Cushman X


Stan Cross

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24/5/29 Unidentified engine Q. What is the make of the engine in the photo? If this can be established, then what is its color, decal, etc. Gary Kuhn, RR 3, Liberty, IL 62349.

A. Yours looks like a Cushman X of the 1920's. It may have been a gray finish comparable to DuPont 652D Massey-Ferguson Gray, or it may have been dark green, comparable to DuPont 93-62713-H. The Model X appears to have used the same circular decal that was featured on their vertical engines, and these are avail able from GEM advertisers.

24/5/30 F & J Pump Engine Q. I'm restoring a Fuller & Johnson pumping engine, and would like to know where to find an old pitcher pump to attach to it. I also need the dimensions etc. for the fuel tank. Emmet Rearick, RD 1, Box 155, Ford City, PA 16226.

A. Old pumps are often for sale by antique dealers, and frequently show up at flea markets. We would suggest looking in this direction. Hopefully, some of our readers might be able to supply the dimensional information on the gas tank.

24/5/31 Challenge engine Q. I'm new to the hobby, and am working on a Challenge 4 HP model, s/n 1449. This engine was made at Batavia, Illinois. Would like to know when it was built, proper colors, decals, etc. John Armour, 1116 Highland, Rockdale, TX 76567.

A. We don't have it written down, but there is a fellow collector in Illinois who has specialized in Challenge engines and we believe he may even have decals for them. Hopefully he will see this query and get in touch with you.

24/5/32 Tractor Conversion Q. Can anyone identify the tractor conversion unit shown in the photograph? It appears to be mounted on an old Chevrolet frame. Ernest Maas, RR 1, Box 30, Walnut Grove, MN 56180.

A. We have very little literature on conversion units, but perhaps some of our readers might be able to give a positive identification to this one.

24/5/33 Midwest Utilator Q. See the photo of a Midwest Utilator manufactured by Midwest Engine Company at Indianapolis, Indiana, s/n 5095. Patent dates are 10/30/17, 12/24/18, 6/7/19 and 12/9/19. It uses an Eisemann magneto and Kingston carburetor. I have no information about the company, when this tractor was built, the proper color, or anything about it. Information will be greatly appreciated, Joe Kenworthy, 4130 S 300 W, Kokomo, IN 46902.

A. The Reflector has accumulated a small amount of material on garden tractors, but in this case, we'll focus on a couple of the patents. Bear in mind that searching for a patent when only the date is given is always time consuming, sometimes rewarding, and occasionally disappointing. Given only the date, there is really no way to research the patent except by the seat of the pants-page after page of looking at each individual patent issued for that month. Sometimes the patent is issued under the all inclusive heading of 'control mechanism' or another dandy heading is 'mechanical movement'. These can include almost anything, and make patent searches very complicated. In this case however, the 1917 patent referred to above is No. 1,245,121. It was issued to Cornelius A. Peters who assigned a one-half interest to Edwin R. Beeman and the other half to P.J. Lyons. Here's where it gets interesting: Ed Beeman was, of course, Beeman Tractor Company, but Lyons was one of the pioneer farm tractor designers in the Twin Cities, and thus we see that some sort of connection existed between Bee man, Lyons, and perhaps others who were involved with tractor design during the 'Teens and Twenties. That covers the October 30 patent.

Now for the 1918 patents. A search shows that two patents were issued on December 24 of that year. One, No. 1,288,805, was issued to Edwin R. Beeman and Cornelius A. Peters for an 'agricultural implement' (here's another common phrase in the patent indexes, and one that can include anything from a manure fork to a threshing machine ). The other 1918 patent is No. 1,288,888 issued to Rex Parker Hicks. It was filed already in January 1915.

Although this is perhaps sidelight data to the information you seek, perhaps there are others who might be able to give you specific information on your tractor.

(Editor's note: We're working on a story about the Midwest Engine Company, and the Utilator. We would like to hear from anyone who has more information, or pictures of Midwest engines of any kind you might own. Send them to us at Stemgas, PO Box 328, Lancaster, PA 17603 and we'll try to include your information or stories in our story.)

24/5/34 Before and After Mr. Edward (Red) Williams, P.O. Box 468, Woodstock, N.B. E0J 2B0 Canada, sends along a number of engine photos, including the 'before and after' pictures shown here of a Renfrew engine. This engine was built by Stover Engine Company at Free port, Illinois in May 1918. Our compliments to Red on some fine restorations!

24/5/35 Jim Adkins, 308 S. Kentucky, Independence, MO 64053, has a Sattley throttle governed engine with a Webster magneto. It appears to be about 5 to 7 horsepower, but the nameplate is missing. Jim needs parts for the engine (see the 'Wanted' section), and also needs to get the proper color for same.

