers forwarded a clipping from the July 30, 1987 issue of Old Cars Weekly which confirms our earlier report.

According to an article in Old Cars Weekly, retail automotive stores throughout the United States were raided on June 24, 1987 by the. FBI, local and state police, and other federal officers, all armed with warrants. Apparently these officials were instructed to seize, 'among other items, reproduction decals, labels, trim tags, printing negatives, plates, dies and metal stamping equipment displaying GM trademarks.' In addition, financial and business records were seized-these included everything from sales invoices and checkbook registers to bank statements and suppliers' lists.

As we recently indicated in this column, the June 24 raid could happen in our hobby as well. Although many trademark logos are now inactive or abandoned, many others are still in effect. We're not trying to raise great consternation and alarm in this regard, but we feel duty-bound to let our readers know of the GM crackdown, and implore everyone who is now or who anticipates reprinting or reproducing any parts, literature, nameplates, or other items that may still be under patents, trademark, or copyright protection to secure written permission for reproduction of these items. Going this route could well be filled with countless letters, a fair amount of stone walling, and possibly an inordinate amount of frustration. On the other hand, this dwarfs the problems that might occur, should a company follow the pattern of General Motors. Getting a warrant served by the FBI, plus seizure of your property and perhaps a journey to court would certainly top off a great day!

While the Reflector feels that large corporations, or at least their legal departments, might sometimes become overzealous in the protection of what is rightfully theirs, the point is that in those cases where infringement does exist, they are at least technically in the right, and certainly do have the right to protection under the law. We're not about to dispense any legal advice on this subject, but for any of you who feel you might be in this category, perhaps you might consider obtaining some legal counsel in this regard.

The other day we received a copy of The Olde Machinery Mart published in Australia. It is a most interesting little magazine. Although a great many British-built engines are illustrated and discussed, an amazing number of American-made engines were also shipped to Australia. For further information, contact: The Olde Machinery Mart, Box 5237 M.C., Townsville 4810, Australia.

22/11/1 Q. What color is a Sandow engine, 1? HP by Sandy McManus, Waterloo, Iowa. Also what year was it built? Rick Rohrs, 1125 Broad St., Princeton, NE 68404.

A. The Sandow is a bright blue, comparable to DuPont Dulux 93-1032. Your engine was probably built between 1912 and 1914.

22/11/2 Q. I would appreciate information on the following engines: Galloway 5 HP, s/n 45896 and Stover 3 HP, s/n W125430.Art England, 204-216th S.W., Bothell, WA 98021.

A. Galloway engines are finished in a deep red, probably comparable to DuPont Dulux 93-660H. No serial number listings are known to exist. The Stover 3 HP was built in September, 1919.

22/11/3 Q. I have just acquired a 1? HP early Waterloo-built engine. It has wheel weight governor, typical Waterloo casting of the block and cylinder, with oiler in the back of the hopper. I can barely make out the word' 'Sandow'' on one side of the hopper. The hopper is rounded in the front but square on the two back comers. No one I have spoken to has ever seen a hopper like this. Any information will be appreciated. J. F. Whitt, 1018 Dixie Avenue, Leesburg, FL 32748.

A. We would suggest this to be one of the earliest of the so-called Sandow engines. As we have indicated on page 299 of American Gas Engines, Sandy McManus organized his company at Waterloo, Iowa in 1912. The Sandow engines were obviously built by Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company and closely followed their own designs except for the obvious (and simple) modification of the water hopper. Possibly your engine was one of those very early Sandow models with only a portion of the water hopper rounded, probably to differentiate between it and the regular Waterloo production. Full details of the Sandy McManus operation are probably forever clouded by time, but in any event, the McManus entrepreneurial adventure into the gas engine business lasted only from 1912 to 1914.

22/11/4 Q. My Hercules 5 HP engine has no markings on the flywheel that the ignitor timing can be set to. Any information will be appreciated. Peter Himmelheber, Route 1, Box 71, Leonardtown, MD 20650.

