REFLECTIONS

Buckeye gas engine

28/6/39A

Stanley Lippi

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28/6/39 Buckeye Engine Q. See the two photos of a Buckeye gas engine made by the Buckeye Machine Co., Lima, Ohio. It is 12 HP, runs at 325 r.p.m., and is s/n 12028. This engine has magneto ignition, although I've been told that all Buckeye engines used battery ignition. If this is so, was a conversion kit offered? I would also like to know the year and proper colors for this engine. Stanley Lippi, 309 S. Chestnut St., Van Wert, OH 45891.

A. It's quite possible that the magneto was offered as aftermarket equipment. Perhaps some of our readers have specific information.

28/6/40 Lauson Engine Q. In the photo is what I am told is a 1930 Lauson 5 HP engine. Can you verify this and provide further information? Above the pulley is stamped VC5, below the spark plug is 1VC 194, and below the oil level rod is 3VC051. Any information will be appreciated. Fred Whitcomb, 4400 Peaceful Glen Rd., Vacaville, CA 95688.

A. It's a Lauson engine, but we have no manuals for it.

28/6/41 Witte Headless Q. What is the year built for a 4 HP Witte engine, s/n 49379? Lee Booth, Box 75, Porters Falls, WV 26162.

A. Your engine was made in February 1921.

28/6/42 Pioneer and Reo Motors Q. I would like to find the age, horsepower, color, and further information on the following engines: Pioneer Model A, s/n 2-22431; Pioneer Model 6S, Type SS3989, s/n 3-20301; Reo Model 556, Type A, s/n 2876; Reo Model 552, Type A, s/n 208767. Please write to Dan Menzel, 17410 Bedford Dr., Brookfield, WI 53045.

28/6/43 Reaper Etc. Q. I recently purchased the reaper shown in 43A. I cannot identify the company that made this reaper. It has an International guard and pitman, but no other identifiable markings .Also, how does the tongue fit on this reaper?

See also the photo of the stove in my kitchen. It is missing the swing posts that you see marked in white and also the reservoir top from the lower right side. Could anyone send me a sketch of the proper fixture so I could have one made? The stove was made in Edinburgh by Gray & Co., and patented in 1850. Ross Kerr, RR 5, Campbellford, ONT K0L 1L0 Canada.

28/6/44 Wade Drag Saw Q. See the photo of a Wade Drag saw, 4 HP, s/n A7872 .I'd like to know the proper colors for this unit, and the date built. Any information will be greatly appreciated. David N. Stewart, PO Box 86,837 Davis St., Lamar,SC 29069.

A. Can anyone provide the color scheme? To our knowledge, there is no serial number information.

28/6/45 Information Needed Q. Can you tell me the year built of the following? Fairbanks-Morse 686137; Fairbanks-Morse 765656; Stover TB 216798; Toro Lawn Mower, 69309. Dominic Centonze, 1902-A Mt. Pleasant Rd., Mount Joy, PA 17552.

A. In order: 1927; 1931; 1932; no information.

28/6/46 Unidentified Engine Q. I would like further information on the following engine: Monarch; Grand Rapids Gas Engine & Yacht Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan. It carries No. 1237. The electrical system is a Wizard dynamo. Further information regarding this engine and its manufacturer will be appreciated. Graham (Rodney) Golchert, 40 Harvey Street, Bundaberg 4670 Queensland, Australia.

A. Can anyone provide further information on Monarch engines to Mr. Golchert?

28/6/47 Continental Color Q. What is the correct paint color for Continental Air Cooled and/or Air 8 engines? Paul Burkle, PO Box 1871, Waterloo, IA 50704.

Readers Write

Our April Editorial We received many, many letters in support of our April editorial regarding the scope and sequence of the Reflections column. We do indeed appreciate your comments. Essentially, this column is your column, with ye olde Reflector serving as an intermediary, contributing where possible, and encouraging all of you to do the same.

'The Tractor .. .' Article I think there may be some incorrect statements in the April article, 'The Tractor That Changed Farming.' At one point Mr. Bowen says that the Farm-all H replaced the F12. I have always been told that the F14 replaced the F12 for a year or two, and then the A and B replaced the F14. The A and B were used by truck farmers in our area.

Back in the 1950s an old International man (at that time he had about 40 years as parts man and shop foreman) told me the H replaced the F20 but did not equal it. The M replaced the F30 but did not equal it.

I do not know if IH was working on making a Cub in 1941, however, as far as I know it was not sold until after World War II, I think 1947. Halsey Genung, RD2, Box 316, Pittstown, NJ 08867.

