This month's column is shorter than usual, since it is being compiled in late December to avoid numerous holiday conflicts.
In late August, 1986 the Reflector was advised that the famous Franklin Institute in Philadelphia was deaccessioning (getting rid of) quite a large number of books. We talked to their people, but soon learned that the books were being sold in rather large lots for one thing, and that they were unable to provide us with a compiled list of what was being offered. Logistically, it was impossible for us to make the trip from Iowa to Philadelphia, so we persuaded GEM's Linda Sharron to make the journey from Lancaster instead. Linda soon replied that several lots would be of interest, particularly since they involved steam and/or internal combustion engines. To make a long story short, Linda was the successful bidder on some of this material, and as a result, the Reflector's research library now holds an immense number of very early and very rare titles on these subjects.
Looking back over the years, we recall the first book we ever got hold of on the subject was Stephenson's Farm Engines & How to Run Them, a little hardbound book that was quite popular in the early 1900's. This one was in Grandpa's attic, and the Reflector at the age of about eight years old, had his first book on steam engines. That was in 1946, Christmas Day to be exact. Ever since that time we have actively collected literature on steam engines, gas engines, tractors, and other items relating to mechanical technology. Eventually our little collection turned into a good-sized research collection, with the addition of the many new titles from the Franklin Institute making it very extensive on all phases of internal combustion engineering.
Having all this material does not make us expert at all, but it certainly provides an opportunity to provide a lot of scarce information, at least part of the time. From time to time, we will be including some articles on rare or 'different' engines of times past, and possibly might work up a series of articles on various phases of engine design.
Logan & Jones, engine collectors at 1271 Pollock Road, Delaware, OH 43015 recently forwarded photocopies of material on the Viking garden tractor. It is already on file for future reference, and is greatly appreciated.
Our queries this month begin with:
22/3/1 Q. Mel Reints, 1301 East Eighth, Gillette, WY 82716 needs information on a Sintz-Wallin engine as used in a Huber 15-30 tractor. The engine has a 7 x 8 inch bore and stroke, but information is needed on the connecting rods and pistons.
22/3/2 Q. I have a Mietz & Weiss engine, but have no information on it at all. Need operating and service information, along with proper paint color. Are these rare in the United States? I. Matthews, 3 Koariki Court, Condon, 4815, North Queensland, Australia.
A. The Mietz & Weiss is indeed rare. We don't have any service information on it, but hopefully there are some Mietz & Weiss fans around that might be able to help you out on information and paint colors.
22/3/3 Q. Dale Irps, Route 2, Box 332, St. Anne, IL 60964 sends some photos of his little Avery tractor. However, some folks think it is a General GG tractor built by Cleveland Tractor Co., rather than a product of B. F. Avery Co. Also, did Montgomery-Ward ever sell a tractor with the B. F. Avery name on it, or did it sell under the Montgomery-Ward name? What was the original color scheme, and how can I tell the year it was built?
A. It seems to us that Cleveland built the General GG from 1939 to 1941, and perhaps a bit longer, but after that it was built by the B. F. Avery people. Now whether Cleveland Tractor still had a hand in the actual manufacturing, we are not sure, but there is no doubt that the design changed very little regardless of who the manufacturer was. The front wheel rim on your tractor is different than that shown for the Cleveland GG, as is the exhaust manifold. Early Cleveland GG models used a four-cylinder Hercules IXA-3 engine with a 3 x 4 inch bore and stroke-later models used a 3 1/8 inch bore. The 1948 Tractor Red Book shows the B. F. Avery 'A' to be equipped with a four-cylinder Hercules IXB-3 engine having a 3? x 4 inch bore and stroke for a 133 CID. One easy way to tell the difference might be looking at the spark plugs-the earlier model used a 1 Com,7/8 inch plug, but the Avery model used a Champion H-10 or equivalent. There was an Avery like this in our neighborhood years ago. It was purchased at a local Montgomery-Ward farm store, but it spelled 'Avery' on the hood nevertheless.
22/3/4 Q. Howard A. Houck, RD 1, Galway Road, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 writes: I've found a small Delco that is not a light plant but looks like one but smaller. It has the numbers 5-2-19 and #72320. It has about a 3? piston by 5 inch stroke Is this a standard size? What can you tell me about it?
A. Howard, we can't tell you much about this one, except to wonder whether it was at one time a generator engine that has been converted to an ordinary stationary model. This would be possible by pressing the armature off the shaft and revamping things somewhat. Quite possibly, Delco built some engines for stationary belt use-we'll be happy to hear from anyone who can hazard some ideas.
