Now KU3X4 engine


Luke Anderson

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During the past few weeks the Reflector received several comments regarding the quality of American manufactured goods a subject mentioned by us in a recent column. Although Reflections is not now and will not be a political forum, the Reflector strongly agrees with men like Lee Iacocca who believes it is high time for Americans to regain the position of leadership in factory production.

Speaking not from a political position but from a historical perspective, America's role of leadership in world trade began back in the 1850's. Way back in 1853 John H. Manny was shipping reapers overseas within a few years American farm equipment companies were exporting nearly as many machines as were sold in domestic trade. Maybe it's time Americans returned to the work ethic so ably demonstrated by these eminently successful men. With this we end further discussion of the subject.

The Reflector happily reports that his newest toy, a 360 HP Fairbanks-Morse Model 32B engine is now moved home. This one carries a 14 x 17 inch bore and stroke and operates at 257 rpm. Included is a 250 kw, 2300 volt, 3-phase alternator. Rather than see this fine specimen junked, the Reflector and several others retrieved it from its probable doom. Since several readers have either called or written us about this engine we thought it appropriate to respond. No time table has been set for setting the engine on its new foundation, but perhaps we can supply some photographs later on.

Due to the holidays our correspondence is somewhat shorter this month than usual, but here goes:

21/3/1 Q. John F. Harris, RR 6, Box 167, Frankford, IN 46041 sends this letter, partially edited to conserve space.

As I read the Reflections column, I get the impression that the Reflector is writing a book on the Allis-Chalmers and Rumely equipment and tractors, mostly the farm equipment branch.

From my two recent articles in the Jan. 1986 GEM you would gather that I am partial towards John Deere. However a few years ago there was a book published about 150 years of International Harvester. I bought one and spent hours and hours and hours reading it and looking at the pictures. Then I began waiting for an equally good book on John Deere to be published.

I am still waiting for a good book to be published about John Deere... oh, yes, there was a book published about John Deere, but to me, that book was completely useless, and a big waste of money at any price. It dealt with the company, law suits, people, and almost completely left out the most important items of all the product produced at the reader's level. There was not one serial number of even one tractor, and the reader would get the idea that there were only three types of tractor produced, the Waterloo Boy, the Model D, and the Model A. As you read the book you get the idea that the writer copied the records of court trials (word-for-word) and office records in the personnel office and actually knew little or nothing about what came out of the factory doors, or what it was supposed to do.

I am sure that if the writer of the Allis-Chalmers book follows the pattern of the writer of the IHC book he will have a book that will please the reader extremely well.

A.. For several reasons, the Reflector was compelled to print most of Mr. Harris' letter. First of all, C. H. Wendel, the Reflector, and the writer of the IHC book previously mentioned are all one and the same bird. As such, we wish to assure Mr. Harris and anyone else interested that we intend to use the same general scheme with the Allis-Chalmers book as with the IHC book and other titles penned over the past few years.

Regarding the comments on the recent Deere history, for ethical considerations we have, for the most part, refrained from criticism of another person's writing efforts. So far as a book of the general style of the IHC book, however, it would appear that Deere & Company has a different view of the matter, and possibly would prefer a book tailored to a predetermined public image. As we have stated previously, this matter should properly be referred to Deere & Company. Should the Reflector 'choose sides' then it would eventually become impossible to write objectively and without prejudice.

By the way, work is continuing day by day on the history of Allis-Chalmers, Rumely, and allied operations.

21/3/2 Q.  What is the proper color for the Twin City tractors? and what is the age of a Twin City KT, s/n 301353? Also have a Twin City s/n 27198 either a 17-28 or a 12-20. Rodney Miller, RR 1, Box 56, Bancroft, NE 68004.

A.. Our serial number lists are not at all complete, but we would guess that No. 27198 is a 17-28 of 1929 vintage. The KT, No. 301353 is a 1930 model. We do not have the exact shade of gray enamel in our files.

21/3/3 Q.  Nevin Kemmerling, 124 Grouse Dr., Bath, PA 18014 asks for the proper color of a 1 HP Little Jumbo engine.

A.. We keep working on a listing of paint colors, but if we have this one we cannot locate it. Taking on the job of compiling paint colors has been a tough job, but hopefully we can see it through before long.