28/4/15 Maynard Color Question In regards to the Maynard color question, my two sons and I went to see an old gentleman 85 years old who had a Maynard for sale. He told us he purchased it new and has owned it all of his life. It has or had the original paint on it, and it was green, quite a bit lighter than a Fairbanks. As the price he wanted was a lot more than I thought it was worth, I did not purchase it. It looked a lot like a Nelson Bros, engine. The name tag was from the Charles Williams Stores. Wesley G. Ball Sr., 11239 Alleghany Rd., Forestville, NY 14062.

You are indeed correct on the subject engine. We believe that Charles Williams Stores sold several different makes of engines over the years, although they all carried the Maynard nameplate. The engine you refer to was likely made by Nelson Bros., and that would account for the green finish, probably something comparable to DuPont 2015 Green. By comparison, Sears-Roebuck sold the Hercules-built Economy for years. They also sold the Cushman horizontals as well as the Stover CT engines. The latter were painted red and called Stover-Economy or Economy as the Sears advertising potentates dictated.

The six replies that follow were submitted by Mark Baier, 11 Pleasant St., Mil ford, MA 01757:

28/3/3 Nelson Bros Supplies both MacLeod and Sun Power at various times. The engine pictured in American Gas Engines is a Nelson Model N.

28/3/27 Hertzler & Zook This is a Nelson Model CC, 3 HP, 450 r.p.m..

28/3/36 Maynard Engine Your Maynard is likely the Nelson Model N, 1 HP. Color of this engine was a medium red.

28/3/45 MacLeod This one is a Nelson Model TA set up for a Delco-Remy magneto. This magneto was used only briefly in the late 1920s before going to the Wico.

28/4/15 Nelson Bros. Supplies the Maynard engines, starting about 1919, the ad here pictures the Model DB. I believe they were all a dark maroon. Jacobson was the supplier in prior years.

28/4/32 United Type C This engine was supplied by Nelson Bros. The pictured engine was a standard Nelson Model C. A l HP Model N is pictured under the United Type C in American Gas Engines.

28/3/8 Fordson Comments The Ferguson plough was an important accessory in the Ferguson System of which the Ferguson tractor became a popular machine following World War II. Unfortunately I don't have a plough. Roger N. Jackson, 11 Forest Gardens, Lyndhurst, Hampshire, SO43 7AF United Kingdom.

28/4/9 Dead Websters Webster magnetos which appear to be in perfect order, yet won't produce a spark, may have the armature reversed. Ideally, the peak magnetic flux should occur at the time of point opening. This relationship is upset if the armature is installed the wrong way.

It is my understanding that this magneto could be used on engines which ran counter-clockwise or had the magneto mounted on the right-hand side of the engine. For these applications, the armature would be turned end-for-end from the 'normal' position to obtain the proper timing. One end of the shaft has a mark on it. As I recall, a 'normal' CW rotation requires the mark to be on the trip lever side. Neal Matheson, 1828 E. 6th Ave., Mesa, AZ 85204.

The point is well made ... we did the same thing (reversing the armature) and the magneto was dead as a stone, even though everything checked out. Besides, this is one of those little things that isn't in the text books!

28/4/23A Flywheels & Hooks Never hook chains on the flywheels, especially as tight as shown in this photo. If it don't break one or both, it causes extreme stress and could break apart while running. Eugene Alt, 1720 Heron Ave., Audubon, IA 50025.

The point is well taken. If at all possible, drop the chain down through the spokes and hook over the outside hub, or hook onto the hubs inside the spokes. In any case, be sure that the chain can't slip off the outside of the hubs and lose the engine. Another method is to put a block, cut to size, between the flywheels to eliminate the side pull on the spokes. A 3-foot flywheel will have a rim speed of about 1,000 feet per minute for every 100 revolutions. At 300 r.p.m., that's 3,000 fpm! Should one of them break, we're talking instant shrapnel! If this column never achieves anything except to create more safety awareness, then so be it, we'll consider that a major accomplishment!

April Mystery Engines The one on page 9 is a Sattley. I have an identical one that is a Sattley 1 HP, Type C, sold by Montgomery, Ward.