22/3/5 Q. I have a Hercules 2? HP hit-and-miss engine with the nameplate missing. It has a 4 inch bore, and uses a Webster magneto with bracket 303K26; it also has the square water hopper. The original color appears to be a medium blue. Might this engine be a Jaeger or an Arco? Is it possible to determine the serial number and rpm for a replacement name tag? Charles W. Sammons, Route 2, Meece Brg. Rd.., Taylors, SC 29687.
A. The 303K26 Webster bracket is listed for the 2? HP Hercules 'E' engine as built for Sears-Roebuck, and should carry a Webster 'AK' magneto. See page 4 of the December, 1986 GEM. We're a little doubtful about reestablishing the nameplate data except of course for the horsepower.
22/3/6 Q. Could you tell me the horsepower rating for the Model 72 Maytag twin and the one-cylinder FYED4? What is the year and model of the Briggs & Stratum engine shown in the photo given below? The muffler and gas tank are not original. Note the bicycle chain starter. Marcus Comes, 19506 Kemple Drive, Bend, OR 97702.
A. We're not sure that the Maytag engines were horsepower rated- their primary duty was to run the washing machines that Maytag built. However, it is possible to calculate the approximate delivered brake horsepower by the formula:
in which D=Cylinder Diameter in inches L=Stroke in inches N=Speed in r.p.m.
X=Variable factor, about 14,000 for four-cycle gasoline engines, and about 12,000 for two-cycle gasoline engines. Using a 3 inch bore and stroke with a speed of 600 rpm, and a factor of 12,500 gives an output of 1.30 horsepower.
Our first assumption was that your Briggs & Stratton was a model FH, but a check of our files leaves us in doubt as to the model designation.
22/3/7 Q. I need paint information on a Fair-field 4? HP model and a Gilson Style E, 1 HP model. The Fairfield has a Dixie magneto, and I need help on it! W. A. 'Bill' Anderson, 884 W. Jackson, Marshall, MO 65340.
A. It just so happens that we have a color photo of a Gilson water cooled engine, but it uses the same general scheme as the air cooled models. We believe the Fairfield was a very dark, almost blackish, green color. There are several collectors who work on magnetos regularly, and certainly there must be one of them who might contact you.
22/3/8 Q. I recently acquired a Lockwood-Ash 4-cycle marine engine. It is 5 horsepower, one-cylinder, Model 41, s/n 441. This engine uses a Ford Model T piston, rings, connecting rod, valves, and carburetor. Can anyone out there tell me what the ignition system looks like, what type of water pump it used, and what is the proper color? Also what is the proper color for an Aermotor engine? Ernest Felterman, 126 McGee Drive, Patterson, LA 70392.
A. We can't tell you much about the Lockwood-Ash engines, but it is interesting to note that they used so many Ford Model T parts. Aermotor pump jack engines are always a subject of discussion in regard to the proper color-apparently some were green, and some were candy apple red.
22/3/9 Q. Can you identify the manufacturer of this engine (see photo)? The brass tag reads: DeLaval, 6 HP, Type F, 350 rpm, s/n 19318. A. G. L. Henning, 37 Oak-view Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R2K 0R6 Canada.
A. We would suggest that this engine was built by John Lauson at New Holstein, Wisconsin.
22/3/10 Q. Is there a difference between a Waterloo engine and a Waterloo Boy engine? I have an engine made by the Waterloo Gas Engine Co., Waterloo, Iowa, and wondered if a Waterloo Boy decal would be accurate. Glen R. Swenson, Spider Lake, HCR-1, Box 82T, Marcell, MN 56657.
A. We would guess this to be one and the same. Perhaps it is a matter of semantics, but the term 'Waterloo' and 'Waterloo Boy' seem to be used interchangeably. The company started out in the 1890's as Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company under the direction of John Froehlich. Ostensibly, this firm was going to build the new gasoline traction engine that Froehlich developed. The market wasn't ready for gasoline tractors-it had hardly begun to accept steam traction engines yet! To keep some money coming in, other directors of the company decided to start building engines. Froehlich apparently didn't go along with that idea so he pulled out, later on making his own mark in the tractor business with the Hackney tractor. By 1896, the original company dropped 'Traction' from the title, operating this way until bought out by Deere & Company.
22/3/11 Q. Can anyone help with some history and information on Earthmaster Farm Equipment Company of Hollydale, California. I have an Earthmaster tractor Model C, s/n 333. Would also like to correspond with anyone who has a Mighty Mite garden tractor made in Denison, Texas. Also need information on a small 2-cycle engine built by Propulsion Engine Corporation, Kansas City, Kansas. Will answer all letters. Jack Harrell, Box 142, Roanoke, IN 46783.