21/3/4 Q. From H. G. Smith, 19, Rotten Row, Risely, Bedford MK44 1EJ England comes a query on the Witte Log Saw. Mr. Smith needs the proper color, and would like to know its age. It bears s/n 45876.

A. The Witte log saw appears to be a deep green comparable to DuPont Dulux 93-5800. We have no serial numbers on the Witte engines.

21/3/5 Q. Luke Anderson, Box 54, Dillonvale, OH 43917 sends a photo of his Now KU3X4 engine. New valves were required, and these were turned down from NAPA Part No. 211-1066 409. The crank end of the connecting rod was built up and fitted with Wisconsin engine bearings NAPA Part No. N3A 9885CP Std. Mr. Anderson notes that when ordering piston rings, give the piston diameter, cylinder bore, ring width, and depth of ring groove. Also, Mr. Anderson replaced the felt seals on his engine using an old pair of felt boot liners as a source of felt.

21/3/6 Q. Can anyone supply information on the Leslie engine built by St. Albans Mfg. Company, St. Albans, Vermont. I have an old insurance certificate for one of these engines; it is dated August 31, 1910. Raymond Bunzey, Box 131-A, Unadilla, NY 13849.

A.  American Gas Engines does not show this company at all. Should any of our readers have information for our files it would be appreciated.

21/3/7 Q. What is the proper color of the 5 HP Woodpecker engine. Also, we have a 5 HP Empire engine, throttle governed, and need to know more about the ignition system. I know that the hit-and-miss model used the Webster K-26 magneto, but it seems to me that the throttle governed style would have something different. Burl H. Gillum, 6637 Pendleton Dr. NW, Roanoke, VA 24019.

A.. Once we get the color code book done, getting the proper match should be much easier. For the present, we ask that someone knowledgeable about the proper color get in touch with Mr. Gillum. Some engines did indeed use the Webster system even though the engines were of the throttle governed variety. While the Reflector has always considered this to be an awful lot of mechanism, the alternative of using a battery and coil system was even less desirable. With the advent of successful high tension magnetos adapted to stationary engines the problem was solved.

21/3/8 Q. Can you supply information on my Twin City Minneapolis tractor, Model KTA, s/n 305700E? Robert L. Koehn, 870 S. Cody, Lakewood, CO 80226.

A.. Yours is a 1937 model. We are not sure of the exact shade of gray. The KT was tested at Nebraska in 1930 under No. 175. Rated by the company at 11 drawbar and 20 belt horsepower, it delivered a maximum test output of 25.83 belt horsepower and showed a fuel economy of 9.99 horsepower hours per gallon of kerosene. In this test the KT recorded the identical fuel economy as the McCormick-Deering 15-30 under Test No. 156 of 1929.

21/3/9 Q. We have an Associated 2 HP engine, s/n 344256 and are trying to determine when it was built. No one out here seems to know. C. Rennie Waugh, 5705 Goleta Road, Goleta, CA 93117.

A. So far as we know there are no serial number records for the Associated engines. Although some companies secretly encoded the serial number to indicate to them the year of manufacture, it is not known whether this was the case with Associated. Most companies appear to have used a numerical sequence in other words, your 344256 might have been followed with a 6 HP carrying 344257. Other companies such as Witte, jumbled the serial numbers so that very low numbers sometimes appear long after a much higher number. So far as we know, the best that can be done with the Associated models is to give an approximate age.

21/3/10 Q. John Hamilton, 461 Algonquin Place, Webster Groves, MO 63119 sends some nice photos of his sorghum press. It stands about 4 feet high and has rollers to crush the stalks, with knife blades on the flywheel. It has no name, and we would like to know how much power will be needed to run it.

A. While we would guess this to be a very old machine, judging from its design, we cannot hazard a guess about the builder. Chances are that it will take a 6 HP engine. Good luck restoring this one we hope the first run of sorghum turns out OK!

21/3/11 Q. We need a sleeve and other parts for a Buda engine as used in a Co-op tractor. Writing to Allis-Chalmers has done no good. Can you tell us where to look for the Buda parts? H. Rossow,Box 15, Weston, Idaho 83286.