A. Our records show DuPont 93 5800 Green as comparable for Sattley; this is also very close to DuPont 43060 Dempster Dumpster Green. However, the Sattley Engine Catalog reprint available from Engineers & Engines Magazine notes on page 22: 'Sattley Kerosene Engines are painted brown and the Gasoline Engines black, both durable colors.' This would seem to say that your throttle-governed (i.e. kerosene) engine should be brown instead of green! Is anyone out there fortunate enough to have some catalog data that is in color? That would be a big help! We should also add that the green finish mentioned above is a close match for the New Sattley models, as we have one of these in our stable. Obviously, further enlightenment is needed here!

24/5/36 J.M. Smythe Engine Q. I have a small engine from J.M. Smythe of Chicago. It is hopper cooled, hit-and-miss, unlike the Little Marvel air-cooled on page 471 of American Gas Engines. The engine base was cast in two halves, and is bolted together with the engine cylinder and water hopper bolted on top of the base. This engine uses a Lunkenheimer mixer on the bottom of the cylinder head.

I would also like to correspond with other owners of these engines in hopes of finding out more about them, such as the original colors, styles, sizes, etc. Also of interest would be the history of the company and their relationship to Alma Manufacturing Company of Alma, Michigan. Then too, I would like to correspond with Alma Jr. engine owners having an engine similar to that shown at the bottom left on page 22 of American Gas Engines. I will gladly do my best to reply to all letters received on the above, and thank in advance all who respond to this query. D.T. Kedinger, RR 1, Box 134, Oakfield, WI 53065.

A. We understand that J. M. Smythe still operates as a Chicago area department store. In an earlier time they offered gas engines in their mail order catalogs, but the one most commonly seen is that built at Waterloo, Iowa and almost identical to the engine sold by Sandy McManus of Waterloo as the Sandow. There were a number of other look-alikes to this engine, and Mr. Ross Galloway, eldest son of the late (and great) William Gallo way, has related to us that these engines almost certainly had to have been cast and machined in the shops of Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company. Smythe apparently contracted for an unspecified number of these engines, but after that time, they may well have contracted with some other manufacturer. We don't know.

24/5/37 Ideal Vertical Q. My Ideal 2 ? HP vertical engine is similar to the one shown on page 239 of American Gas Engines. The engine had seen many hours of service over the years, as evidenced by worn out valves, bearings, etc. After straightening the crankshaft which was sprung, and making other repairs, I have the engine back up to good compression, but now my reason for writing. The engine appears to have had a fuel pump which is missing. Then, I cannot see how the engine fired the spark plug which is screwed into the combustion chamber on the valve gear side of the engine. Was there a magneto or some other mechanism to make the spark needed? I would appreciate hearing from anyone having information on this engine, including pictures of the fuel pump, the ignition system, and the like. Any help will be much appreciated. James T. Strickland, 331 Luella Road, Locust Grove, GA 30248.

A. We have no literature illustrating the fuel pump on the Ideal vertical, nor are we certain of the ignition system used. Assuming that there is no magneto, nor a place to install same, then there must be a contact system, probably on the half-time gear or perhaps tied in with the pushrod some way or other. If this is the case, then a high-tension spark coil is needed, and we believe these are available from some of the GEM advertisers. Hopefully though, there are some Ideal engine owners who can be more specific. By the way, the fuel pump could be fabricated if necessary, using a simple plunger and a pair of check valves.

24/5/38 Robertsonville Q. I'm restoring a 6 HP, 5-spoke Robertsonville engine built in Canada. It uses a Webster magneto. What is the approximate year; what is the proper color; were the flywheel rims painted, or were they polished bright? Also, I need a photo showing the crank guard for this engine, and wish to determine if the speed control mechanism is original.

What is the best repair for a badly worn brass connecting rod bearing? Larry Houding, 1516 Hebron Road, Hendersonville, NC 28739.

A. Being totally unfamiliar with the Robertsonville, we turn this out to our readers in hopes that someone can be of help to your queries.

Regarding badly worn or cut connecting rod brasses, there are several possibilities. One would be to make an entirely new one. This is expensive and takes a lot of work. If it were my engine I would consider setting up the brasses in the lathe and taking a rough cut inside them to gain some clearance. Then I would polish down the crank pin, set up the brasses, and pour a babbitt liner inside them. It will be necessary to tin the brasses first with solder, just as in thin-wall babbitt bearings. If I had my choice, I would mike the crankpin and make a mandrel the exact same size, using this when pouring the new bearing. Pouring thin bearings is tricky; the mandrel and brasses have to be quite hot when making the pour, and the babbitt needs to be clean and free of dross and other foreign material. If the bearing has a lot of cold shots in it, either the mandrel or the babbitt was too cold, so melt it out and start over. I've poured some of these three times before it came out the way it was supposed to. Leaving the brasses rough on the inside gives them a better anchor on the babbitt.