A. We have no literature on the Earthmaster tractor, and only brief mention of it is made in Encyclopedia of American Farm Tractors, page 97. We can find nothing at all on the Mighty Mite garden tractor. Our information has it that Propulsion Engine Corporation built the 'Power-Pak' in 1948, but beyond that we have no illustrations or other information. Perhaps you might favor us with a photo that we could put into the next column.
22/3/12 Q. James Haynie, RR 1, Box 494, Ash Grove, MO 65604 would like to know the age of Gade Bros, engine, s/n 3960, C 1? HP, spark plug ignition.
A. Gade Model C engines were introduced in 1912. Like most other builders, Gade gave these engines higher speed to reduce the overall weight. Mr. Haynie notes in his letter that he has been told that the name is not pronounced 'Gayd' but should be pronounced 'Gawdee.' He's right about that-we once knew a gentlemen who came from Iowa Falls, Iowa where these engines were made, and 'Gawdee' is how it was said. To put it another way, 'Gayd' is an anglicized pronunciation.
22/3/13 Q. I'm trying to rebuild a magneto for a 1931 John Deere GP Wide-Tread. I'm not sure of the make, but on the front cover it says Type R-2. According to Parts Book #5o-R, the Deere part number is AC432-R. Am looking for a service manual, since I know nothing about this magneto. Kevin J. Nadler, Box 55, Defiance, MO 63341.
A. This magneto was probably built by Fairbanks-Morse. We're not at all expert on magneto substitutions, but have heard it said that this was probably not the greatest magneto FBM ever built. Lots of these were replaced with other makes as time wore on. Perhaps some of our readers familiar with this magneto, its problems and idiosyncracies might get in touch with you.
22/3/14 Q. We would like information on a Mercury 2-man chain saw. Model KB6AY, s/n 91178. It has a 2-cylinder 7 horsepower engine with a Fairbanks-Morse Type J magneto. Would like to know when it was built, proper color, etc. John A. Hall, Jr., RR 2, Box 407, Bahama, NC 27503.
A. There's nothing in our files on this one-can someone out there be of help?
22/3/15 Q. Harry L. King, Box 288, Parker, PA 16049 would like to have the proper color for a Witte headless engine, s/n 60183 mounted on a log saw.
A. We believe it to be a deep green comparable to DuPont Dulux 935800 green.
21/12/22Steering Wheel Restoration A lot of letters came in on this one, including several letters telling us that the July 1986 issue of Green Magazine for Deere collectors has an excellent article on the subject. Copies of this issue are available from: Green Magazine, Box 11, Bee, NE 68314 at a price of $1.50. The following also repair steering wheels: Tom Lein, 1400-121st St West, Rosemount, MN 55068: and lack Turpin. Route 2, Box 327-B, Peaceful Valley, Cleveland, GA 30528. Several writers noted that epoxy cement and other necessaries for this job are available from Eastwood Company, 147 Pennsylvania Ave., Box 296, Malvern, PA 19355.
Lineshaft sizes Glenn D. Meyer, RR 2, Box 104, Baldwin, WI 54002 notes that lineshafting is hard to obtain, but lineshaft clutches are even more difficult to get, even though they are quite desirable. Glenn notes that in one plant, a 3-inch lineshaft run by a 150 horsepower engine was twisted off and had to be replaced by a 4-inch shaft to stand the load. Nowadays however, we run 150 horsepower on a 1 3/8 inch shaft, so do we measure horsepower differently now?
Horsepower is still measured the same, but the rpm's directly affect the horsepower capabilities of a shaft. The horsepower charts in Machinery's Handbook indicate that a 3-inch shaft operating at 100 rpm will only transmit 30 horsepower, but the same shaft operating at twice the speed or 200 rpm will carry 60 horsepower. Moving up to 600 rpm, we see a load carrying capacity of 231 horsepower. Thus, the horsepower capacity of a shaft is directly proportional to its speed.
22/1/20 Jack Versteeg, 1215 Jays Drive NE, Salem, OR 97303 writes that the engine at first glance appears to be a Stover, but further looking shows that its a Rawleigh. Chances are that this particular engine was the brainchild of a couple of engineers in building a halfbreed. Stover and Rawleigh were both in Freeport, Illinois, and some of the same engineers worked for both companies there.