A.. Having visited the Allis-Chalmers plant at Harvey, Illinois we are fairly sure that no early Buda parts still exist. This factory was originally owned and operated by Buda, with A-C taking over in the 1950's. While we hope you are successful in finding what you need, there is a good chance that the required parts might have to be custom built, that is unless one of our readers knows of an old Buda supply house. Having been asked this question before, the Reflector would like to hear from someone having a hoard of old Buda parts then we can refer them right away.

21/3/12 Q. From Gene Ruebush, RR 5, Box 187-C, Staunton, VA 24401 comes the following query: We would like to locate anIHC engine man by the name of Thomas Pendhoz. His last address was Burlington, Kansas in 1972. Our letters have been returned, and we wonder if he has moved. Also, inquiries about IHC engines should now be addressed to: J. I. Case (A Tenneco Company), Products Support Center, 120 Tower Drive, Burr Ridge, IL 60521.

21/3/13 Q. Tom Goepfrich, 21432 Ravenna Drive, South Bend, IN 46628, asks if anyone can identify this three-cylinder marine engine (See photo.)? The flywheel is 10' dia. x 2 inch face. Water jackets are nickel-plated bronze, as are all water lines and grease cups.

A. Marine engines are sometimes difficult to identify because of their great similarity. Ye olde Reflector being a drylander confesses to not knowing much about marine engines, so whether East or West, might some of you coastlanders be of help?

21/3/14 Q. Ed Berquist, Box 195, Athol, MA 01331 needs paint information on a Centaur 2-G tractor, s/n 430205.

21/3/15 Q. Ray Rylander, 805 E. San Rafael St., Colorado Springs, CO 80003 sends two curious photos of what looks like a Delco light plant engine minus the valve cover. However, why is this one equipped with a magneto, and where is the extended crankshaft for the generator? Maybe some of the Delco collectors can answer this one may be it isn't a Delco at all!

21/3/16 Q. What is the age of an Oliver Standard 88 tractor, s/n 820336? We would also like to know the proper paint color etc. for this tractor. Henry Miller, 2750 E. Sweetwater, Phoenix, AZ 85032.

A. Your tractor is a 1948 model. Several advertisers in GEM can supply you with the proper paint combination as well as decals for this model.

21/3/17 Q. Percy Goesch, 1713-7th St., Hughson, CA 95326 poses several questions: Would it be possible to print an engine paint formula each month? It would help a lot of collectors. What can you tell me about a Witte 7 HP engine No. B5312? I can't find any literature on a 7 HP model. When was a New-Way 2 HP engine with the carburetor and exhaust cast in one piece made?

A. During the past few days the Reflector has been in contact with several major paint companies. This should yield the remaining data required for completion of a paint color booklet. Hopefully this can be completed before long. Possibly one of our readers can supply information on the 7 HP Witte, but we have nothing in our files. Dating the New-Way engines is quite difficult, since only catalog information is now available. We would guess however that your engine was built prior to 1915.

21/3/18 Q. How many models were made of the small Reo and Continental engines, and where might we locate manuals for same? Hugh E. Porter, RR 1, Box 274, Dallas City, IL 62330.

A. Although Reo and Continental made a big splash for a few years after World War Two with their small engines, we can find very little except for their frequent advertising in magazines such as Implement & Tractor. Finding specific data might prove to be very difficult.

21/3/19 Q. Can anyone identify this engine? (See adjacent photos). The flywheel is 18' in diameter with a 3' face. The timer is missing, and perhaps someone can tell us what was used. Any information will be appreciated. John A. Laing, 11 McNab St. W., Port Dover, Ontario N0A1N0 Canada.

A. This engine looks familiar, but so far we cannot put a name to it. Perhaps someone else might be able to help Mr. Laing.

21/3/20 Q. What is the proper color for the Chamberlain engine built by Chamberlain Machine Works, Waterloo, Iowa. James Pencil, Box 124, Denver, IA 50622.

A. These engines were red, somewhat like the Galloway. Whether Chamberlain actually built them is uncertain, but chances are the castings were poured at the old Hedford foundry in Waterloo. We have never run across an instruction manual for the Chamberlain.

21/3/21 Q. Where can we purchase decals for a John Deere Model LI tractor of 1942 vintage? Wm. Spoerl, 5531 Fond du Lac, Dubuque, IA 52001.