A. For the Hercules and any other engine which operates the magneto from the exhaust valve pushrod, the first step is to be sure the valve timing is correct-the exhuast valve should just close when the engine is about 3 to 5 degrees past the inner center. After the engine comes up to speed, pushing the spark lever forward will advance the spark to perhaps 25 or 30 degrees ahead of the innter center. Generally speaking, the retard lever on the magneto should be set for a fully retarded spark, and in this position the engine should fire at top dead center, or perhaps 5 degrees past the inner center. Hercules engines usually have the word 'Spark' stamped into the flywheel rim. When this mark lines up with the valve rod ignition should occur.

22/11/5 Q. I have a Power Bug A.C. P.M. generator plant, 600 watts, no volts, A.C, single phase, 400 cycles. Engine is. 1.4 HP 3750 rpm. Model 40135C6-D, s/n 6016. The engine is a Bradley Edlund Precision 4-cycle engine, Model B, Type G1, s/n 49-1016. I wrote the company and it had been sold to Monarch Tool Co. and they didn't have any files on this unit. They though tit was made in the 1940's. Would appreciate any information anyone can give me on this engine and generator. (See photos below). Dean C. Barr, Rt. 2, Box 460, Hiddenite, NC 28636.

A. Now here's a new one for us! Never heard of this company, nor can we find any listing of it in any of our materials. Perhaps it was intended for military or communications applications.

22/11/6 Q. I have started restoration of an Empire engine, built for Cockshutt Plow Co. Ltd., Factory, Brantford, Ontario, Canada. 1? HP, engine no. C113390, 650 rpm. What magneto does this engine use; what is the proper color; and what was the approximate date of manufacture? John H. Harding, 92 Braden CRNW, Calgary, AB T2L 1N3 Canada.

A. We can't tell you much about the Empire engines-they are seldom seen in the Midwest (where the Reflector lives). Hopefully some of our readers can provide the necessary information.

22/11/7 Q. Engines have been manufactured in almost every possible combination of design features. Nowhere have I seen any review of the longevity of any particular feature. We all puts around with our engines, but if we were to leave a journal for the future as to what is the 'best' design, what would we say?

You once mentioned that F-M engines tended to lose wristpins due to poor lubrication. Fine, what was wrong with the design used? What did others do that was better? What other engines have what flaws?

What about the determination of what the better designs are? It may be done backwards by gathering information about what the flawed designs and features are, and why. J. C. Halbrooks, RFD, Box 106B, Sterling, CT 06377.

A. Your letter raises a number of interesting questions-the answers to which might be (and probably are) tainted with the personal likes and dislikes of that individual making the evaluation.

In general terms, American and British designs differed considerably, with the latter tending to use far more iron and including many niceties that American practice tended to avoid. More iron and more subtle features meant more money for the finished engine, and in a market as intensely competitive as the American engine market from 1900 to 1930, design features were compromised to some extent.

Regarding a feature such as wrist pin design, the majority of engine builders secured it in place with a setscrew in each piston pin boss. Should these setscrews work loose, allowing the wrist pin to shift, eventual destruction of the cylinder was inevitable. Wrist pin lubrication was usually effected by a hole drilled in the top of the piston, leaving oil to drop through the piston and onto the wristpin bearing. This scheme worked fairly well, and in fact was sufficient in most cases for hundreds of hours before adjustment or service was required.

Of the better known engines, some of the best design work in this writer's opinion was done on the Fairbanks-Morse Type N and Type T engines, along with the IHC Mogul engines. Ours is however, a subjective opinion, one that is of course prejudiced by our own ideas of what epitomizes the ideal engine design. Other collectors might be of the opinion that the Waterloo Boy and its siblings are the pinnacle of design. It will be interesting if some of our readers pick up the gauntlet and drop us a line giving us their opinion of the 'ideal' engine design.

22/11/8 Q. Jim Hill, 2567 Hesperia Road, Bradly, CA 93426 asks whether anyone can identify the log saw in the below photo.

A. From the illustration on page 530 of American Gas Engines we believe this to be a Wade built by R. M. Wade &. Co., Portland, Oregon.