24/5/39 Fairmont Q. Being new at the hobby, I'm sending along a photo of an engine with no name plate for your identification. It appears to be similar to the Fairmont shown on page 168 of American Gas Engines.

Also, I would appreciate hearing from anyone who can tell me how to free a stuck agitator from an old Maytag washer. I've been using WD-40 and a rubber mallet, but with no success. Howard Bergh, 6930 Los Santos Drive, Long Beach, California 90815.

A. We would suggest that the engine is a Fairmont. Information is available from Fairmont Railway Motors, Fairmont, Minnesota.

24/5/40 Unidentified Engine Q. Could a reader please advice me the make of the engine in the photo? It is headless, four-Stroke, tank-cooled, with overhead valves and a heavy brass decompression lever mounted on top of the valve rocker cover. It has a Lodge spark plug, and two blind plugs opposite the water tank connections. A make-and-break for the high-tension coil and battery is mounted on the end of the camshaft gear housing. It has an oil level indicator on the base. The bore is 3? inches with a 3 inch stroke. An 11 inch flywheel with a 3 inch face is inside the crankcase.

The complete engine stands about 28 inches high, with the base measuring 11 x 16 inches. It is a heavy brute. The only markings are 'Pat. App'd. For. No. 2 & 7'. The drive shaft is 1? inches in diameter by 25/8 inches long.

This engine is missing the carburetor, coil, muffler etc., but is restorable, providing a suitable carburetor can be found.

Since no one has been able to identify it so far, I'm hoping someone might be able to help. Also, can anyone tell me the proper color for a Nelson Bros. Little jumbo engine? O.W. White, 48 Cascades Road, Pakaranga, Auckland, New Zealand.

A. We can't help you in identifying the engine, but perhaps some of our readers here in the U.S. or in other parts of the world might be of service. The Little Jumbo is finished comparable to DuPont No. 2015 Green. We have this listed as an Imron finish, but presume that it is also available in an acrylic or alkyd enamel as well.

24/5/41 Witte and Ottawa Q. What is the year built for a Witte 2 HP engine, s/n 888632? Also an Ottawa with s/n 0223569? How about the original color and pinstriping on the Ottawa? Matt Rothhaar, 3038 Orr Road, Bloomville, OH 44818.

A. Having just today (February 28) received the Witte engine records, we can tell you that your engine was sold on May 16, 1930 to the K-T Oil Corporation, 304 Kaufman Bldg., Wichita, Kansas. There are no known records for the Ottawa engines. We have no color listings for the Ottawa engines.

24/5/42 Nelson Bros. Engines Q. What is the proper color for a 1? HP Nelson jumbo engine? Nevin Kemmerling, Box 483, New Tripoli, PA 18066.

A. See 24/5/40 above.


24/1/6 Oil Seals National Oil Seals No. 450048 will fit the IHC LA 1?-2? HP engine; same for crank and cam shaft. Try your NAPA dealer. Gary Hargrave, 10 River St., Norwood, NY 13668.

24/3/29 Lauson Test Engine In this regard, Lauson offered this engine in the Forties for use by the oil industry. Some of their advertising of the time noted that 'Car owners today are benefiting from early experimentation made possible by this engine. . .'.

The Reflector might also add that several engine builders, Buda, Stover, and others, built engines for this special service. By equipping the engine with numerous thermocouples and other measuring devices, the BTU output and other characteristics of various fuels could be ascertained with extreme accuracy, and fuel additives could likewise be evaluated.

Thanks to Vernon Peterson, 7629 48th Avenue North, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55428, for sending along some information on the Lauson.

John Deere with Wico EK See RW-1 for a John Deere style engine with a Wico EK magneto. This one is s/n 242557 and is a Waterloo Gasoline Engine made in Waterloo, Iowa. It is 1? HP with the magneto bolted directly in the igniter hole and the trip assembly mounted to the push rod. This engine uses a different cam; the regular John Deere cam will not work. A No. 34 long-reach spark plug is required. My son Christopher has taken a liking to it, so it has ended up being his claim! John and Christopher Boyens, 3711 S. Hampton Drive, Bettendorf, IA 52722.