22/1/19Cushman engine The ignition system on this model of engine was quite simple, so if Murtt Sepanyk, #77, 340 Seymour River Place, North Van, B.C. V7H 1S4 Canada will get in touch with T. J. Shamnaugh Jr., POB 895, 421 S. Washington St., Cerro Gordo, IL 61818 he can get more information or even some drawings of what is needed to complete the engine.
22/1/17 Electromagnetite Industries may have imported this engine, and they did the marketing. There is a lot of marine activity at the Sayville, New York location, and possibly this engine was intended as a small auxiliary engine for a sailboat, but if larger than 25 HP it may have been used on a commercial fishing boat or tender. You might contact some marine supply firms in the Long Island, New York area to see whether they might have sold this engine, or have someone check the Yellow Pages for you. Alternatively, you might try the Suffolk County Library system. Roy R. Nagel, 5431 Metamora Road, Metamora, MI 48455.
John Deere Scale Models Back in October, 1986 GEM talked a bit about scale model gas engines, and you said you had not had any information about the one-half scale Type E John Deere that is built in Waterloo, Iowa. I received mine on June 20, 1986 and since then have built and sold two of these kits. Also on 22/1/20, this is a Simplicity engine built by Turner Mfg. Co., Port Washington, Wisconsin-would guess it to be a 1? HP. Edw. G. Hoover, 10040 State Street, NE. Lousiville, OH 44641.
Hot Air Engines Sometime ago we made mention o: hot air engines in this column, and since have received literature and information from Al Cropley, 48097 Lake Washington Blvd S., Seattle, WA 98118 and from Joe Whitton, 4455 E. Shields, Fresno, CA 93726. Both of these people have a lot of information and help for the hot air engine builder, and we are confident that both are willing to share it with you. Kindly enclose return postage and a small token for their efforts in photocopying etc.
22/1/7Delco unit I have a unit like this, the nameplate reads: Delco-Light, 13574, Service No. 4057, Model B6, Watts 150, Volts 6. Mine was painted blue, on plywood, with the small coil on the fuel tank which is a tube extending nearly to the bottom of the tank. This letter continues to a reply on:
21/5/27Aunknown engine On page 8 of the May 1986 GEM is a picture of an engine I have. I'm hoping someone can help me identify this engine. It has only one rocker arm, and it was on a reel-type mower. I've had it to six shows the past summer and no one has identified it so far. Maurice Biehn, 2900 E. Lk. Bonnet Rd., Avon Park, FL 33825.
22/1/17American Marc Instructions This information is in Small Engines Service Manual by Technical Publications, Kansas City, MO 7th Edition, copyrighted 1964. I have been told that this is related to the Hallett Mfg. Co. (see page 216 of American Gas Engines). Also see adjacent photo of my highly modified Briggs & Stratton FH engine into a hit-and-miss engine. Robert J. Meredith, 1 South 100 Rt. 47, Elburn, IL 60119.
Although the number of questions this month is somewhat less than usual, we have a special bonus in the form of some extensive data courtesy of Mr. Leo F. Fellman, 1608 Oak Street, Hastings, MN 55033. Mr. Fellman has originated a special flow control valve for propane fuel that seems to work very well in scale model engines. Since Mr. Fellman spent countless hours in working out the details of this unit, we felt it appropriate to present his ideas herewith. Also included are some excellent rips on igntion systems for scale model gas engines, fitting piston rings, lapping cylinders, etc. Perhaps Mr. Fellman's contribution will be the catalyst that will encourage further input from our readers. Mr. Fellman is a regular GEM advertiser, and this article should not be construed as an advertisement, but is intended to illustrate the solution to successful operation of model engines. Small gas engines, of say 1 or 1? HP sometimes have problems in carburetion, so when getting down to a bore of perhaps less than 1-inch, atomizing a liquid fuel becomes difficult. We believe this might be an innovative approach to the problem. Here's Leo Fellman in his own words:
Use of Propane Fuel in Operating a Model Engine
The use of a propane fuel originated with my building a 1/3 scale New Holland. I had my New Holland half built, when I found out they were very hard to carburate using gasoline fuel as recommended. I thought about this for some time and decided that propane would be the answer to this problem.
Now I ran into the problem of how to hook the engine up to propane. After spending considerable time, looking for something that would work, I found there was nothing available on the market, and realized that I would have to make whatever it was that I needed. After much experimenting with all kinds and sizes of check balls and springs, trying to make a check valve that would work for propane, I decided I needed a diaphram operated needle and seat; after a lot of trial and error, I got this to work, and my engine started and ran well.