22/11/9 Q. I am looking for information on Brownwall engines. I have one like shown on page 67 of American Gas Engines. It has a 3? inch bore. There is no nameplate or decals on it. Also, can anyone tell me how to check a coil on a Briggs & Stratton FH engine. I cannot get spark and need to know how it is connected. Any information will be appreciated. Clayton Brimmer, 17430 Yankee Road, Morley, MI 49336.

A. Without a photograph we can't tell you much about your engine. Our files do not have any specific data on testing the magneto coil on the FH Briggs & Stratton engines.

22/11/10 John Hamilton, 461 Algonquin Place, Webster Groves, MO 63119 sends us a photo of his restored feed cutter. Back in the March, 1986 GEM John asked for information under item 21 /3/10. Since that time several phone calls and letters stimulated by of his query resulted in identifying it as an A. T. Dick feed cutter made in Canton, Ohio. The feed gearing is reversible and can be set for a 1 or 1? inch cut. The red and yellow colors are approximately correct. John has had this machine out to several shows and will display it at others yet this fall. He also wishes to thank everyone who responded to his query

22/11/11 Q. Can anyone supply information on the Pioneer 4-cycle engine which was a division of Gen-E-Motor in Chicago? I am particularly interested in the Model A, as I noticed that it had Briggs & Stratton rings and the internal carburetor parts also match. Larry Kastens, RR 1, Box 116-B, Hereford, AZ 85615.

22/11/12 Q. You and several other sources (perhaps quoting you) have written that the proper color for Mogul engines is a bright pea green similar to DuPont Dulux 93-29609-H. I have only had the chance to study a few Moguls with a little original paint, but I thought they were darker.

Now we have some interesting new evidence from LeRoy Baumgardner Jr. (GEM July, 1987, pages 14 & 15). The reproduced brochure and accompanying text indicate that the Mogul was a two-tone green. The text also states that the color scheme for Titan, Victor, and Famous engines included Brewster green. The brochure color pictures indicate that the hopper of the Mogul and the trim of the Titan might be the same color. From my Model T Ford experience, Brewster green is a very dark green. Do you have any comments or additional information? Sam Hamilton, 2877 Mark Circle, Stillwater, OK 74075.

A. It appears that at some point in time the Mogul engines were in fact a two-tone design, using a darker green color on the flywheels than on the rest of the engine. However, other information shows that for the Mogul engines at least, some of them had the outside of the flywheel rim and the two mating flanges of cylinder and frame painted IHC blue, and in some cases we have seen, these two areas were painted IHC red. The Famous, Victor, and Titan series appears to have varied somewhat as well-with some of these using green flywheels, others used either black or a greenish black, and still others were entirely red. Using the brochure colors as an exact color match is misleading. The original may not have come close to shade, and in fact, where dark colors were concerned, these were intentionally printed somewhat brighter to better display the engine or tractor involved. From one year to the next, or perhaps better stated, from one batch of paint to the next, the color might have varied substantially in shade. In fact, it appears that the final color combination might have depended in part on the painter!

A final point-we attempt to match colors as closely as possible, but within the bounds of more or less standard colors that can be secured with a minimum of difficulty. For a standard paint number, 93-29609 DuPont seems to be as close as we can come to a comparable paint number. The reference to 'Brewster green' leaves considerable leeway, since a comparison of some old color chips shows a considerable difference among them. This whole matter of color matching is not unique to IHC engines! In talking with collectors, and even former employees of some old line companies over the years, we have learned that the color could and often did vary considerably depending on the paint manufacturer with the low bid!

22/11/13 Q. Can you tell me the proper color of a 'green' International 8-16, 4-cylinder tractor, s/n HC3589? Albert D. Denyer, PO Box 207, Pakenham, Ontario KOA 2X0 Canada.

A. Your 8-16 was built in 1919. If it was finished in green, then a comparable color match might be DuPont 93-29609-H.

22/11/14 Q. Can you help us out on the following engine: Maynard, distributed by Charles Williams Stores, New York. Need to know the manufacturer, when built, proper color, and horsepower. Kurt H. Kilmer, 9818 Saratoga Road, RD 9, Gansevoort, NY 12831.