24/3/5 Iron Horse See RW-2 for photo of the angle-cylinder Johnson Iron Horse engines. Also, a note to collectors who are buying and selling engines; make sure that transportation and/or transfer arrangements are clear before making a deal so that someone several hundred miles away doesn't expect you to crate and ship the engine. Talking about these things ahead of time can spare some hard feelings between fellow collectors. Lloyd Dean, RR 1, Box 108, Atwood, IL 61913.

The Reflector stands corrected on our original identification of this engine in 24/3/5. Thanks, Lloyd, for letting us know. We also heard from Mr. Leonard King, 331 E. Whitefish Road, Port Washington, WI 53074. He likewise identified the engine as a Johnson Iron Horse.

23/7/16 The seeder shown in this photo is like one we still use to plant alfalfa.

23/7/9 The manure spreader is a John Deere 'Low-Down' model.

24/2/23 Stalk Cutter If Mr. Gurnicz will drop me a line, I'll send him a picture of this one.

Jacob Price Co. Who can I write to at J.I. Case to learn more about Jacob Price Co.? I am restoring a Jacob Price Petaluma hay press and need more information, but no one seems to know that this machine was made by Price.

The above responses, beginning with 23/7/16, are from Mr. Paul Reno, 3254 Kansas Street, Oakland, CA 94602.

Asbestos Gasket Material We have received several suggestions regarding the use of asbestos for making head gaskets, but in the light of official government warnings concerning the possible health hazards of asbestos, we are hoping to hear from someone with alternative materials instead of asbestos. We also would appreciate hearing from knowledge able readers regarding the use of 'rubberized' or 'Navy Symbol' asbestos sheet packing. Is it also hazardous, or is it still available through commercial sources?

22/7/16 FBM Eclipse Engines In the July 1987 'Reflections' you mention DuPont 93-77161 for the Fairbanks-Morse No. 1 Eclipse Pumper Engine, but in the September 1988 GEM you mention 93-72001 as the correct color. Which is correct? Robert W. Hoyer, P.O. Box 1, Clayton, CA 94517.

The two colors are quite close in shade, and some collectors are of the opinion that one is closer than the other. Although this writer prefers the 72001, we decline to say that the other folks are wrong, especially since the colors seemed to vary considerably during the years. In fact, the later FBM engines, particularly the 'Z' Style D engine and the 'ZC' series, seem to have been finished in a much brighter green color, comparable perhaps to 93-6202 Green. Sadly though, the real truth will probably never be known as to the exact color shades. By and large, the Reflector still holds to 72001 as being the closest overall for the FBM 'Z' and Eclipse models.

24/2/9 Farmall Cub In reference to this query, the Cub has an IHC C-60 engine. It was used in all Farmall Cub tractors and as a power unit on many IHC machines. Some IHC owners manuals, shop manuals, and other items are available from: Computerized Distribution Service, Box 09359, Milwaukee, WI 53209-0359.

Wiscona Pep and St. Marys Regarding Mr. Hamp's letter in the March 1989 issue, the Wiscona Pep engines do have flyweights in the flywheel. I have a 1? HP model.

On another subject, I have a St. Marys semi-automatic engine as pictured on page 442 of American Gas Engines. I need information on the governor, as there is no sign of one. Also, I believe the picture in the book is printed backward, as that engine is exactly opposite to mine. Any help will be appreciated. Cort Strobel, HC 88, Box 3618, Big Timber, MT 59011.

Fairbanks-Morse Colors Try Coast-to-Coast #579-4409 Oliver Green for Fairbanks-Morse engines. It is much darker than the modern Oliver Green. After several shows, one man said it was too light, one said it was too dark, and everyone else said it was just right! Dave Brink, Route 1, Branson, Iowa 51007.

23/12/17 Standard Twin I own five Standard Twins, and know of numerous others. If all the Standard Twin owners would be so kind as to send me their serial numbers, year purchased (if known) and other data on their tractors, I will try to compile a listing of them. See RW-3 and RW-4 for photos of two of my Standard Twin tractors. I look forward to hearing from other owners! Dick Long, 5166 S. Vine, Wichita, KS 67217

We applaud your efforts, Mr. Long, and encourage all you Standard Twin owners to get in touch with him at the above address.

Sealing Cork Floats Jack Folta, Box 147, Laddonia, MO 63352, reports that there is a product called Seal-All that lists one of its attributes on the package as 'carburetor floats'. This material is available in many hardware, automotive, and variety stores, and is manufactured by Allen Products Corporation, Detroit, Michigan 48214.

New Polo Engines We recently ran an advertising of the New Polo engine, a peculiar inverted vertical style, in hopes of finding out whether any of these still exist. Thanks to R.D. Heidl, 2816 S. Campbell St., Sandusky, OH 44870, a photo of one is shown in RW-5. This one was on display at the 1988 National Threshers Association Show in Wauseon, Ohio.