A. At present we do not know of anyone producing the LI decals. If these are being made, kindly advise our column for future reference.

21/3/22 Q.  Herman Sass, 20 East Morris Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14214 is looking for information on a Do-It-All tractor built between 1917 and 1925 try Buffalo-Pitts Company. This was a single-cylinder, two-wheel garden tractor.

21/3/23 Q. Fred Burkhart jr., RR 3, Box 136, Robstoum, TX 78380 inquires as tothe age and proper color for a GT-25 Terratrac tractor built by American Tractor Corp., Churubusco, Indiana.

A Our information indicates the GT-25 to have been built about 1950 or 1951. It was powered we believe by a Continental F-124 engine. The slightly larger GT-30 was tested at Nebraska in 1952 under No. 471. Subsequently, American offered several different models. J. I. Case purchased American in 1957, giving them their start in the crawler tractor business. We believe the Terratrac models were finished in an industrial yellow.

21/3/24 Q. We need information on an Ottawa drag saw engine. It has two push rods. The piston is 3 inches in diameter. What is the proper color, and what is the year? Also need help in getting the engine back in time. Carl L. Hatch, RD 4, Box 277, Towanda, PA 18848.

A. Ottawa engines were a deep red color so far as we now. Our supply of literature fails to show the model using the 3' bore however, but we would guess your engine to have been built between 1920 and 1925. To get the exhaust valve in time, turn the engine over to about 10 degrees before bottom dead center. At this point the cam should just start opening the exhaust valve. Turning the engine in its usual direction travel (so as to take up the slack in the linkage and gearing) the exhaust valve should close just ahead of top dead center. Since the intake and exhaust cams are in a fixed relationship to each other, further adjustment of the valve timing can usually be accomplished with the adjusting screws on the rocker arm. Each builder had their own ideas of proper valve timing, so it may be necessary to move the cam gear a tooth or two one direction or the other. We have found that the original timing marks are not always absolutely correct. Occasionally, experimentation is required to improve performance. By performance we mean having the engine operate with no load for hours at a time during a show without causing any problems.


Cletrac and Alamo colors, ake Zilverberg, Little Pine, Route #4, Aitkin, MN 56431 writes that the Cletrac of the late '30s and early '40s was a brownish orange, much darker than AC orange. Also, the Lindsay Alamo engines were burgundy. Mixing gallon of International red with 1/3 quart of Royal blue seems to match it very close.

Hercules and Cushman, A recent column noted that certain late model Hercules engines were probably built by Cushman Motor Works at Lincoln, Nebraska. Mr. George L. Caddick, Hercules Mfg. Company, Box 497, Henderson, KY 42420 notes that those with the company are unaware of this connection, and would like to have further information. Mr. Caddick also encloses a photocopy of a 1-2 Hp model closely resembling the Cushman, but ostensibly a genuine Hercules article. Should the Reflector be able to obtain a photograph of the Hercules model we will gladly publish it in a coming issue. Meanwhile, perhaps someone has managed some in depth research on the question.

20/11/4 C. W. Calvert, RR 2, Box 271, Vinton, VA 24179 informs us that the engine shown in the January issue is a 1 HP model built by Middle-town Machine Co., Middletown, Ohio.

20/11/13Pacific Pumper engine  A letter from Don Siver, USN Retired, Marlin Farm, Towerville, PA 19320 tells us that the Pacific pumper was made in several configurations between 1930 and 1950. All were coupled to gear-type pumps. In the 1930's they were air dropped to combat forest fires and in World War Two they were adopted for use by the Navy, Coast Guard and Merchant Marine as the famous 'Handy Billy' or P-60 portable pump. The Navy unit had a tubing frame around the entire pump and was a single cylinder, two-cycle design of about 9.8 HP at 3,500 rpm.

E. L. Adams, 517 Manitou Ave, Manitou Springs, CO 80829 encloses photos of his Pacific Pumper, noting that it is equipped with a Type Y positive displacement auxiliary fire pump. The engine is of two-cylinder, two-cycle design.