A. Without a photograph or dimensional data it is difficult to provide any great amount of information regarding this engine. Chances are that it was built in Pennsylvania, perhaps by Jacobson Engine Works, or possibly by Nelson Bros, at Saginaw, Michigan. We do not have an accurate color match for this engine.

22/11/15 Q. I recently acquired a Cushman 2-cylinder, 8 HP engine similar to the one shown on page 117 of American Gas Engines. The engine is complete, except that it has no cooling tank or fuel tank. I understand these engines were available either with a cellular radiator or a circulating water tank. Did both units use a water pump? Would appreciate hearing from anyone with good sharp pictures of a complete unit, and would also like to obtain photocopies of the instructional manual. James P. Paquette, 60 A High St., Uxbridge, MA 01569.

A. The 4 HP Cushman engine illustrated in the upper right hand corner of page 116 in American Gas Engines shows the same general arrangement as was used for the 8 HP Cushman engines. Regardless of the cooling system used, all of these engines used a water pump-it is imperative due to the small size of the inlet and outlet water passages- thermosyphon cooling will simply not work!

22/11/16 Q. I have just bought a small engine. The plate reads: Lansing Company, Lansing, Michigan. HP (blank), No. 115167, speed 500. Flywheels are 20 inches, the piston is 4 inches, and the engine uses a Wico EK magneto. Am particularly interested in determining the horsepower of the engine, and whether it is quite rare. R. V. Hickman, 1014 Sanjuan, Exeter, CA 93221.

A. Several months ago we ran some information on the Lansing Company-they built cement mixers as I recall. Without a photo, it's impossible to make any kind of identification, although it seems certain that Lansing did not themselves build the engine. The 4 inch cylinder bore would seem to indicate something of 1? to 2 horsepower.

22/11/17MSG E8 Ralph H. Collins, HHC 8th SPT GP, PO Box 1149, APO, NY 09019 writes that he is stationed with the military in Italy. Being an avid engine enthusiast, GEM has so far been his only connection with vintage engines and tractors in Italy. Therefore if anyone knows of any collectors in Italy, kindly contact Mr. Collins at the above address. (He is located only 8 miles from the Leaning Tower of Pisa.)

22/11/18 Q. Can you help me identify this engine. The nameplate is missing, but the serial number is 239598. Ronald E. Valliere, PO Box 34, Washington, VT 05675.

A. Your engine is a Fairbanks-Morse Type 'Z' and is a 1? HP size. It is of 1917 vintage.

22/11/19 Q. Do you have any information on a LeRoi engine, s/n 64309, such as the year built etc. Roy VanSickle, 127? E. Stephenson St., Freeport, IL 61032.

A. We are unable to provide any serial number data on LeRoi engines, and even having this data, we are unable to determine the model, size, and other information. A photograph would be most helpful.


22/8/7 Duplex-Superior engines R. D. Hamp, 1772 Conrad Ave., San Jose, CA 95124 writes: I believe this engine was built by Moline Plow Company, and not by Duplex-Superior. Duplex also sold engines built by Rawleigh-Schryer and Ziegler-Schryer, both of Freeport, Illinois.

I also need some help-I recently acquired a 2-cylinder Edwards engine. It uses a Bosch magneto. I would like to find a copy of the operating instructions for this engine, parts list, and a detailed sketch of the fuel tank and its mounting brackets. Would appreciate hearing from other Edwards owners, especially anyone an the West Coast.

Note: Ye olde Reflector contends that Moline Plow Company did not build their 'Flying Dutchman' engine but instead purchased it from Alamo. In fact, the Flying Dutchman is virtually identical to the Rock Island engine by Rock Island Plow Company, and it too came from Alamo Engine Co.

Pierce Engine Company

The Reflector was happy to receive a series of photocopies on Pierce Engine Co., Racine Junction, Wisconsin the other day. This material came from Chas. & Gerry Tingley 2020 Joe St., Ponca City, OK 74601. Our thanks!


No letters this month.


At the Midwest Old Threshers Show in Mt. Pleasant, Iowa we had five excellent days, including beautiful weather. There were more than 800 engines and approximately 400 tractors, of which a great many were rare and unusual models.

On behalf of Stemgas and myself, I want to thank all the people who stopped by our booth to visit with us.