24/1/60 Economy engines This query piqued my interest, and I would like to know the arrangement between Hercules and Sears Roebuck. Were they the sole supplier of Economy engines, during what years, etc.? Is there much information available on the Economy line, literature, and the like? Alvin Cummings, 4073 Campfire Road, Walker, IA 52352.

Many details of the Sears-Hercules connection are outlined in American Gas Engines Since 1872, and since much of this arrangement was rather complicated, we refer you to this volume and the headings of Hercules Gas Engine Co. and Sears, Roebuck & Company. Old Sears catalogs are a prime source of information on the Economy line, and these are often available from antique dealers, flea markets, etc. at reasonable prices. There are no known serial number listings whereby these engines can be dated by their numbers.


Painting Model Engines A good rule of thumb to follow is that a model should be painted one or two shades lighter than the full size engine was painted. If you took the same can of paint, and painted a full size engine, and also painted a small model at the same time, the model would look darker and off-color. Why? Because the amount of light reflected off the model is not as great under daylight conditions as off the large engine. Also, if the model is viewed indoors, under incandescent or fluorescent lighting, those color temperatures (Kelvin) are not the same as daylight. A side benefit for using a lighter shade paint for models is that the lighter color highlights details better. This technique is utilized by museums for their displays.

My choice of paint for model engines is an automotive synthetic enamel paint and primer (Be sure to buy the proper thinner for these products). It can be mixed in hundreds of colors at the auto paint supply store. I brush on three coats of primer that has not been thinned to the castings, allowing a day between coats. The surface is then sanded smooth. Thus the primer acts as a filler. Two coats of color are then applied over the primer. I used to spray all my models but have found that the enamel can be brushed with equally good results, and masking the machined surfaces is eliminated. With this high quality enamel, the brush marks fill in and disappear. It is best to practice painting on a scrap piece of steel to get the technique down before painting the model, as all paints react differently to brushing. Submitted by Brad E. Smith, 7574 S. 74 St., Franklin, WI 53132.

Atkinson Engines Some time ago the Reflector asked whether anyone had modeled the unique (and complicated) Atkinson engine which made a big splash in the engineering press about a century ago. See MM-1 for two of the Atkinson models as built by Mr. Joseph M. Tochtrop, 2028 McAlister St., San Francisco, CA 94118. This engine has a 11/8 inch bore and uses 7-inch flywheels. It is built from drawings and castings developed by Mr. Tochtrop. The unique and remarkable feature of the Atkinson engine is that the piston is so coupled (through a link age system) to the crankshaft that the four strokes of intake, compression, power, and exhaust are per formed during a single revolution of the crankshaft. The four parts of the cycle all have a different stroke due to the unique arrangement of the linkage system.


Did you know that the first dual fuel engine for commercial use was built by Nordberg Company in 1926? It used gas injection at 1100 psi, along with a small quantity of diesel fuel. The following year, C. & G. Cooper Company introduced an engine capable of using gas within the diesel cycle.

The famous LA and LB engines of International Harvester Company were patented under No. 2,028,310. This patent was granted to William Otto Beckman of Chicago, Illinois and assigned to International Harvester. The patent application was filed on November 10, 1934 and granted to Beckman on January 21, 1936. We're not sure of how many other patents were issued on this design, but happened across this one in a recent perusal of the Patent Office Gazette.

Another interesting engine development was that of the brothers Duesenberg, Frederick S. and August S.

On April 14, 1913 they filed a patent application covering a Valve Gear. This patent illustrates sections of the famous Duesenberg engine. On October 30, 1917 they were granted Patent No. 1,244,481. At the time the patent was filed, the Duesenberg brothers listed Des Moines, Iowa as their address.

Here in the U.S. at least, we seldom hear of engines built in France. Yet, as shown in photo X-1, there were some very attractive French engines, including the Caloin & Marc illustrated here. Of sideshaft design, it could be furnished for operation on gas or gasoline. Built about the turn of the century, it used hot tube ignition. Both valves are mechanically operated, and an elaborate governor system is in evidence. The Caloin & Marc engine was built at Lille, France.

The engine illustrated in photo X-2 is a turn-of-the-century offering from Gasmotoren-Fabrik Deutz of Germany. Separate lay shafts operated the valve mechanism and other accessories for each of the four cylinders. This illustration is from Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure, a technical publication for German mechanical and civil engineers. The illustration of the Caloin & Marc engine is from Moteurs a Gaz by Aime' Witz.