Chevrolet 216 Engines In the March 1993 GEM, Mark Farnsworth takes John G. Ruff to task for calling the lubrication system in a Chevrolet 216 'splash.' While, as Mr. Farnsworth states, it may be accurate to use the term 'splash' in a very narrow sense only for engines in which all distribution of oil is accomplished by the spray thrown up by rotating parts, 'splash lubrication' is a commonly accepted term for that part of the lubrication systems of Chevrolet and other engines which depends on the connecting rods to distribute oil to other internal parts of the engine. To remove this statement from the realm of personal

opinion, I quote from Motor Service's Automotive Encyclopedia (1958) by Purvis and Toboldt, both highly respected writers of technical manuals on auto-motive theory and repair: 'One very popular engine uses a combination of pressure and splash. The oil in this case is pumped through pipes into troughs under each connecting rod. These pipes are located and aimed so that a jet of oil is directed into a scoop on the rod bearing as the rod comes around. The rod also splashes into the oil in the trough and throws it around the interior. The aiming of the jets is important and special gauges are available for locating them correctly.' (Pages 90, 91a; I have omitted only the references to two numbered illustrations). Although the engine is not named, the illustrations of the oil pan and of the dippers on the connecting rods are taken directly from the Chevrolet repair manuals. I have a 1948-52 Chevrolet truck repair manual, which describes the operation of the lubrication system, but it carefully omits the term 'splash.' I suspect that GM did not want to emphasize the use of an oiling system that was already obsolescent when the first Chevy Six came out in 1929! The 1929 Chevrolet Six engine used dippers on the rods, but there was no jet of oil. The mains were lubricated by gravity; oil was pumped into reservoirs above each main, and then descended through a passage to each bearing (I am relying on a description of this engine in Chevrolet Car and Truck (1932) by Victor W. Page, pages 94 to 101). Cam bearings and valve lifters are lubricated by the spray thrown up from the connecting rods. Beginning with the 1932 engine, the center main bearing and the camshaft bearings are lubricated directly, by a lead from the pump, and distributing lines from that point provide lubrication for the other mains and camshaft bearings. This configuration appears to have been used through the 1934 models. The instruction book which I still have for the Chevrolet Master that my grandfather bought in 1934 has a cut of what appears to be the same block as the 1932 engine, and with the lubrication system described as pictured in Page's book for the 1932 model (1933 and 1934 Master Series had a 4-inch stroke, compared to 3 inches used in 1932). According to Motor's Auto Repair Manual, 7th Edition (1944), the 1935 Chevrolet engine has jets, like the 216. In all the engines with the jets, the splashing goes on as before. Although the rods bearings are now oiled by jets, the dippers send up a spray of oil everywhere as they pass through the troughs.

Full pressure lubrication had already been used in airplane engines in World War I (the Liberty engine, for example), and by 1929 it was not uncommon in automobiles. I have often wondered why a splash system would have been designed into a new engine as late as 1929. It could be that the drilling operations for full pressure lubrication would have made the engine more expensive and therefore somewhat less competitive in the low-priced market. Given the low speeds of most car engines of that era, it may be that no real need was seen for full-pressure lubrication. After all, the 'new' Ford A engine (the car appeared in the showroom in December 1927), used a pump and splash, as did most of the International Harvester tractors whose engines were similar to the 10-20 and 15-30 (Farmall F-20 etc.), right through models still in production in 1939. In an original sales brochure for the Farmall which I have, International Harvester forthrightly calls its lubrication method 'Circulating splash oil system,' referring to the use of a pump to get oil up to where it can be splashed around by the connecting rod dippers. As to the durability of splash-oiled engines, I don't think that there is any question about the effectiveness of splash for slow-speed engines. The IHC engines were marvels of longevity at their 1,000 to 1,200 r.p.m. rated speeds, and the Chevrolet Six and the 216 were as tough as they came, as long as they were used at reasonable speeds. My father had a 1932 Chevrolet 1 ton, which we used for exactly twenty years without even a top overhaul. I cannot remember how many miles it had on it; we drove it a lot in low gear next to hayloaders and corn binders, so that it would be more appropriate to speak of hours of use, rather than miles. A good many hours, I think. I had two Chevrolets with the 216; a 1941 and a 1952. The '52 was used for several long trips at 55-60 mph. The 4-11 axle used on those models meant that the engine was turning fairly fast at 60 mph, but I never had any trouble with the engine at those speeds. I do remember hearing of people who 'raced' Ford V-8s against Chevy 216s over fairly long distances on country roads. It was said that the pressure-lubricated Ford V-8s could take it, but that the Chevys would eventually throw a rod if driven 40 or 50 miles at top speed. I must not have run in the right circles, because I was never tempted to race either of my Chevrolets. In any event, this is hear-say. Perhaps readers with experiences of this kind could tell us if those rumors were true. It is easy to imagine the foam ... more air than oil... that must have developed at high r.p.m. inside the crankcase of an engine that depended on rotating parts for lubrication. It is also easy to imagine that the rods were going around so fast that the jets never got a good dose of oil into the dippers, that at very high r.p.m. the oil might have spattered against the dippers, and so on. Even Bugatti, who didn't believe in pressure lubrication, eventually had to admit that splashing oil about wasn't a very good way to lubricate a racing engine. Leonard J. Rahilly, 1421 Dill Road, DeWitt, MI 48820.