In the spring I went to the LeCenter Swap Meet, where I met a friend, named Eddie Mittelstadt from Eldorado, Iowa. When he saw my engine running, he told me he had one at home that he had had a great deal of trouble with, and had never been able to get it to run. He insisted he had to have one of these propane things, which I later named a Flow Control Valve, with the help of Paul Breisch. Eddie hooked the valve up to his engine and it ran very well. That summer he made some trips to engine shows and other model builders saw his engine running on propane and were very interested in it. Eddie then contacted me and told me he felt there would be a market for the Flow Control Valve. I called Paul Breisch and discussed this with him, and he also thought there would be a market for the valve. He told me how many New Holland kits he had sold, and then, I too, felt there would be a market for this valve. I started to build these valves and advertised them in a couple of gas engine magazines. With further experimenting, I found the valve works on other models with bore sizes from ?' to 2', and found they worked well.
I owe a lot to Eddie for his encouragement and his advice. He is the main reason that I started selling them to other model builders.
I believe the use of propane fuel and the Flow Control Valve adds a whole new dimension to model building. Not only have I had the satisfaction of making my models run well, but I have been able to help others.
In the process of selling the Flow Control Valve, I have met and talked with other model builders throughout the United States. I have enjoyed this very much, and consider it an added bonus.
The Flow Control Valve stops the flow of propane when there is no demand, or when the engine is coasting. So, in a way it works like a check valve in a gasoline set up used on some Associated engines with the gas tank above the carburetor or mixer.
I use a Regulator made by Coleman Company. This regulator fits right on to a 14 oz. or 16 oz. propane cylinder, and is adjustable from 0 to 15 lbs. of pressure. The Regulator reduces the pressure in the propane cylinder, which is way too much to work with. 5 lbs. of pressure seems to work very well. The Regulator, 0-15 lbs. gauge, and Flow Control Valve make a compact unit, which is easy to hide or put in a box, I have found that you can lay the cylinder on its side and it doesn't seem to make a difference in the operation of the engine.
Benefits Inherited by Using Propane Fuel
Propane will not wash the oil off the piston like gasoline will. This makes oiling the piston easy and a lot less messy. One drop of oil will last two to three hours, running on 7/8' bore like my New Holland.
If running your model engine in the house, the propane will not give off a smell like gasoline will.
The propane cylinders are clean and neat, and don't leak fumes like gasoline cans, making them easier to store and transport.
Propane will not foul up your spark plug or igniter if the mixture is rich, or will not run out the back side of the piston, making a real mess.
With the propane being a much cleaner fuel, your model engines stay cleaner.
Propane makes small bores easy to carburate, as well as multiple cylinder engines, as you don't have to vaporize it like gasoline, as it already is a vapor and the amount is easy to adjust.
Lapping Small Bores Compression
Good compression is essential to getting a model engine to run good. (Note: There is a small volume of air to begin with, so any loss of air is critical and will result in poor compression.)
The procedure I use for boring is as follows: (1) Rough bore within about 0.005 of finished size, using lathe or milling machine. (2) Using a brake cylinder hone-remove all but the last 0.001 or 0.002. (3) Lap to finished size.
How to Make an Inexpensive Homemade Lap
I have used both brass and aluminum successfully, and have read that steel will work also.
The procedure I use for making the lap is as follows: (1) Select a piece of metal 1' to 2' longer than the length of the bore that you are making the lap for, and a little larger than the finished bore size in diameter. (2) Chuck the piece of metal in the lathe and turn the piece 0.002 under the rough bore size, which should be 0.001 or 0.002 under finished size. (3) Drill and tap, using a tapered pipe tap. The tap size will vary according to the bore size. Put this in the end of the bar, while still chucked in the lathe. (4) Remove from lathe and saw two slots at 90° through the pipe tap hole (about 1' long for a 1' bore and 2' long for a 2' bore.) (5) Put the lap back in lathe, chucked at the same position that it was turned in, so that it will run true. Put lathe in backgearing or so it will turn slowly. Using a very fine lapping compound on the lap, and holding the engine block by hand (be careful) slide back and forth on lap, from time to time adding more lapping compound, and using pipe plug to adjust size. This is a slow process but the result is a very smooth, round, and straight bore.
It is important to remove all the lapping compound from the engine block, when finished. To do this, I use a tooth brush, hot water and a liquid laundry detergent like Wisk.
Piston Rings and Piston
I have found that the ring groove width is critical, if it is 0.001 or 0.002 too wide, you will lose compression along the sides and under the ring.
Further, I have found that one ring will hold the compression just as well as two, if installed properly. By doing this you will have less drag than if you use two rings.
On the 7/8' bore, I use about 0.003 clearance between piston and bore, which also reduces the drag.