20/11/12Operating a Show From Jack Versteeg, 1215 Jays Dr. NE. Salem, OR 973203 comes the following letter:

I am responding to the question of Mr. Ray Fleming about procedures that shows have for taking care of exhibitors as far as paying at the gate and so on. I was show manager and president of Antique Power Land for five years and also have had the good fortune to attend many shows around this US of A and can say that I have not been to a bad one. They all operate differently and have many varying expenses. Some are fortunate to have had their grounds donated to them, some have had to buy the grounds.

At Antique Power land we had to purchase our grounds. We are assessed a property tax each year, have insurance to pay, general maintenance. Our monthly budget runs on the average of $1500.00 per month. This revenue is generated on the four days of the show plus admittance to the museum which is open 365 days a year.

We charge the general public to attend the show. All bona-fide exhibitors who are in good standing with the Steam or Gas club are given gate passes.

I hear quite a few comments from different sources saying the show should be run this way or that. I feel that if someone has a question about the operation of a particular show, maybe he should become involved in the running of the show and he might come away with a better idea of how things are operated.

I feel that Mr. Fleming is very fortunate to be able to attend a show within 85 miles of home. In our area the closest show is Antique Power-land. The next closest one is over 225 miles away.

About liability insurance. This is the rock and hard spot. Without it you're shaking the dice. If you have an accident you're in trouble. With it, there is still the chance of trouble, along with the horrendous cost. Powerland's premiums run about $3400.00 per year. That means the first 1100 people through the gate pay the premium.

I hope this has shed a little light on show operations and maybe answers a few questions.

On the subject of liability insurance for shows, James F. Nichols of R.R. 1, Gilson, IL 61436 has written seeking advice from other show organizers:

I want to inquire about the problem of getting liability insurance for our club, the Spoon River Agricultural Antique Association. We have tried and tried to obtain it at several companies and have been shocked to find out what the cost of it will be.

Our club holds its show at the Knox County Fair at Knoxville, Ill. at the end of July and the fair has reluctantly put us on their insurance carrier through the fair date. I was wondering if there would be someone or some organization among the readers that could give us some information or some advice on how-to.

Masses-Harris 4-wheel drive Howard Dow, RR 2, Corning, NY 14830 comments on the recent question regarding the type of engine in the M-H 4-wheel-drive tractors. Mr. Dow has a 1930 and a 1931 model still in use. He also has two more of these as parts tractors. All have a Hercules L-head OOC engine. This engine was also used in some Cletrac models. Mr. Dow notes that he has heard that some of the later models came with a valve-in-head engine but he does not know the make of engine that was used.

20/11/4Woodpecker engine Frank Pickering, 128 Navy Lane, Atco, NJ 08004 sends us a nice photo of his Woodpecker engine. He reports having seen exactly the same engine at a show bearing the Flint & Walling handle. Again, the same engine appears on the cover of the May-June 1982 GEM, but in this case it carries the Schramm name.

20/7/6Glass cell batteries A couple of letters came in on this query. Roger Grosser, System Electric, Sutton, VT 05867 sends this photo of an Exide DOE 13, 2-volt cell, one of his limited number of used cells and parts. This particular one is rated for 150 ampheres over 8 hours to a discharge voltage of 1.75 volts per cell. Glass battery jars are no longer available. Polystyrene has replaced it. Those interested might wish to contact Mr. Grosser at the above address.

Taylor Vacuum engines Stan Gacnik, Jr., 25191 Pleasant-view PL, Pueblo, CO 81006 forwards information that on finding two old Taylor engines, DuPont Dulux 93-1317 green is an exact match to the original color.


Although this column is closing in early January, by the time it hits the street we should be into February, and with it the hope that another Iowa winter is about past. While we have no intention of wishing away something as valuable as time, unpredictable Iowa winters make Spring something to appreciate. Even though it is cold, there still comes an excuse for playing with old iron occasionally. A recent storm caused a power outage of several hours, but not for us to worry. The Witte diesel started without any problem, and after switching over it ran the place for several hours. Now there's a selling point when bringing another old engine home they're PRACTICAL!

The purpose of the Reflections column is to provide a forum for the exchange of all useful information among subscribers to GEM. Inquiries or responses should be addressed to: REFLECTIONS, Gas Engine Magazine, P.O. Box 328, Lancaster, PA 17603.