28/3/40 Engine Question In the October 1951 issue of Country Gentleman, their ad states that they have seven models to choose from, starter and lights were also available. They were sold direct to the user for only $498. John Supple,RD 5, Mullen Rd., Fulton, NY 13069.

28/3/39A That is a corn mulcher. It can only be used on muck ground, other soils are too hard! David Bontrager, PO Box 98, Wawaka, IN 46794-0098.

The Missing Twin The Reflector's mention in the March 1993 issue that timing gears on gas engines might yet be of equal size, while operating at different speeds through differing driveshaft angles, caused me to prick up my ears. But that is true, and, for example, may be varied over such range as to terminate in worm-gear fashion and thus allow any ratio 1-to-anything on up! But this also brought to attention an incident which you may get a bang out of.

Back in 1920 a friend came by an Indian 'twin' motorcycle which was a surplused relic of WW-1. The mechanic in the regiment had apparently been unable to solve its trouble of hitting on only one cylinder, so it was junked out.

Well, neither friend Tom nor I knew anything about it at that time, and inasmuch as we did yearn to graduate from our bicycles and ride this powerful mount, we became constrained to put it into safe storage for the time being. Someday, surely . .. !

Shortly thereafter I enrolled in Sweeney's Vocational Automobile School in Kansas City. It was deemed superior to Rahes in the same city, as also the Michigan State Auto School. So I studied hard and graduated head of my class in three months and took a short vacation at home before going into industry. But while home I was determined to make that old Hendee job do its stuff.

After checking the valve and ignition timing, I was quite elated to find that the trouble was maybe one-in-a-million. The v-angle between the cylinders was 42 degrees (on the Harleys it was 45 degrees). During overhaul maintenance, the Army chap had apparently set the wrong lobe of the magneto cam to #1 (the rear cylinder against rotation) cylinder. This caused the front cylinder to fire (2 x 42) degrees late, so that cylinder did not fire at all! When the error was corrected, that old red mare took off like a shot, and we youngsters had oodles of fun! Frank J. Burris, 1102 Box Canyon Road, Fallbrook, CA 92028.

28/3/1 Duro I have an engine just like the one pictured. Mine says, Duro Pump & Mfg. Co., Dayton, Ohio, s/n 101175, '/2 horsepower. I can't help Mr. Derouchie because mine didn't have an ignition system either. Mine has an idler cog next to two stud bolts, where no doubt a mag was mounted, but I don't know what kind of mag it had. I run mine with a mag off a chain saw driven off the end of the crankshaft. Ray O. Reed, 420 Sand Creek Rd. Pomona, KS 66076.

28/3/34 Frost & Wood The Frost & Wood Co. was founded in 1839 in Smith's Falls, a town in eastern Ontario. Their slogan was 'The quality goes in before the name goes on.'

They manufactured a long line of farm implements, including reapers, grain binders, corn binders, mowers, dump rakes, side delivery rakes,  tedders, and hay loaders. They also made ploughs, both single and gang, field cultivators, disc harrows, seed drills, and land rollers. Their implements were well liked in our area, especially their mowers and seed drills.

Cockshutt Plow Company of Brant-ford bought out Frost &. Wood in 1933. Frost & Wood bought out Coulter & Scott of  Oshawa, Ontario about 1900. They made cultivators and seed drills. I think Mr. Kurtis's mower was made between 1900 and 1910. John J. Henderson, RR 2, Rockwood, ONT NOB 2K0 Canada.

28/4/13 Pioneer Gen-E-Motor We got lots of responses on this one. A sampling includes a 1984 listing of Pioneer Gen-E-Motor being changed to Pincor Products in 1979. Their address at the time was 11600 W. King St., Franklin Park, IL 60131.

David Pirtle Writes Mr. Pirtle reports on his article on pages 29 and 30 of the April 1993 GEM. By the end of March he had received over 30 letters, plus 8 phone calls! He wishes to extend his thanks to everyone who responded. David's address is: RR 2, Box 195, Bedford, KY 40006.

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